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Response In Abert's Squirrel Abundance To Forest Treatments On Camp Navajo, Arizona, R. Nathan Gwinn, Jessica A. Gist, Joel M. Diamond, Hannah Telle Jul 2016

Response In Abert's Squirrel Abundance To Forest Treatments On Camp Navajo, Arizona, R. Nathan Gwinn, Jessica A. Gist, Joel M. Diamond, Hannah Telle

Western North American Naturalist

Abert’s squirrels (Sciurus aberti) are dependent upon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in northern Arizona. Abert’s squirrels feed primarily on the inner bark of ponderosa pine branches, as well as the tree’s seeds and the hypogenous fungi associated with ponderosa pines. Abert’s squirrels require interlocking tree canopies for escape cover and for feeding, particularly in winter months when snow impedes ground travel and the ability of Abert’s squirrels to access fungi and hoarded food. In the Southwest, land managers in the ponderosa pine belt are implementing large-scale forest restoration treatments to reduce fire risk and ...


Noninvasive Identification Of Individual American Badgers By Features Of Their Dorsal Head Stripes, Robert L. Harrison Jul 2016

Noninvasive Identification Of Individual American Badgers By Features Of Their Dorsal Head Stripes, Robert L. Harrison

Western North American Naturalist

Identification of individual animals is a valuable and often essential procedure for studies of animal behavior and population size. I present evidence that individual American badgers (Taxidea taxus) may be identified by natural features of their dorsal head stripes.


La identificación individual de los animales es un procedimiento importante y, a menudo, esencial para estudiar el comportamiento animal y el tamaño de las poblaciones. Presento evidencia de que los individuos de tejón americano (Taxidea taxus) pueden ser identificados por características naturales como sus rayas dorsales en la cabeza.


Front Matter, Vol. 76 No. 2 Jul 2016

Front Matter, Vol. 76 No. 2

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Twelve Years Of High-Resolution Near-Surface Radiometer Data Provides Insight Into End-Of-Season Controls In A Dry Grassland, Lynn M. Moore, William K. Lauenroth Jul 2016

Twelve Years Of High-Resolution Near-Surface Radiometer Data Provides Insight Into End-Of-Season Controls In A Dry Grassland, Lynn M. Moore, William K. Lauenroth

Western North American Naturalist

The onset of plant dormancy has proven difficult to explain in nearly all ecosystems. Most research has focused on the end-of-season dynamics of deciduous ecosystems, where leaf coloration and leaf fall are the primary phenological responses. More complex are the end-of-season dynamics of grasslands, where the mechanism of dormancy is a gradual response to climatic variables. These complications are magnified in dry grasslands, where the effects of temperature on phenology are modulated by the availability of soil water. Our objectives were to identify the primary drivers influencing the timing of end of season on the shortgrass steppe and determine if ...


Caught Between A Rock And A Hard Mineral Encrustation: Long-Lived Aquatic Insects Accumulate Calcium Carbonate Deposits In A Montane Desert Stream, Eric K. Moody, Jessica R. Corman, Michael T. Bogan Jul 2016

Caught Between A Rock And A Hard Mineral Encrustation: Long-Lived Aquatic Insects Accumulate Calcium Carbonate Deposits In A Montane Desert Stream, Eric K. Moody, Jessica R. Corman, Michael T. Bogan

Western North American Naturalist

Aquatic ecosystems overlying regions of limestone bedrock can feature active deposition of calcium carbonate in the form of travertine or tufa. Although most travertine deposits form a cement-like layer on stream substrates, mineral deposits can also form on benthic invertebrates. However, little is known about which taxa may be prone to calcium carbonate encrustation and which life history traits may make taxa more susceptible to becoming encrusted. Here we report the presence of calcium carbonate deposits on live insects collected from a montane stream in the Madrean Sky Islands (Huachuca Mountains) of Arizona between 2011 and 2013. Life history differences ...


American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps) Extirpated From The Historic Masonic Mining District Of Eastern California, Lyle B. Nichols, Kelly B. Klingler, Mary M. Peacock Jul 2016

American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps) Extirpated From The Historic Masonic Mining District Of Eastern California, Lyle B. Nichols, Kelly B. Klingler, Mary M. Peacock

Western North American Naturalist

American pikas (Ochotona princeps) are small alpine lagomorphs and talus obligates with a narrow range of temperature tolerance, along with physiological and ecological characteristics that make them especially vulnerable to local extirpation in the face of climate change. Since their initial colonization of the Great Basin during the Pleistocene geological epoch, the distribution of pikas in this region has become more restricted, with population losses occurring especially in lower-elevation sites characterized by relatively low precipitation and high temperatures. Even where pikas have persisted, many populations are now restricted to higher elevations. We surveyed several sites in the Bodie Hills of ...


Seed Selection By Desert Rodents: Implications For Enhancing Seedling Establishment Of Indian Ricegrass (Achnatherum Hymenoides), William S. Longland, Lindsay A. Dimitri Jul 2016

Seed Selection By Desert Rodents: Implications For Enhancing Seedling Establishment Of Indian Ricegrass (Achnatherum Hymenoides), William S. Longland, Lindsay A. Dimitri

Western North American Naturalist

Seeds of many plant species are dispersed by seed-caching rodents that place groups of seeds in superficially buried scatterhoard caches. A case in point is Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), an important forage plant on arid western rangelands for which seedling recruitment comes largely from scatterhoards made by desert heteromyid rodents. A “diversionary seeding” strategy has been attempted for enhancing Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment by deploying commercially available seeds on the soil surface to divert rodents from recovering scatterhoards of Indian ricegrass seeds. The probability of such a passive restoration approach succeeding is likely affected by the relative desirability to rodents ...


Species Richness, Diversity, And Ecology Of Chironomidae (Diptera) In Fountain Creek: A Colorado Front Range Sandy-Bottom Watershed, Scott J. Herrmann, James E. Sublette, Lisa K. Helland, Del Wayne R. Nimmo, James S. Carsella, Lynn M. Herrmann-Hoesing, Brian D. Vanden Heuvel Jul 2016

Species Richness, Diversity, And Ecology Of Chironomidae (Diptera) In Fountain Creek: A Colorado Front Range Sandy-Bottom Watershed, Scott J. Herrmann, James E. Sublette, Lisa K. Helland, Del Wayne R. Nimmo, James S. Carsella, Lynn M. Herrmann-Hoesing, Brian D. Vanden Heuvel

Western North American Naturalist

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the chironomid species diversity of a high-gradient sandy-bottom watershed along the Colorado Front Range. Adult male Chironomidae were collected concurrently in 2007 and 2008 from 14 sites in the Fountain Creek Watershed (FCW), south central Colorado, USA, using ultraviolet night lights and sweep netting methods. Species-level identifications resulted in 151 species including 24 new species from 65 genera and 6 subfamilies. Forty species are reported here as new Colorado records, and many North American range extensions were recorded. Some species had geographical ranges that included the Neotropical, Afrotropical or Oriental regions ...


Better Birding Tips, Tools And Concepts For The Field By George L. Armistead And Brian L. Sullivan, Howard O. Clark Jr. Jul 2016

Better Birding Tips, Tools And Concepts For The Field By George L. Armistead And Brian L. Sullivan, Howard O. Clark Jr.

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


A Guide To North America's Bees: The Bees In Your Backyard By Joseph S. Wilson And Olivia Messinger Carril, Howard O. Clark Jr. Jul 2016

A Guide To North America's Bees: The Bees In Your Backyard By Joseph S. Wilson And Olivia Messinger Carril, Howard O. Clark Jr.

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 76 No. 2 Jul 2016

End Matter, Vol. 76 No. 2

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Conspecific Pollen Loads On Insects Visiting Female Flowers On Parasitic Phoradendron Californicum (Viscaceae), William D. Wiesenborn Mar 2016

Conspecific Pollen Loads On Insects Visiting Female Flowers On Parasitic Phoradendron Californicum (Viscaceae), William D. Wiesenborn

Western North American Naturalist

Desert mistletoe, Phoradendron californicum (Viscaceae), is a dioecious parasitic plant that grows on woody legumes in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, produces minute flowers during winter, and is dispersed by birds defecating fruits. Pollination of desert mistletoe has not been examined despite the species’ reliance on insects for transporting pollen from male to female plants. I investigated the pollination of P. californicum parasitizing Acacia greggii (Fabaceae) shrubs at 3 sites at different elevations in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada during February 2015. I examined pollen from male flowers, aspirated insects landing on female flowers, and counted pollen grains in ...


End Matter, Vol. 76 No. 1 Mar 2016

End Matter, Vol. 76 No. 1

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


A New Springsnail (Hydrobiidae: Pyrgulopsis) From The Lower Colorado River Basin, Northwestern Arizona, Robert Hershler, Hsiu-Ping Liu, Lawrence E. Stevens Mar 2016

A New Springsnail (Hydrobiidae: Pyrgulopsis) From The Lower Colorado River Basin, Northwestern Arizona, Robert Hershler, Hsiu-Ping Liu, Lawrence E. Stevens

Western North American Naturalist

We describe a new springsnail species, Pyrgulopsis hualapaiensis, from the Lower Colorado River basin (northwestern Arizona) that has an ovate- to narrow-conic shell and narrow penis ornamented with a small gland on the distal edge of the lobe. This new species differs from closely similar congeners from the Lower Colorado River basin in several details of female reproductive anatomy and in its mtCOI haplotype (3.0%–5.0% mean sequence divergence). Bayesian, maximum parsimony, and distance-based phylogenetic analyses of COI data congruently resolved P. hualapaiensis as sister to a divergent lineage of Pyrgulopsis thompsoni in the middle Gila River watershed ...


Badger Behavior At Anthropogenic Water Sources In The Chihuahuan Desert, Robert L. Harrison Mar 2016

Badger Behavior At Anthropogenic Water Sources In The Chihuahuan Desert, Robert L. Harrison

Western North American Naturalist

Anthropogenic water sources such as tanks and ponds for livestock and troughs for wildlife (guzzlers) have become ubiquitous features of arid landscapes. Many species of wildlife are attracted to guzzlers, but behavior at guzzlers and effects of guzzlers upon wildlife are often poorly understood. I recorded rates of drinking and visitation by American badgers (Taxidea taxus) at guzzlers in the northern Chihuahuan Desert by use of automatic cameras over a 2-year period. Badgers visited guzzlers throughout the year, and visited primarily at night. Badgers averaged 1.87 visits per site-week and drank during only 58% of visits. The rate of ...


Population Differentiation In Early Life History Traits Of Cleome Lutea Var. Lutea In The Intermountain West, Lisa Hintz, Magdalena M. Eshleman, Alicia Foxx, Troy E. Wood, Andrea Kramer Mar 2016

Population Differentiation In Early Life History Traits Of Cleome Lutea Var. Lutea In The Intermountain West, Lisa Hintz, Magdalena M. Eshleman, Alicia Foxx, Troy E. Wood, Andrea Kramer

Western North American Naturalist

Large-scale restoration is occurring in many areas of the western United States and the use of genetically appropriate native plant seed is expected to increase the success of restoration efforts. Thus, determining intraspecific variation among populations and its driving forces are the first steps in successful seed sourcing. Here, we examine intraspecific variation of characters expressed in early life history stages of Cleome lutea var. lutea, an annual forb native to the western United States that has attracted increasing attention as a restoration species because it provisions diverse pollinators. We conducted a common garden experiment comprised of 9 populations sourced ...


Environmental Influences On Wintering Duck Adundance At Great Salt Lake, Utah, Anthony J. Roberts, Michael R. Conover, Josh L. Vest Mar 2016

Environmental Influences On Wintering Duck Adundance At Great Salt Lake, Utah, Anthony J. Roberts, Michael R. Conover, Josh L. Vest

Western North American Naturalist

North American waterfowl winter throughout a large geographic area, and the choice of wintering site has a direct impact on survival and fitness. Climatic and food variables are the most commonly cited factors influencing abundance and distribution of wintering migratory birds, including waterfowl. We conducted stratified aerial surveys at a northern latitude wintering site, Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, to describe the importance of this wintering area and to examine the influence of weather and food on the abundance of total ducks, Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata), and goldeneye species (Bucephala spp.). Surveys indicated that up to 270,000 ducks use ...


Acoustic Detection Reveals Fine-Scale Distributions Of Myotis Lucifugus, Myotis Septentrionalis, And Perimyotis Subflavus In Eastern Nebraska, Jeremy A. White, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman Mar 2016

Acoustic Detection Reveals Fine-Scale Distributions Of Myotis Lucifugus, Myotis Septentrionalis, And Perimyotis Subflavus In Eastern Nebraska, Jeremy A. White, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman

Western North American Naturalist

Before white-nose syndrome arrives in Nebraska, it is important to document the preexposure distributions of cave bats in the state. We examined the distributions ofMyotis lucifugus (little brown myotis), Myotis septentrionalis (northern long-eared myotis), and Perimyotis subflavus (tri-colored bat) in eastern Nebraska by setting acoustic detectors for a single night at 105 sites in wooded habitats during summers of 2012 and 2014. We compared 2 methods of determining presence at each site. Results of our analyses are fine-scale distributional maps for these bats and some range extensions from published records. Results for M. septentrionalis and P. subflavus are largely ...


Role Of Dispersal Timing And Frequency In Annual Grass-Invaded Great Basin Ecosystems: How Modifying Seeding Strategies Increases Restoration Success, Merilynn C. Schantz, Roger L. Sheley, Jeremy J. James, Eric P. Hamerlynck Mar 2016

Role Of Dispersal Timing And Frequency In Annual Grass-Invaded Great Basin Ecosystems: How Modifying Seeding Strategies Increases Restoration Success, Merilynn C. Schantz, Roger L. Sheley, Jeremy J. James, Eric P. Hamerlynck

Western North American Naturalist

Seed dispersal dynamics strongly affect plant community assembly in restored annual grass–infested ecosystems. Modifying perennial grass seeding rates and frequency may increase perennial grass establishment, yet these impacts have not yet been quantified. To assess these effects, we established a field experiment consisting of 288 plots (1 m2) in an eastern Oregon annual grass–dominated shrubsteppe ecosystem. In this study, the amount, timing, and frequency of perennial grass seeding events, soil moisture availability, and annual grass seed bank density were manipulated. We found that more frequent perennial grass seeding events combined with high perennial grass seeding rates produced ...


Biogeochemistry And Nutrient Limitation Of Microbial Biofilms In Devils Hole, Nevada, Hilary L. Madinger, Kevin P. Wilson, Jeffery A. Goldstein, Melody J. Bernot Mar 2016

Biogeochemistry And Nutrient Limitation Of Microbial Biofilms In Devils Hole, Nevada, Hilary L. Madinger, Kevin P. Wilson, Jeffery A. Goldstein, Melody J. Bernot

Western North American Naturalist

Little is known about the role of microbial biofilms in nutrient cycling and ecosystem processes within desert springs. However, biofilms produce microscale physicochemical variation important to ecosystem function. We used microelectrodes to measure microscale physicochemical (temperature, pH, O2, and H2S) heterogeneity in biofilms at Devils Hole, Nevada. Additionally, we measured water column and pore water nutrient concentrations in 2 autotrophic (Spirogyra, cyanobacteria) and 1 heterotrophic (Beggiatoa) biofilm types. Spirogyra and cyanobacteria followed similar physicochemical trends; however, Spirogyra had more pronounced diurnal and seasonal variation. Oxygen concentrations within the biofilms varied with sample month, light availability, and biofilm ...


Ecosystem Engineering Of Harvester Ants: Effects On Vegetation In A Sagebrush-Steppe Ecosystem, Elyce N. Gosselin, Joseph D. Holbrook, Katey Huggler, Emily Brown, Kerri T. Vierling, Robert S. Arkle, David S. Pilliod Mar 2016

Ecosystem Engineering Of Harvester Ants: Effects On Vegetation In A Sagebrush-Steppe Ecosystem, Elyce N. Gosselin, Joseph D. Holbrook, Katey Huggler, Emily Brown, Kerri T. Vierling, Robert S. Arkle, David S. Pilliod

Western North American Naturalist

Harvester ants are influential in many ecosystems because they distribute and consume seeds, remove vegetation, and redistribute soil particles and nutrients. Understanding the interaction between harvester ants and plant communities is important for management and restoration efforts, particularly in systems altered by fire and invasive species such as the sagebrush-steppe. Our objective was to evaluate how vegetation cover changed as a function of distance from Owyhee harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex salinus) nests within a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. We sampled 105 harvester ant nests within southern Idaho, USA, that occurred in different habitats: annual grassland, perennial grassland, and native shrubland. The influence of ...


Translocation Of The Endangered San Joaquin Kit Fox, Vulpes Macrotis Mutica: A Retrospective Assessment, Jerry H. Scrivner, Thomas P. O'Farrell, Kristie Hammer, Brian L. Cypher Mar 2016

Translocation Of The Endangered San Joaquin Kit Fox, Vulpes Macrotis Mutica: A Retrospective Assessment, Jerry H. Scrivner, Thomas P. O'Farrell, Kristie Hammer, Brian L. Cypher

Western North American Naturalist

In 1988, a study of federally endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) was initiated to develop techniques for translocating kit foxes onto Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in California. Our objective is to review the translocation program and provide recommendations for future efforts. There were no problems trapping, translocating, and maintaining foxes in captivity. We released 12 foxes onto NPR-1 in 1989 and 28 foxes in 1990. Of the 12 foxes released in 1989, 10 died within 1 year. Of 28 foxes released in 1990, 1 was still alive, 24 were dead, and the fate of 3 ...


Seasonal Distribution And Routes Of Pronghorn In The Northern Great Basin, Gail H. Collins Mar 2016

Seasonal Distribution And Routes Of Pronghorn In The Northern Great Basin, Gail H. Collins

Western North American Naturalist

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) exhibit complex spatial and temporal variation in seasonal movements and range use across their distribution. However, knowledge of seasonal movements, routes, and distribution of pronghorn within the sagebrush-steppe of the northern Great Basin is lacking. From October 2011 to October 2013, I monitored movements of adult female pronghorn across an area of over 1.5 million hectares along the northwestern Nevada and southeastern Oregon border using GPS/VHF-equipped collars. I used 68,834 GPS locations from 32 female pronghorn to determine migration timing, seasonal distributions, individual fidelity to winter and summer ranges, and population-level routes used during ...


Temporary Communal Brooding In Northern Bobwhite And Scaled Quail Broods, Jeremy P. Orange, Craig A. Davis, R. Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf Mar 2016

Temporary Communal Brooding In Northern Bobwhite And Scaled Quail Broods, Jeremy P. Orange, Craig A. Davis, R. Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf

Western North American Naturalist

Communal brooding, which can occur as a result of brood amalgamation or communal parental care, is a common alternative brooding strategy observed in many precocial bird species. Although the occurrence of long-term communal brooding has been documented in numerous waterfowl species, and to a lesser extent in gallinaceous species, the occurrence and mechanisms facilitating temporary or short-term communal broods is less understood. During the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons, we anecdotally observed temporary communal brooding in 3 Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) broods and one Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) brood. We present 3 mechanisms that may explain the occurrences of temporary ...


Use Of Barn Owl (Tyto Alba) Pellets As A Potential Method To Study A Rare Rodent Population In Northeastern New Mexico, Christopher B. Goguen Mar 2016

Use Of Barn Owl (Tyto Alba) Pellets As A Potential Method To Study A Rare Rodent Population In Northeastern New Mexico, Christopher B. Goguen

Western North American Naturalist

In June 2008, I discovered a single jumping mouse (Zapus) cranium in a Barn Owl (Tyto alba) pellet from below an active nest along Cerrososo Creek, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico. Although the cranium could not be identified to species, this specimen could potentially represent a previously unknown population of the endangered New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Z. hudsonius luteus). In 2009 and 2010, I collected pellets at 8 Barn Owl nesting or roosting sites along streams in my study area with the following objectives: (1) determine whether Barn Owl pellets could be used to gain information about the abundance ...


Identification Of Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse Lek Sites In South Central Wyoming, Kurt T. Smith, Jeffrey L. Beck, Tony W. Mong, Frank C. Blomquist Mar 2016

Identification Of Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse Lek Sites In South Central Wyoming, Kurt T. Smith, Jeffrey L. Beck, Tony W. Mong, Frank C. Blomquist

Western North American Naturalist

The Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus; hereafter CSTG) occupies approximately 10% of its historic range and is a species of conservation concern in 7 U.S. states and British Columbia. Because little is known about the status of CSTG in Wyoming, we sought to model the relative probability of lek site occurrence within the known distribution of CSTG in the state to identify areas that contained previously undocumented lek sites. The proximity of nesting and brood-rearing habitats to leks advocates their use as a focus of conservation for prairie grouse, including CSTG. We modeled a resource selection function (RSF ...


Reviewers For 2015 Mar 2016

Reviewers For 2015

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 76 No. 1 Mar 2016

Front Matter, Vol. 76 No. 1

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Facing A Changing World: Thermal Physiology Of American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Hans W. Otto, James A. Wilson, Erik A. Beever Dec 2015

Facing A Changing World: Thermal Physiology Of American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Hans W. Otto, James A. Wilson, Erik A. Beever

Western North American Naturalist

American pikas (Ochotona princeps) are of concern with respect to warming montane temperatures; however, little information exists regarding their physiological ability to adapt to warming temperatures. Previous studies have shown that pikas have high metabolism and low thermal conductance, which allow survival during cold winters. It has been hypothesized that these characteristics may be detrimental, given the recent warming trends observed in montane ecosystems. We examined resting metabolic rate, surface activity, and den and ambient temperatures (Ta) of pikas in late summer (August 2011 and 2012) at 2 locations in the Rocky Mountains. Resting metabolic rate was calculated to be ...


End Matter, Vol. 75 No. 4 Dec 2015

End Matter, Vol. 75 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.