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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski Jul 2105

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

We provide an overview of the distribution of lowland and otherwise isolated populations of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) in the Los Angeles area of southern California, an area that has experienced a recent and ongoing invasion by the non-native eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), an urban-adapted species introduced a century ago. Away from its strongholds in the western Santa Monica Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, and Santa Ana Mountains, the western gray squirrel is resident locally in both the Santa Susana and the Verdugo Mountains, in Griffith Park, in low hills at the eastern periphery of the San Gabriel ...


Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen Jun 2019

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen

Zea E-Books

This book surveys Wyoming’s mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian faunas. In addition to introducing the state’s geography, geology, climate, and major ecosystems, it provides 65 biological profiles of 72 mammal species, 195 profiles of 196 birds, 9 profiles of 12 reptiles, and 6 profiles of 9 amphibians. There are also species lists of Wyoming’s 117 mammals, 445 birds, 22 reptiles, and 12 amphibians. Also included are descriptions of nearly 50 national and state properties, including parks, forests, preserves, and other public-access natural areas in Wyoming. The book includes a text of more than 150,000 words, nearly ...


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez Jun 2019

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Review Of Hottentotta Described By A. A. Birula, With Descriptions Of Two New Species And Comments On Birula’S Collection (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen A. Yağmur, Victor Fet Jun 2019

Review Of Hottentotta Described By A. A. Birula, With Descriptions Of Two New Species And Comments On Birula’S Collection (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen A. Yağmur, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

The types of Hottentotta species described by A. A. Birula and deposited in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia are revised. The types of H. buchariensis (Birula, 1897), H. niloticus (Birula, 1928), H. penjabensis (Birula, 1897) stat. nov. and H. schach (Birula, 1905) are fully illustrated with color photographs of morphology. Their taxonomic position is discussed. Lectotypes are designated for H. niloticus and H. schach. We confirm synonymy of Buthus (Hottentotta) minax niloticus Birula, 1928 (Sudan) with Buthus minax L. Koch, 1875, syn. n. Two new species, Hottentotta juliae sp. n. from Iran (Fars Province) and ...


Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson Jun 2019

Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson

Learning Communities Research and Practice

At Humboldt State University (HSU), location is everything. Students are as drawn to our spectacular natural setting as they are to the unique majors in the natural resource sciences that the university has to offer. However, the isolation that nurtures the pristine natural beauty of the area presents a difficult reality for students who are accustomed to more densely populated environments. With the large majority of our incoming students coming from distant cities, we set out to cultivate a “home away from home” by connecting first-year students majoring in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to the communities and local ...


Review Of Grosphus Simon, 1880, With Description Of Teruelius Gen. N., A New Buthid Genus From Madagascar (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík May 2019

Review Of Grosphus Simon, 1880, With Description Of Teruelius Gen. N., A New Buthid Genus From Madagascar (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

We review the taxonomy of the Madagascar endemic buthid genus Grosphus Simon, 1880. We split the genus and describe Teruelius gen. n. on the basis of nine morphological characters, six of them new for Grosphus: positions of trichobothria d2 on pedipalp femur and Eb3 on chela manus, number of pectine teeth, shape of female basal pectinal tooth, form of hemispermatophore capsule posterior lobe, spiracle shape, metasoma I ventromedian carination, telotarsal setation and UV fluorescence. We discuss functional and taxonomic aspects of these characters, and propose that Teruelius gen. n. is monophyletic, while Grosphus (sensu stricto) is paraphyletic. Some ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xx. Barbaracurus Feti Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Ali Abdi Hurre May 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xx. Barbaracurus Feti Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Ali Abdi Hurre

Euscorpius

Barbaracurus feti sp. n. from Somaliland is described and compared with other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Barbaracurus, fully complemented with color photos of specimens of both sexes of the new species, as well as of their habitat. In addition to morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of B. feti sp. n. (2n=23). Included is a key for Barbaracurus. Babycurus borellii Rossi, 2019 is synonymized with Barbaracurus yemenensis Kovařík et al., 2018 syn. n. as a junior synonym because the description dated in February 2018 ...


Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon May 2019

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon

Library Map Prize

Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are known for their adaptability, allowing them to inhabit a large range of forest types and driving high levels of variation in ranging and behavioral patterns. I address a series of hypotheses relating these relationships: 1) If an energy minimizing lifestyle is an adaptation to eating high quantities of leaves, then howler groups that have a high proportion of leaves in their diet will occupy smaller home ranges, have shorter daily path lengths, and spend more time resting, 2) if temperature is the primary driver of high levels of resting, then howlers will conserve energy and ...


Laboratory Mice Burrowing Responses To Predator Calls, Katie Vonderembse, Brianna Graber, Molly Seeberger Apr 2019

Laboratory Mice Burrowing Responses To Predator Calls, Katie Vonderembse, Brianna Graber, Molly Seeberger

Student Symposium

The avoidance of predation is an essential trait in mice and depends on the ability of the mouse to recognize its predators. It is predicted that the calls of predators act as stimuli which signal the presence of potential danger. Laboratory mice have been shown to respond with defensive behaviors, such as burrowing, when exposed to the the calls of predators. To test how mice respond to different predator calls, we will play the sounds of three owls, Eastern Screech Owl,Tawny Owl, and American Barn Owl, and look at burrowing behaviors. Human voices reading a book will be used ...


Characterization Of The Yeast Gene Ydl218w: A Role In Cell Wall Biosynthesis And Maintenance?, Kaden Hubly Apr 2019

Characterization Of The Yeast Gene Ydl218w: A Role In Cell Wall Biosynthesis And Maintenance?, Kaden Hubly

Student Symposium

The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a common model organism used to study eukaryotic cell biology. S. cerevisiae is a fungus with a cell wall which makes it an excellent model for the study of antifungal agents. There are close to 1,000 genes of unknown function (GUFs) in S. cerevisiae. One of these is the gene YDL218W on which our research is focused. While little is known about this gene, evidence suggests that it may be involved in cell wall synthesis or maintenance. For example, YDL218W is induced by a transcription factor known to regulate genes involved in maintaining ...


Betta Fish Reactions To Color: A Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis, Jessica Barrios, Jackie Arnott Apr 2019

Betta Fish Reactions To Color: A Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis, Jessica Barrios, Jackie Arnott

Student Symposium

We will be studying the connections between mating, aggression, and the coloration of male betta fish and how they react to the coloration of other betta fish. We chose this topic because coloration is genetically linked to aggression in male betta fish, and because aggressive behaviors are very similar to mating behaviors.


Flight And Wing Comparison Of Bats In A Cloud And A Dry Forest In Costa Rica, Makali Haines Apr 2019

Flight And Wing Comparison Of Bats In A Cloud And A Dry Forest In Costa Rica, Makali Haines

Student Symposium

The shape, and size of an object’s wings and body can tell you a lot about their aerodynamics and strategies for flight. Some wings are built to be fast and agile while others are slower but more powerful, and there are a lot of factors that go into deciding the best strategy for each situation or location. When you think of this in terms of animals' wings and different habitats one might predict that different habitats contain animals that have different flying strategies. I measured many aspects of Costa Rican bats caught in both the wet and dry forest ...


Human Music Genre Recognition In Goldfish, Makali Haines, Sophia Hallam Apr 2019

Human Music Genre Recognition In Goldfish, Makali Haines, Sophia Hallam

Student Symposium

Music plays a big role in our daily lives, but when it comes to the animal world many species don’t react to our music, but that’s not to say they can’t react. In a previous study by scientists at Israeli Technion Institute of Technology and lead by Kazutaka Shinozuka in 2013 goldfish didn’t show a preference towards an example of our music but rather they showed and discrimination and avoidance to one. From that we hypothesized that goldfish could be trained to discriminate human made music genres from certain sound cues. The goldfishes’ tests did not ...


Advancing Natural History Research Using The Collections Of The Owu Brant Museum Of Zoology, Josh Pletcher, Kyle Davis Apr 2019

Advancing Natural History Research Using The Collections Of The Owu Brant Museum Of Zoology, Josh Pletcher, Kyle Davis

Student Symposium

Natural history collections are important repositories of biological and geological material. Biological collections provide raw data to interpret the ecology, anatomy, and evolution of living and fossil organisms. OWU’s zoological collections play an important role in undergraduate research and educating future preparators. Two projects are currently in progress: Kyle Davis’ work on size variation in house sparrows and Josh Pletcher’s work digitizing OWU’s collection of Ward’s fossil casts. We travelled to museums in New York and Connecticut to further pursue our research. Kyle Davis’ research focuses on Bergmann’s Rule, which states that as temperature decreases ...


Studying The Social Behavior And Preferences Of Polar Bears At The Columbus Zoo And Aquarium, Molly Seeberger Apr 2019

Studying The Social Behavior And Preferences Of Polar Bears At The Columbus Zoo And Aquarium, Molly Seeberger

Student Symposium

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are relatively solitary animals unless it is breeding season. At the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, the polar bears participate in the Species Survival Plan where breeding for conservation efforts is encouraged. Lee, an 19-year-old male, came to the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium in the Fall of 2018 in hopes of breeding with 12-year-old twin females Aurora and Anana. Because Lee’s previous experience was only living with one female, I wanted to observe whether he would prefer a particular female because he now had two females to choose from. Not only did I look for preference ...


Investigating Crayfish (Orconectes Rusticus) Aggression And How It Varies With Resource Availability, Allie Smith, Rebecca Lipster Apr 2019

Investigating Crayfish (Orconectes Rusticus) Aggression And How It Varies With Resource Availability, Allie Smith, Rebecca Lipster

Student Symposium

Animals that express agonistic behavior toward one another are prone to recognizing hierarchical status among individuals. Recognizing status has proven to be evolutionarily advantageous for crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) because it allows dominant individuals to maximize resources and permits subordinate individuals to steer clear of potentially costly battles. More specifically, two crayfish experiencing aggression can generally determine who the dominant and subordinate individuals are in a fight. A higher social status within a social hierarchy can allow for increased access to differing resources, such as food, mates, and shelter. In this experiment, we want to see if limiting resources will affect ...


Size Increase With Altitude In The Rufous-Collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia Capensis), Kyle Davis Apr 2019

Size Increase With Altitude In The Rufous-Collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia Capensis), Kyle Davis

Student Symposium

Heat is generated by the body volume and lost across its surface. Therefore larger homeotherms with their proportionately larger volume and smaller surface area will withstand cold better than small homeotherms, which has been addressed in some basic ecological principles. Bergmann’s Rule indicates that organisms at higher latitudes (and therefore lower temperatures) will be larger than those at lower latitudes, and Allen’s Rule indicates that appendage size is generally smaller in cooler temperatures. Both Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules relate body size to latitude and/or temperature, but environmental temperature also changes with altitude. We tested the ...


Unlocking The Mysteries Of Merrick's Museum, Josh Pletcher Apr 2019

Unlocking The Mysteries Of Merrick's Museum, Josh Pletcher

Student Symposium

No abstract provided.


Dominance And Aggression Among Hummingbirds In The Cloud Forests Of The Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica, Crystal Sauder, Aileen Scarim Apr 2019

Dominance And Aggression Among Hummingbirds In The Cloud Forests Of The Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica, Crystal Sauder, Aileen Scarim

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are known for being aggressive and territorial. By knowing hummingbirds are not very social, nor appear to enjoy having interactions with others, we wanted to observe how multiple species of Trochilidae interact with one another. The study was completed to observe if males of different Trochilidae would be more aggressive at hummingbird feeders over females. Three different feeder locations were decided on, spread across the Savegre Valley region near the Quetzal Education Research Center (QERC). Symbols were agreed upon in order to shorthand the exact series of events that were happening while we observed the feeders. Species and ...


Food Preferences Of Red-Headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes Erythrocephalus) And The Relationship With Season Change, Crystal Sauder Apr 2019

Food Preferences Of Red-Headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes Erythrocephalus) And The Relationship With Season Change, Crystal Sauder

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) used to be easy to find out in the wild, but as humans encroached on their habitats, their populations started to become impacted. They have a habitat range from Southern Canada down to the Gulf Coast. In several states their numbers are threatened due to loss of habitat. Red-headed woodpeckers prefer to live in open woodlands with dead, or dying, trees to nest in. As humans take away the dead trees from the forests, red-headed woodpeckers are losing their nesting sites. Preservation of red-headed woodpecker habitats are needed to ensure the population starts to grow, and ...


Evaluating Opinions Of Kentucky’S Agri-Science Educators On Climate Change, Emily Cook Apr 2019

Evaluating Opinions Of Kentucky’S Agri-Science Educators On Climate Change, Emily Cook

Scholars Week

Climate Change is the significant long term changes in the weather and temperatures on a large scale and is seen globally. Scientists have been studying the effects of Climate Change on the planet for decades; foreseeing problems of the future. Global Warming has been escalating over the past hundred years with the amount of Carbon Dioxide gases rising into to atmosphere at an alarming rate. Agri-Science Educators across Kentucky are teaching the topics of Climate Change and Global Warming and this research intends to find the truth and variances in their knowledge. Twenty educators from across the state of Kentucky ...


Varanus Panoptes (Yellow-Spotted Monitor) Toxic Prey Avoidance, J. Sean Doody, Hugh James, Christopher Walmsley, David Rhind, Matt Edgar, Maik Fidel, Domenic D'Amore, Simon Clulow, Colin Mchenry Apr 2019

Varanus Panoptes (Yellow-Spotted Monitor) Toxic Prey Avoidance, J. Sean Doody, Hugh James, Christopher Walmsley, David Rhind, Matt Edgar, Maik Fidel, Domenic D'Amore, Simon Clulow, Colin Mchenry

J. Sean Doody

No abstract provided.


Strophurus Ciliaris (Northern Spiny-Tailed Gecko) Communal Nesting, J. Sean Doody, Huge James, Derek Dunlop, Domenic D'Amore, Matt Edgar, Maik Fidel, David Meadows, Christopher Walmsley, Simon Clulow, Colin Mchenry Apr 2019

Strophurus Ciliaris (Northern Spiny-Tailed Gecko) Communal Nesting, J. Sean Doody, Huge James, Derek Dunlop, Domenic D'Amore, Matt Edgar, Maik Fidel, David Meadows, Christopher Walmsley, Simon Clulow, Colin Mchenry

J. Sean Doody

No abstract provided.


The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia For Animal Communities In Tropical Savannah Ecosystems, J. Sean Doody, Simon Clulow, Geoff Kay, Domenic D'Amore, David Rhind, Steve Wilson, Ryan Ellis, Christina Castellano, Colin Mchenry, Michelle Quayle, Kim Hands, Graeme Sawyer, Michael Bass Apr 2019

The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia For Animal Communities In Tropical Savannah Ecosystems, J. Sean Doody, Simon Clulow, Geoff Kay, Domenic D'Amore, David Rhind, Steve Wilson, Ryan Ellis, Christina Castellano, Colin Mchenry, Michelle Quayle, Kim Hands, Graeme Sawyer, Michael Bass

J. Sean Doody

In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for ...


The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia For Animal Communities In Tropical Savannah Ecosystems, J. Sean Doody, Simon Clulow, Geoff Kay, Domenic D'Amore, David Rhind Apr 2019

The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia For Animal Communities In Tropical Savannah Ecosystems, J. Sean Doody, Simon Clulow, Geoff Kay, Domenic D'Amore, David Rhind

J. Sean Doody

In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for ...


Novel Habitat Causes A Shift To Diurnal Activity In A Nocturnal Species, J. Sean Doody, Colin R. Mchenry, David Rhind, Simon Clulow Apr 2019

Novel Habitat Causes A Shift To Diurnal Activity In A Nocturnal Species, J. Sean Doody, Colin R. Mchenry, David Rhind, Simon Clulow

J. Sean Doody

Plastic responses may allow individuals to survive and reproduce in novel environments, and can facilitate the establishment of viable populations. But can novel environments reveal plasticity by causing a shift in a behavior as fundamental and conspicuous as daily activity? We studied daily activity times near the invasion front of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), an invasive species that has colonized much of northern Australia. Cane toads in Australia are nocturnal, probably because diurnal activity would subject them to intolerably hot and dry conditions in the tropical savannah during the dry season. Our study can demonstrate, however, that upon reaching ...


Conceptual Model For Thermal Limits On The Distribution Of Reptiles, J. Sean Doody, Jennifer A. Moore Apr 2019

Conceptual Model For Thermal Limits On The Distribution Of Reptiles, J. Sean Doody, Jennifer A. Moore

J. Sean Doody

Recent climate change has re-invigorated scientific interest in the dynamics of geographic distributions of organisms. Climate responses and their biogeographical ramifications can be predicted indirectly by studying variation in fitness-related traits across environmental gradients in wide-ranging species. We review evidence for such variation in reptiles. Clinal variation in seasonal timing (onset) of nesting is common but may offer only minor compensation. In contrast, clinal variation in nesting behavior in two wide-ranging species suggests that reptiles can use nest site choice to counter climate differences. We suggest that when range boundaries located at climate extremes are determined by thermal conditions of ...


Claw Morphometrics In Monitor Lizards: Variable Substrate And Habitat Use Correlate To Shape Diversity Within A Predator Guild, Domenic C. D'Amore, Simon Clulow, J. Sean Doody, David Rhind, Colin R. Mchenry Apr 2019

Claw Morphometrics In Monitor Lizards: Variable Substrate And Habitat Use Correlate To Shape Diversity Within A Predator Guild, Domenic C. D'Amore, Simon Clulow, J. Sean Doody, David Rhind, Colin R. Mchenry

J. Sean Doody

Numerous studies investigate morphology in the context of habitat, and lizards have received particular attention. Substrate usage is often reflected in the morphology of characters associated with locomotion, and, as a result, claws have become well-studied ecomorphological traits linking the two. The Kimberley predator guild of Western Australia consists of 10 sympatric varanid species. The purpose of this study was to quantify claw size and shape in the guild using geometric morphometrics, and determine whether these features correlated with substrate use and habitat. Each species was assigned a Habitat/substrate group based on the substrate their claws interact with in ...


Identifying Roadkill Hotspots Using A Running Average, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead, Evan R. Boitet Apr 2019

Identifying Roadkill Hotspots Using A Running Average, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead, Evan R. Boitet

Georgia Journal of Science

The identification of roadkill hotspots is necessary prior to the consideration of wildlife road mortality mitigation measures. In a previous study, 178 roadkill specimens were tallied via a driving survey along 21.4 km (13.3 mi) on three connected roadways in Baldwin County, Georgia. Roadkill locations were recorded to the nearest 0.16 km (0.1 mi) using the vehicle odometer. In the current study, location data were used to generate three graphical displays of roadkill distribution: 1) a linear graph of roadkills per 0.16 km (0.1 mi) bin; 2) a linear graph of roadkills per 0 ...


Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers Apr 2019

Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers

Virginia Journal of Science

Snorkel observations of Percina roanoka and P. nevisense in the Roanoke River during summer months were followed by measuring current velocity, water depth, and substrate diameter at points of occupation. A total of 89 observations of P. roanoka and 81 observations of P. nevisense were compared using two-sample T-tests. Percina roanoka inhabited faster, shallower water than P. nevisense with the former found in a mean flow of 0.318 m/s and depth of 31.53 cm and the latter in a mean flow of 0.17 m/s and depth of 55.6 cm. Mean diameter of substrate at ...