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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Comparison Of Single Leg Squat Variations On Lower Limb Muscle Activation And Center Of Pressure Alterations, Mary Grace Knoll, Mackenzie C. Davidge, Claire E. Wraspir, John A. Korak Jun 2019

Comparison Of Single Leg Squat Variations On Lower Limb Muscle Activation And Center Of Pressure Alterations, Mary Grace Knoll, Mackenzie C. Davidge, Claire E. Wraspir, John A. Korak

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(1): 950-959, 2019. Following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, individuals experience inadequate functioning of the quadriceps and decreased muscular strength. Decreased function delays return to physical activity and increases potential for re-injury. While several squat variations exist, a new variation has emerged in rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the Vastus Lateralis (VL), Vastus Medialis (VM), Rectus Femoris (RF), Gluteus Maximus (GM), and anterior posterior center of pressure (AP displacement) alterations during a single leg squat variation (SLS variation) versus a traditional split squat using electromyography (EMG) in healthy ...


Proteome Of The Central Apparatus Of A Ciliary Axoneme, Lei Zhao, Yuqing Hou, Tyler Picariello, Branch Craige, George B. Witman Jun 2019

Proteome Of The Central Apparatus Of A Ciliary Axoneme, Lei Zhao, Yuqing Hou, Tyler Picariello, Branch Craige, George B. Witman

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Nearly all motile cilia have a "9+2" axoneme containing a central apparatus (CA), consisting of two central microtubules with projections, that is essential for motility. To date, only 22 proteins are known to be CA components. To identify new candidate CA proteins, we used mass spectrometry to compare axonemes of wild-type Chlamydomonas and a CA-less mutant. We identified 44 novel candidate CA proteins, of which 13 are conserved in humans. Five of the latter were studied more closely, and all five localized to the CA; therefore, most of the other candidates are likely to also be CA components. Our ...


Effects Of Life-Long Wheel Running Behavior On Plantar Flexor Contractile Properties, Alexander Nicholas Beechko Jun 2019

Effects Of Life-Long Wheel Running Behavior On Plantar Flexor Contractile Properties, Alexander Nicholas Beechko

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Aging in skeletal muscle is characterized by a loss in muscular performance. This is in part related to the direct loss of muscle mass due to senescence, known as sarcopenia. With age, skeletal muscles lose force production, contractile speed, and power production. The force velocity relationship of muscle is a product of force production and contraction speed, both of which decline with age; however, the mechanisms and trajectory of this decline are not well understood. Exercise has positive effects on muscle, and thus may assist in maintaining performance in old age. However, few long-term studies have been performed to examine ...


Systems Biology Identifies Preserved Integrity But Impaired Metabolism Of Mitochondria Due To A Glycolytic Defect In Alzheimer's Disease Neurons., Pierre Theurey, Niamh M. Connolly, Ilaria Fortunati, Emy Basso, Susette Lauwen, Camilla Ferrante, Catarina Moreira Pinho, Alvin Joselin, Anna Gioran, Daniele Bano, David S. Park, Maria Ankarcrona, Paola Pizzo, Jochen Hm Prehn Jun 2019

Systems Biology Identifies Preserved Integrity But Impaired Metabolism Of Mitochondria Due To A Glycolytic Defect In Alzheimer's Disease Neurons., Pierre Theurey, Niamh M. Connolly, Ilaria Fortunati, Emy Basso, Susette Lauwen, Camilla Ferrante, Catarina Moreira Pinho, Alvin Joselin, Anna Gioran, Daniele Bano, David S. Park, Maria Ankarcrona, Paola Pizzo, Jochen Hm Prehn

Physiology and Medical Physics Articles

Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate mitochondrial health and bioenergetic function in neurons from a double transgenic animal model of AD (PS2APP/B6.152H). Experiments in primary cortical neurons demonstrated that AD neurons had reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Interestingly, the computational model predicted that this mitochondrial bioenergetic phenotype could not be explained by any defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC), but could be closely resembled by a simulated impairment in the mitochondrial NADH flux. Further computational analysis predicted that such an impairment would ...


Time-Course Of Changes In Physiological, Psychological And Performance Markers Following A Functional-Fitness Competition, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Jonato Prestes, Nuno Frade Sousa, Vinicius C. De Souza, Otávio De Tolêdo Nóbrega, Matheus Baffi, Carlos Ernesto S. Ferreira, Gabriel Veloso Cunha, James W. Navalta, Joice Cristina Dos Santos Trombeta, Cláudia R. Cavaglieri, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli May 2019

Time-Course Of Changes In Physiological, Psychological And Performance Markers Following A Functional-Fitness Competition, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Jonato Prestes, Nuno Frade Sousa, Vinicius C. De Souza, Otávio De Tolêdo Nóbrega, Matheus Baffi, Carlos Ernesto S. Ferreira, Gabriel Veloso Cunha, James W. Navalta, Joice Cristina Dos Santos Trombeta, Cláudia R. Cavaglieri, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 904-918, 2019. Functional Fitness Training (FFT) programs are characterized by utilizing a high volume of training and using a variety of high intensity exercises. While FFT are growing in the number of practitioners and popularity, the relationship between physiological biomarkers and subjective scales in the specific context of FFT has not yet been evaluated in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to monitor the time-course response of cytokines (IL-10 and 1L-1b), immune variables (C-reactive protein -CRP and immunoglobulin A-IgA), hormonal milieu (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ...


Breathing Limited Air Situational Training Masks (Blastmask) Versus Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (Scba) For Firefighters: A Pilot Study, Thomas Andre, Silvio Valladao, Shana Walsh, Derek Reisbeck May 2019

Breathing Limited Air Situational Training Masks (Blastmask) Versus Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (Scba) For Firefighters: A Pilot Study, Thomas Andre, Silvio Valladao, Shana Walsh, Derek Reisbeck

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(6): 941-949, 2019. Despite maintaining high levels of fitness, firefighters’ performance may be negatively impacted by the use of a Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), an essential piece of safety equipment worn during structural firefighting. Routine training with SCBAs can be cost-prohibitive and inefficient. The Breathing Limited Air Situational Training Mask (BlastMask) was developed as a training aid used to simulate the SCBA. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and perceptual responses elicited by firefighters during steady state exercise when using the BlastMask compared to the SCBA. Current staff male firefighters (n ...


The Impact Of Physical Activity And Sleep On Physiology Following A Mtbi, Garrett L. Lindsey, Alia Yasen, Anita Christie May 2019

The Impact Of Physical Activity And Sleep On Physiology Following A Mtbi, Garrett L. Lindsey, Alia Yasen, Anita Christie

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 919-931, 2019. A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury that happens to people across a range of lifestyles. Rest has been regarded as the most effective remedy to restore impaired physiological functions in those who have experienced this kind of injury. However, recent data suggests that a gradual increase in physical activity post-injury can lead to quicker recovery from negative symptoms. The impact of physical activity on physiologic recovery is not completely understood and the purpose of this study was to better understand how physical activity and sleep influence physiological ...


Comparison Of College Student Hypertension Prevalence Between The Jnc7 And Acc/Aha Diagnostic Criteria, Kadiatu Kamara, Oliver W A Wilson, Zack Papalia, Melissa Bopp, C M. Bopp May 2019

Comparison Of College Student Hypertension Prevalence Between The Jnc7 And Acc/Aha Diagnostic Criteria, Kadiatu Kamara, Oliver W A Wilson, Zack Papalia, Melissa Bopp, C M. Bopp

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 898-903, 2019. Hypertension is highly prevalent and associated with non-communicable diseases and increased premature mortality risk. However, the impact of the new hypertension diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of hypertension diagnoses has yet to be examined among college students. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of hypertension between the JNC7 and the ACC/AHA hypertension diagnostic criteria among college students. The blood pressure of 5,945 college students was assessed, and chi-square tests for independence examined differences between JNC7 and ACC/AHA criteria. The mean age of participants was ...


The Validity Of Resting Metabolic Rate (Rmr)-Prediction Equations And Reliability Of Measured Rmr In Female Athletes, Kelsi Mackay, Katie Schofield, Stacy Sims, Joseph Mcquillan, Matthew Driller May 2019

The Validity Of Resting Metabolic Rate (Rmr)-Prediction Equations And Reliability Of Measured Rmr In Female Athletes, Kelsi Mackay, Katie Schofield, Stacy Sims, Joseph Mcquillan, Matthew Driller

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(2): 886-897, 2019. The aim of the current study was to; 1) assess the test-retest reliability of an indirect calorimetry analyzer (Parvo Medics TrueOne), and 2) compare measured RMR with three RMR-predictive (pRMR) equations in female athletes. In part one, 12 recreationally-exercising women (mean ± SD; age 27.5 ± 12.3 y) performed two RMR assessments, on separate days, utilising the Parvo Medics TrueOne analyser. In part two, 25 recreationally-exercising women to sub-elite athletes (mean ± SD; age 30.1 ± 10.2 y) underwent an RMR assessment using the Parvo Medics TrueOne analyser, which was compared ...


Effects Of Home-Based Exercise Training Systems, Combined With Diet, On Cardiometabolic Health, Christian K. Roberts, David E. Segovia, Eli Lankford May 2019

Effects Of Home-Based Exercise Training Systems, Combined With Diet, On Cardiometabolic Health, Christian K. Roberts, David E. Segovia, Eli Lankford

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(2): 871-885, 2019. The efficacy of exercise training systems designed to be used in the home on cardiometabolic outcomes remains largely unknown. This investigation included two studies. Study 1 tested the effects a multi-exercise pulley system(NordicTrack Fusion CST with video trainer) and Study 2 an incline trainer (NordicTrack X22i with video trainer), both combined with daily food provision, for 12-weeks on indices of cardiometabolic health. Study 1 enrolled 27 adults (11 men, 16 women, 33.8±4.4 years of age) and Study 2 enrolled 29 adults (11 men, 18 women, 40.8 ...


Age Dependent Regulation Of Cardiac Sodium Channel Gain Of Function, Madison Nowak, David Ryan King, Steven Poelzing, Seth Weinberg May 2019

Age Dependent Regulation Of Cardiac Sodium Channel Gain Of Function, Madison Nowak, David Ryan King, Steven Poelzing, Seth Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mechanics Of Phenotypic Aging Trajectories In C. Elegans And Humans, William Zhang May 2019

Mechanics Of Phenotypic Aging Trajectories In C. Elegans And Humans, William Zhang

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Overall, my dissertation integrates longitudinal measurements of physiology to investigate the aging process. In the first half, I examine the surprising and largely unexplained degree of variation in lifespan within even homogeneous populations. I sought to understand how physiological aging differs between long- and short-lived individuals within a population of genetically identical C. elegans reared in a homogeneous environment. Using a novel culture apparatus, I longitudinally monitored aspects of aging physiology across a large population of isolated individuals. Aggregating several measures into an overall estimate of senescence, I find that long- and short-lived individuals start adulthood on an equal physiological ...


Hydration Status And Perception Of Fluid Loss In Male And Female University Rugby Union Players, Trev Muth, Robert C. Pritchett, Kelly Pritchett, James Depaepe, Rachael Blank May 2019

Hydration Status And Perception Of Fluid Loss In Male And Female University Rugby Union Players, Trev Muth, Robert C. Pritchett, Kelly Pritchett, James Depaepe, Rachael Blank

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 859-870, 2019. Rugby union players are at risk for dehydration due to the high physiologic demand of the sport (~7.5 MJ/game). Dehydration could be due to lack of knowledge of fluid lost during activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to observe the hydration status and sweat loss estimations of male and female university rugby union players over three consecutive training sessions. Body mass, urine specific gravity (USG), and self-reported thirst scores were recorded pre and post training sessions. Sweat loss estimations were recorded post training session. After estimations, participants ...


Lower-Body Power And Its Relationship With Body Drag Velocity In Law Enforcement Recruits, Matthew R. Moreno, Joseph M. Dulla, J. Jay Dawes, Robin (Rob) Marc Orr, Karly Cesario, Robert G. Lockie May 2019

Lower-Body Power And Its Relationship With Body Drag Velocity In Law Enforcement Recruits, Matthew R. Moreno, Joseph M. Dulla, J. Jay Dawes, Robin (Rob) Marc Orr, Karly Cesario, Robert G. Lockie

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(4): 847-858, 2019. The body drag (BD) is used as a test to measure a law enforcement officer (LEO) recruit’s capability to rescue an individual. However, the physical characteristics associated with faster BD performance have not been identified. It could be expected that lower- body power, often measured via jump performance, could positively relate to BD performance. This study investigated the relationship between the vertical jump (VJ), peak anaerobic power measured in watts (PAPw), power-to-body mass ratio (P:BM), standing broad jump (SBJ), and relative SBJ, with BD velocity in LEO recruits. Retrospective ...


Self-Myofascial Release Does Not Improve Back Squat Range Of Motion, Alter Muscle Activation, Or Aid In Perceived Recovery 24-Hours Following Lower Body Resistance Training., Zach M. Beier, Ian L. Earp, John A. Korak May 2019

Self-Myofascial Release Does Not Improve Back Squat Range Of Motion, Alter Muscle Activation, Or Aid In Perceived Recovery 24-Hours Following Lower Body Resistance Training., Zach M. Beier, Ian L. Earp, John A. Korak

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 839-846, 2019. Self-myofascial release (SMR) is an alternative therapy believed to increase myofascial mobility by exciting muscles and increasing blood flow to the treated area. Previous literature suggest SMR produces conflicting results on performance, muscle activation, range of motion (ROM), and recovery. This study was designed to utilize SMR on a fatigued individual prior to exercise and measure its’ effects on muscle activation, ROM, and perceived recovery compared to a dynamic warm-up session. The findings could help develop an efficient warm-up protocol for resistance-trained individuals. Electromyography (EMG) measured muscle activation of the rectus ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley May 2019

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


Measurement Of Strength Gains Using A Fascial System Exercise Program, Michele M. Bond, Richard Lloyd, Robyn A. Braun, James A. Eldridge May 2019

Measurement Of Strength Gains Using A Fascial System Exercise Program, Michele M. Bond, Richard Lloyd, Robyn A. Braun, James A. Eldridge

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(1): 825-838, 2019. Current fascia research is allowing for an interdisciplinary understanding of the body’s anatomical, biomechanical, and neurological connectivity via the fascial network. Fascial research and its application has been validated and established in various clinical areas of research. The purpose of this study was to apply the current knowledge of the fascial system to general exercise protocols. This study involved 20 women, ages 30-60 years, who were novice weight trainers, mostly sedentary, and with no injuries, excessive pain or disease. The 10-week study compared strength gain changes between a strength training ...


Household Support For Physical Activity In Adolescent Girls Living In Primarily Low Socioeconomic Status Neighborhoods, Kristie Rupp, Sharon E. Taverno Ross, Tiffany L. Gary-Webb, Thomas Akiva, John M. Jakicic May 2019

Household Support For Physical Activity In Adolescent Girls Living In Primarily Low Socioeconomic Status Neighborhoods, Kristie Rupp, Sharon E. Taverno Ross, Tiffany L. Gary-Webb, Thomas Akiva, John M. Jakicic

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(5): 811-824, 2019. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perception of household support and physical activity levels of adolescent girls living in primarily low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods. The sample consisted of thirty-six adolescent girls (N=36; 60% non-Hispanic Black; mean age of 14.6 ± 1.3 [mean ± sd]; median body mass index (BMI) percentile of 90.5 [58.5, 97.0]) living in primarily low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods. Trained researchers measured participants’ height and weight, and administered questionnaires to assess perception of household support for physical activity ...


Eeg Responses To Incremental Self-Paced Cycling Exercise In Young And Middle Aged Adults, Rachel M. Maceri, Nicholas P. Cherup, Nicholas J. Hanson May 2019

Eeg Responses To Incremental Self-Paced Cycling Exercise In Young And Middle Aged Adults, Rachel M. Maceri, Nicholas P. Cherup, Nicholas J. Hanson

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(3): 800-810, 2019. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive method of measuring electrical activity of the brain during exercise. There is conflicting evidence as to how neural activity changes in relation to incremental exercise testing (IET), or if age has any effect. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how brain activity changes throughout an IET, and 2) if age affects this response. 13 younger (age: 24.9 ± 2.6 years, 9 males) and 10 middle-aged (49.1 ± 3.2 years, 3 males) recreationally active individuals volunteered for this study. A self-paced, perceptually ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky May 2019

Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

This document contains a list with all the Anatomy and Physiology I expected learning outcomes organized by topics, and grouped into ten units: 1. Introduction to A&P: body plan & organization; 2. Introduction to A&P: homeostasis; 3. The chemical level of organization; 4. Levels of organization: the cellular level of organization; 5. Levels of organization: the tissue level of organization; 6. Support and movement: integumentary system; 7. Support and movement: skeletal system & articulations; 8. Support and movement: muscular system; 9. Regulation, integration, and control: nervous system; 10. Regulation, integration, and control: special senses

Each learning outcome is referred to a section in the textbook “Anatomy and ...


Effects Of Rest Position On Ultrasound-Derived Morphological Characteristics Of The Vastus Lateralis And Lower-Body Force Production, Alyssa Varanoske May 2019

Effects Of Rest Position On Ultrasound-Derived Morphological Characteristics Of The Vastus Lateralis And Lower-Body Force Production, Alyssa Varanoske

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound assessment of the lower body typically encompasses 10-15 minutes of supine rest prior to examination because of the potential influence of gravitational fluid shifts on tissue size and composition. However, examination of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle requires individuals to lay in the lateral recumbent position, and this change in position may influence muscle morphological characteristics and their ability to predict muscle function. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of rest position on ultrasound-derived morphological characteristics of the VL and to determine whether or not rest position affects the relationships between muscle morphological ...


A Mixed-Methods Approach To Understanding The Relationship Between Mental Toughness And The Effect Of Music On Exercise Performance, Kayla Baker May 2019

A Mixed-Methods Approach To Understanding The Relationship Between Mental Toughness And The Effect Of Music On Exercise Performance, Kayla Baker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has investigated the use of music as an ergogenic aid for exercise performance; however, the effect of music on exercise may differ between individuals of varying levels of mental toughness (MT). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of MT on the effect of listening to music during exercise. Methods: The current study used a counter-balanced design, utilizing a mixed-methods approach. Thirty-one recreationally-active individuals (22.13 ± 2.11 yrs, 1.73 ± .10 m, 75.68 ± 14.67 kg, 42.89 ± 5.31 mL·kg·min-1; 65.5% males) were recruited for this study ...


Noninvasive Myographical Assessments Following Unaccustomed Resistance Exercise, Carleigh Boone May 2019

Noninvasive Myographical Assessments Following Unaccustomed Resistance Exercise, Carleigh Boone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally, post-exercise muscular alterations have been examined using invasive techniques that lack the ability to single out individual muscle groups. Sonomyography, tensiomyography, and electrical impedance myography allow for noninvasive skeletal muscle assessment. This project aimed to examine changes in muscle contractility and composition that occur in the early stages of recovery following unaccustomed exercise. METHODS: Twenty-one untrained adults (21.9 ± 1.9 y) performed exercise – 10 × 10 maximal eccentric knee extensions – with their nondominant leg. For each repetition, participants moved through 90° range of motion at 90°•s-1 with a passive return to the start position. Each set was separated ...


Apnea Training And Physical Characteristics: Enhancement Of The Dive Response, Apneic Time, And Recovery, Nathanael Stanford May 2019

Apnea Training And Physical Characteristics: Enhancement Of The Dive Response, Apneic Time, And Recovery, Nathanael Stanford

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Human breath-hold diving (free diving) has been gaining popularity as new individuals participate in the sport every year. Carbon dioxide (CO2) breath-hold tables have been widely implemented as a training modality and prescribe constant submaximal apneic durations with gradually decreasing recovery times to increase hypercapnic resiliency. Previous studies implementing maximal duration apnea training have found enhancements in apneic duration and the mammalian dive reflex (MDR), which is elicited by apnea and augmented with facial immersion. The MDR results in bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction to redistribute blood to vital organs and elicit oxygen (O2) conserving resulting in prolonged apneas ...


Association Of Oxidative Stress With Female Infertility - A Case Control Study, Faiza Alam, Taseer Ahmed Khan, Sofia Amjad, Rehana Rehman May 2019

Association Of Oxidative Stress With Female Infertility - A Case Control Study, Faiza Alam, Taseer Ahmed Khan, Sofia Amjad, Rehana Rehman

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objective: To compare stress markers and reproductive hormones in fertile and infertile females, and to relate the markers with age, duration and cause of infertility, and body mass index..
Methods: The case-control study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from March 2017 to February 2018. Females aged 16-50 years regardless of ethnic background were recruited from the Australian Concept Infertility Medical Centre, Karachi, and were equally divided into infertile cases group A, and fertile controls group B. Serum follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, glutathione reductase and cortisol were measured using enzyme-linked innmunosorbent assay. SPSS 19 was used ...


Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap May 2019

Comparative Plasma Proteomics In Muscle Atrophy Induced By Cancer Cachexia And Hindlimb Unloading, Kirsten Rene Dunlap

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Muscle atrophy results from a dysfunction in protein turnover that leads to loss of mass and function and occurs concurrently with multiple pathologies such as cancer and extended bed rest. Atrophy reduces overall quality of life while increasing morbidity and mortality. Currently, efficacious therapeutic interventions to treat and prevent muscle wasting in all its forms are lacking, however if conserved mechanisms can be identified between wasting conditions, this would aid in the development of multipurpose therapeutics to ameliorate this pathology. Purpose: To examine circulating factors present across atrophic pathologies. Methods: 35 male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to hindlimb ...


Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani Apr 2019

Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani

Open Access Articles

Adhesion is a crucial characteristic of epithelial cells to form barriers to pathogens and toxic substances from the environment. Epithelial cells attach to each other using intercellular junctions on the lateral membrane, including tight and adherent junctions, as well as the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our group has shown that non-adherent chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the canine beta1 subunit become adhesive, and those homotypic interactions amongst beta1 subunits of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase occur between neighboring epithelial cells. Ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid, binds to the alpha subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, inhibits the pump activity and induces ...


Effects Of A 3-Week High-Fat-Low-Carbohydrate Diet On Lipid And Glucose Profiles In 8 Experienced, Middle-Age Male Runners, Eric K. O'Neal, Ashton F. Smith, Alexander J. Heatherly, Lauren G. Killen, Hunter S. Waldman, Angela Hollingsworth, Yunsuk Koh Apr 2019

Effects Of A 3-Week High-Fat-Low-Carbohydrate Diet On Lipid And Glucose Profiles In 8 Experienced, Middle-Age Male Runners, Eric K. O'Neal, Ashton F. Smith, Alexander J. Heatherly, Lauren G. Killen, Hunter S. Waldman, Angela Hollingsworth, Yunsuk Koh

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 12(2): 786-799, 2019. This study examined glucose and lipid marker responses following a 3-week, ad libitum low-carbohydrate-high-fat diet (LCHF; ~70% kcals from fat, <50 g/day of net carbohydrates) versus the habitual mixed macronutrient diet (HMD) of eight middle-age, trained male runners (40 ±10 years; V̇O2peak = 49 ±4 mL·kg-1·min-1). Blood was drawn at 0600 from an antecubital vein after an overnight fast under conditions of no exercise/ heat stress (NEXH; 48 h of restriction from intense exercise) or 24-h after exercise/heat stress (EXH; 60 min run in hot conditions plus 5-km time trial) for both dietary conditions. Glucose improvement during LCHF approached but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0 ...


Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows Apr 2019

Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Chytridiomycosis is a potentially deadly skin disease found in amphibian populations all over the world. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that grows on the skin of amphibians. The fungus can cause a disruption in the homeostatic functions of the amphibian skin and can lead to death. The relationship between an amphibian’s antimicrobial skin secretions, cutaneous microbial communities and environmental water quality can affect their resistance and susceptibility to Bd infection. Columbia spotted frogs (Lithobates luteiventris) are native to western Montana and have been affected by chytridiomycosis. Three lakes known to be positive for Bd were ...


Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige Apr 2019

Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige

Open Access Articles

Exercise mitigates chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms governing protection from these diseases are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that exercise rescues metabolically compromised high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and reprograms subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Using transcriptomic profiling, scWAT was analyzed for HFD gene expression changes that were rescued by exercise. Gene networks involved in vascularization were identified as prominent targets of exercise, which led us to investigate the vasculature architecture and endothelial phenotype. Vascular density in scWAT was found to be compromised in HFD, and exercise rescued this defect ...