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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

#45 - The Relationship Between Media And Public Opinion Regarding Cannabis As An Opioid Substitute, Jordan Hendricks Nov 2019

#45 - The Relationship Between Media And Public Opinion Regarding Cannabis As An Opioid Substitute, Jordan Hendricks

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media and public opinion regarding cannabis as an opioid substitute. To accomplish this aim, an online survey was created and completed by college students (n=134) between 18 and 30 years of age. The survey asked questions examining participant demographic information, media consumption, and opinion towards cannabis and opioids. The data was analyzed in Excel using Chi-Square and Pearson correlation tests. The analysis showed that media and opinion on the use of cannabis as an opioid substitute were not significantly correlated (p=0.82; r=0.079). Also, a ...


Aberrant Epigenomic Modulation Of Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene (Nr3c1) In Early Life Stress And Major Depressive Disorder Correlation: Systematic Review And Quantitative Evidence Synthesis, Laurens Holmes Jr., Emily Shutman, Chinacherem Chinaka, Kerti Deepika, Lavisha Palaez, Kirk W. Dabney Nov 2019

Aberrant Epigenomic Modulation Of Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene (Nr3c1) In Early Life Stress And Major Depressive Disorder Correlation: Systematic Review And Quantitative Evidence Synthesis, Laurens Holmes Jr., Emily Shutman, Chinacherem Chinaka, Kerti Deepika, Lavisha Palaez, Kirk W. Dabney

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Early life stress (ELS) induced by psychological trauma, child maltreatment, maternal separation, and domestic violence predisposes to psycho-behavioral pathologies during adulthood, namely major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety, and bipolar affective disorder. While environmental data are available in illustrating this association, data remain to be established on the epigenomic underpinning of the nexus between ELS and MDD predisposition. Specifically, despite the observed aberrant epigenomic modulation of the NR3C1, a glucocorticoid receptor gene, in early social adversity and social threats in animal and human models, reliable scientific data for intervention mapping in reducing social adversity and improving human health is required. We ...


Policing A Negotiated World: A Partial Test Of Klinger’S Ecological Theory Of Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi Oct 2019

Policing A Negotiated World: A Partial Test Of Klinger’S Ecological Theory Of Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi

Christopher Salvatore

The primary goal of the current study is to examine a portion of Klinger’s theory. Specifically, we test the influence of organizational and environmental contextual factors, guided by Klinger’s theory, on one measure of officer vigor. To date, few studies have taken this approach to examine Klinger’s theory. The study builds on prior research that has tested aspects of Klinger’s theory and adds new analytic strategies that prior studies have not used. The results of this study have implications for both theory and practice, and they add to the growing literature examining the influence of ecological ...


A Proactive Blueprint To Demonstrate On-Farm Animal Welfare, Anna K. Johnson, Jessica D. Colpoys, Arlene Garcia, Cassandra Jass, Suzanne T. Millman, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Christopher J. Rademacher, Shawna L. Weimer, Samaneh Azarpajouh Oct 2019

A Proactive Blueprint To Demonstrate On-Farm Animal Welfare, Anna K. Johnson, Jessica D. Colpoys, Arlene Garcia, Cassandra Jass, Suzanne T. Millman, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Christopher J. Rademacher, Shawna L. Weimer, Samaneh Azarpajouh

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Farm animal welfare has become an increasing area of consumer and customer interest globally and this has resulted in dramatic changes related to on-farm accountability. Some markets are demanding an-on farm, transparent and accountable animal welfare program. Knowing what key elements are required is critical. Key elements range from (a) caretaker qualities; (b) record keeping and standard operating procedures (SOP) (c) animal- and resource based measures (d) communication and (e) caretaker empowerment. The ultimate on-farm welfare program goal is to provide the highest animal care. This review paper will provide context to these key elements that in turn can be ...


Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson Oct 2019

Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This report presents the results of a web-based survey of certified crop advisers (CCAs) conducted as part of the Integrated Management of Oomycete Diseases of Soybean and other Crop Plants Project funded by USDA-NIFA. The survey is part of a project-long effort to engage members of the Certified Crop Adviser program of the American Society of Agronomy and other crop advisers in educational and extension activities to improve their ability to accurately diagnose and manage soybean seedling and root diseases, particularly those caused by oomycetes. The report consists of three sections. This first section describes the survey’s objectives and ...


In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber Oct 2019

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural ...


Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise Oct 2019

Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

Cette intervention fait référence au paragraphe de la résolution19GA 2017/30 du Conseil International des Monuments et des Sites indiquant que « la 19° Assemblée générale de l’ICOMOS… salue l’adoption de l’accord de Paris et encourage tous les membres de l’ICOMOS à renforcer leurs efforts pour appuyer sa mise en œuvre et identifier les réponses qui s’appuient sur le patrimoine ou les paysages culturels… ». Elle prend l’exemple de la façon dont les paysages de terrasses ont été abordés ces dernières années dans trois situations différentes : en France, dans le Guizhou en Chine et dans le ...


H-2a Temporary Agricultural Workers On Small Farms: Case Study Observations And Lessons Learned, Barrett Vaughan, Lerosha Ford, Silvia Brashier, Miles Robinson Oct 2019

H-2a Temporary Agricultural Workers On Small Farms: Case Study Observations And Lessons Learned, Barrett Vaughan, Lerosha Ford, Silvia Brashier, Miles Robinson

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

The experiences of two small farmers in their efforts to employ and retain temporary agricultural workers through the H-2A Program were documented through an illustrative case study. Interviews of the farmers were conducted regarding the measures that they had to take in preparing for, employing, housing, hosting, managing, and financing the workers. These temporary agricultural workers were sought in support of these farmers’ continued participation in an initiative to assist small and limited-resource farmers in supplying produce to a major retailer. It was concluded that there are at least four priority areas for employing H-2A workers: planning, applying, maintaining ...


Toward Effective Rural Community Development In Black Belt Counties: Conceptual And Methodological Issues, Andrew Zekeri Oct 2019

Toward Effective Rural Community Development In Black Belt Counties: Conceptual And Methodological Issues, Andrew Zekeri

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

The objectives of this paper are to (1) specify what “rural”, “community”, and “development” mean, and (2) what should be the essential steps to be taken to achieve an effective rural community development. Rural is a territorial concept, and it means an extent of dispersion of people in a local ecology. Community is a natural disposition among people who interact with one another on different matters that compromise a common life. Development is an organized intentional effort of local people to work together towards a shared goal. Community development is building the capacity of community residents to act effectively ...


Why We Can’T Solve The Opioid Problem, Wayne F. Coombs, Ph.D. Sep 2019

Why We Can’T Solve The Opioid Problem, Wayne F. Coombs, Ph.D.

Journal of Appalachian Health

Appalachia’s opioid epidemic is a complex, systemic problem being addressed by limited intervention processes conceptualized through narrow disciplinary models that are not working. We need a new comprehensive, collaborative approach if we ever hope to find solutions to this problem.


Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally Sep 2019

Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Cover crops are widely viewed by the soil and water conservation community to be an effective means for reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss and increasing soil health, yet relatively few farmers have adopted the practice. Despite the widespread recognition of cover crops' benefits and increased promotional efforts, there have been very few peer-reviewed studies focused on farmer perspectives on or adoption of cover crops. This study, which analyzed data from a survey and in-depth interviews with Iowa farmers, examined the roles that perceived practice characteristics, perspectives on potential facilitating factors, and crop and livestock diversity play in cover crop ...


Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh Sep 2019

Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This is a comprehensive review of all published, quantitative studies focused on adoption of agricultural conservation practices in the United States between 1982 and 2017. This review finds that, taken as a whole, few independent variables have a consistent statistically significant relationship with adoption. Analyses showed that variables positively associated with adoption include the farmer self-identifying primarily as stewardship motivated or otherwise nonfinancially motivated, environmental attitudes, a positive attitude toward the particular program or practice, previous adoption of other conservation practices, seeking and using information, awareness of programs or practices, vulnerable land, greater farm size, higher levels of income and ...


Self-Determination Through Circus Arts: Exploring Youth Development In A Novel Activity Context, Jennifer P. Agans, Jacqueline L. Davis, Spyridoula Vazou, Tal Jarus Sep 2019

Self-Determination Through Circus Arts: Exploring Youth Development In A Novel Activity Context, Jennifer P. Agans, Jacqueline L. Davis, Spyridoula Vazou, Tal Jarus

Kinesiology Publications

Youth development takes place in many contexts, with different resulting participant outcomes. Broadening the scope of research to include non-traditional contexts such as youth circus arts programs, which are both similar to and different from other out-of-school-time contexts, may promote better understanding of the ways in which these programs impact youth development. The present study examined the prevalence of support for basic psychological needs and positive developmental outcomes among youth circus program participants. Single time-point quantitative surveys were completed by 111 youth members of the American Youth Circus Organization (62% female), ranging in age from 10 to 21. Results indicated ...


The Person And The Self As Social Accomplishment, Leslie Irvine Sep 2019

The Person And The Self As Social Accomplishment, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

Rowlands (2016) presents a compelling argument for extending personhood to nonhuman animals. Sociological conceptions of the person also do not require that animals meet the elusive standard of self-awareness. Sociological ideas on selfhood support the claims about pre-reflective awareness and extend the requisite experiences to animals.


Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine Sep 2019

Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

Assuming that all animals are sentient would mean ending their use in most scientific research. This does not necessarily imply an unscientific or anti-scientific stance. Examining the social role of science reveals its considerable investment in preserving the status quo, including the continued use of animal subjects. From this perspective, the use of animal subjects is a custom that science could move beyond, rather than a methodological requirement that it must defend.


The State Of The Animals: 2001, Deborah J. Salem, Andrew N. Rowan Sep 2019

The State Of The Animals: 2001, Deborah J. Salem, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

How has the state of animals improved in the last half century? How has it worsened? Where are gains made on behalf of animals under threat? In one landmark volume, distinguished scholars and experts examine these questions–and offer often-provocative answers–for farm animals, companion animals, laboratory animals, zoo animals, and wildlife worldwide.


The State Of The Animals Iv: 2007, Deborah J. Salem, Andrew N. Rowan Sep 2019

The State Of The Animals Iv: 2007, Deborah J. Salem, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

In the fourth volume of the State of the Animals series, a stellar array of researchers, scholars, and leaders in the field explores current and emerging issues in animal protection.


The State Of The Animals Iii: 2005, Deborah J. Salem, Andrew N. Rowan Sep 2019

The State Of The Animals Iii: 2005, Deborah J. Salem, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

In this third, all new, volume in the State of the Animals series, scholars and experts in animal protection examine the challenges facing companion animals, marine mammals, and nonhuman primates and review legal protection for animals here and abroad.


Food Sovereignty: An Alternative Paradigm For Poverty Reduction And Biodiversity Conservation In Latin America, M. Jahi Chappell, Hannah Wittman, Christopher M. Bacon, Bruce G. Ferguson, Luis Garcia Barrios, Raúl Garcia Barrios, Daniel Jaffee, Jefferson Lima, V. Ernesto Méndez, Helda Morales, Lorena Soto-Pinto, John Vandermeer, Ivette Perfecto Sep 2019

Food Sovereignty: An Alternative Paradigm For Poverty Reduction And Biodiversity Conservation In Latin America, M. Jahi Chappell, Hannah Wittman, Christopher M. Bacon, Bruce G. Ferguson, Luis Garcia Barrios, Raúl Garcia Barrios, Daniel Jaffee, Jefferson Lima, V. Ernesto Méndez, Helda Morales, Lorena Soto-Pinto, John Vandermeer, Ivette Perfecto

Daniel Jaffee

Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in ...


Upper Midwest Climate Variations: Farmer Responses To Excess Water Risks, Lois Wright Morton, Jonathan Hobbs, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Adam Loy Sep 2019

Upper Midwest Climate Variations: Farmer Responses To Excess Water Risks, Lois Wright Morton, Jonathan Hobbs, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Adam Loy

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Persistent above average precipitation and runoff and associated increased sediment transfers from cultivated ecosystems to rivers and oceans are due to changes in climate and human action. The US Upper Midwest has experienced a 37% increase in precipitation (1958–2012), leading to increased crop damage from excess water and off-farm loss of soil and nutrients. Farmer adaptive management responses to changing weather patterns have potential to reduce crop losses and address degrading soil and water resources. This research used farmer survey (n = 4778) and climate data (1971–2011) to model influences of geophysical context, past weather, on-farm flood and saturated ...


Understanding Predictors Of Nutrient Management Practice Diversity In Midwestern Agriculture, Hanna Bates, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Sep 2019

Understanding Predictors Of Nutrient Management Practice Diversity In Midwestern Agriculture, Hanna Bates, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Agriculture's negative effect on water quality has become increasingly well documented. Farmers have a range of conservation practices available, yet rate of adoption is not optimal. Extension and other agricultural stakeholders play a key role in promotion of conservation practice adoption. We used survey data to examine relationships between farmers' integration in agricultural social networks and diversity of conservation practices used. Farmers who were more engaged in agricultural organizations and social networks tended to report greater diversity in nutrient best management practices. Conversely, less "connected" farmers reported less management practice diversity. Opportunities for Extension to engage with both groups ...


Farmers And Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison Of Beliefs And Risk Perceptions In High-Income Countries, Linda S. Prokopy, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Andrew P. Barnes, V. R. Haden, Anthony Hogan, Meredith T. Niles, John Tyndall Sep 2019

Farmers And Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison Of Beliefs And Risk Perceptions In High-Income Countries, Linda S. Prokopy, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Andrew P. Barnes, V. R. Haden, Anthony Hogan, Meredith T. Niles, John Tyndall

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry—both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers’ beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites—Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand—this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is ...


Decline In Telomere Length By Age And Effect Modification By Gender, Allostatic Load And Comorbidities In National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002), Saruna Ghimire, Carl V. Hill, Francisco S. Sy, Rachelle Rodriguez Aug 2019

Decline In Telomere Length By Age And Effect Modification By Gender, Allostatic Load And Comorbidities In National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002), Saruna Ghimire, Carl V. Hill, Francisco S. Sy, Rachelle Rodriguez

Public Health Faculty Publications

Background: This study aims to assess the decline in telomere length (TL) with age and evaluate effect modification by gender, chronic stress, and comorbidity in a representative sample of the US population. Methods: Cross-sectional data on 7826 adults with a TL measurement, were included from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, years 1999–2002. The population rate of decline in TL across 10-year age categories was estimated using crude and adjusted regression. Results: In an adjusted model, the population rate of decline in TL with age was consistent and linear for only three age categories: 20–29 (β = -0 ...


Food Insecurity And Assistance On Campus: A Survey Of The Student Body, Michael Miller, Gerad Middendorf, Spencer Wood, Sonya Lutter, Scott Jones, Brian Lindshield Aug 2019

Food Insecurity And Assistance On Campus: A Survey Of The Student Body, Michael Miller, Gerad Middendorf, Spencer Wood, Sonya Lutter, Scott Jones, Brian Lindshield

Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy

According to recent studies, food insecurity affects from 34%-59% of college students. This will continue to be an issue as tuition increases and more low-income and first-generation students enter universities and colleges. Nearly 52% of college students live at, or near, the poverty level, compared to a national poverty rate of 14.5%. This leaves many undergraduate and graduate students with challenging decisions around meeting their basic housing, nutritional, and educational expenses. To assess food insecurity at Kansas State University (KSU), a random sample of undergraduate and graduate students was surveyed. Findings include a high rate of food insecurity ...


Social-Ecological Heterogeneity Shapes Resilience Of Small-Scale Fisheries: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of The Mexican Chocolate Clam Fishery In Loreto, Mexico, Kara E. Pellowe Aug 2019

Social-Ecological Heterogeneity Shapes Resilience Of Small-Scale Fisheries: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of The Mexican Chocolate Clam Fishery In Loreto, Mexico, Kara E. Pellowe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

All benefits provided by natural systems are embedded within coupled social-ecological systems (SESs). Fisheries are clear examples of SESs: through fishing, humans affect ecosystem structure and functioning, and in turn, receive benefits, including sustenance, employment, and cultural value. Resilience, the ability to maintain structure and function in the face of change, is key to sustaining the social and ecological components of fisheries-related SESs and their interactions. Many factors contribute to resilience, including heterogeneity. By identifying heterogeneity in these complex systems, we are better able to understand the capacity of fishery-related SESs to adapt to change, and contribute to management that ...


Tracking Life Skill Development Of Indiana 4-H Members, Kayla Groen Aug 2019

Tracking Life Skill Development Of Indiana 4-H Members, Kayla Groen

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Shellfish Corner: Sustainability And The Precautionary Principle, Michael A. Rice Jul 2019

The Shellfish Corner: Sustainability And The Precautionary Principle, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

The precautionary principle in environmental protection often comes into conflict with the principle of sustainable development. The history of the development of the Precautionary Principle and the Principle of Sustainability as articulated by the Brundtland Commission in 1987 is explored in the context of shellfish farming in public trust waters.


Reducing Sugary Drink Intake Through Youth Empowerment: Results From A Pilot-Site Randomized Study, Monica L. Wang, Marisa Otis, Milagros C. Rosal, Christina F. Griecci, Stephenie C. Lemon Jul 2019

Reducing Sugary Drink Intake Through Youth Empowerment: Results From A Pilot-Site Randomized Study, Monica L. Wang, Marisa Otis, Milagros C. Rosal, Christina F. Griecci, Stephenie C. Lemon

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Efficacious strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among youth are needed. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a community-based youth empowerment intervention to reduce SSB consumption and obesity risk among a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of youth.

METHODS: The H2GO! intervention was pilot-tested in an afterschool setting (Boys and Girls Clubs (BGC)) in Massachusetts, USA. One site was randomized to receive the intervention; the other site received standard programming. Youth ages 9-12 years and their parents/caregivers were eligible to participate. A total of N = 110 parent-child pairs (N = 55 parent-child pairs per site ...


Sex Differences In Cognitive Flexibility And Resting Brain Networks In Middle-Aged Marmosets, M. Laclair, M. Febo, Ben Nephew, N. J. Gervais, G. Poirier, K. Workman, Serhiy Chumachenko, L. Payne, Constance M. Moore, Jean A. King, A. Lacreuse Jul 2019

Sex Differences In Cognitive Flexibility And Resting Brain Networks In Middle-Aged Marmosets, M. Laclair, M. Febo, Ben Nephew, N. J. Gervais, G. Poirier, K. Workman, Serhiy Chumachenko, L. Payne, Constance M. Moore, Jean A. King, A. Lacreuse

Open Access Articles

Sex differences in human cognitive performance are well characterized. However, the neural correlates of these differences remain elusive. This issue may be clarified using nonhuman primates, for which sociocultural influences are minimized. We used the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to investigate sex differences in two aspects of executive function: reversal learning and intradimensional/extradimensional (ID/ED) set shifting. Stress reactivity and motor function were also assessed. In agreement with human literature, females needed more trials than males to acquire the reversals. No sex differences in ED set shifting or motivational measures were observed. The findings suggest enhanced habit formation in females ...


Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung Jul 2019

Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung

Jordan Smith

This research examines how the operating expenditures of America’s state park systems will be affected by a continued growth in attendance consistent with observed trends as well as potential climate futures. We construct a longitudinal panel dataset (1984–2017) describing the operations and characteristics of all 50 state park systems. These data are analyzed with a time-varying stochastic frontier model. Estimates from the model are used to forecast operating expenditures to midcentury under four different scenarios. The first scenario assumes annual attendance within each state park system will continue to grow (or decline) at the same average annual rate ...