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Articles 1 - 30 of 1102

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Dk Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd Oct 2019

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Dk Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd

VIMS Articles

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are swarming, oceanic crustaceans, up to two inches long, and best known as prey for whales and penguins – but they have another important role. With their large size, high biomass and daily vertical migrations they transport and transform essential nutrients, stimulate primary productivity and influence the carbon sink. Antarctic krill are also fished by the Southern Ocean’s largest fishery. Yet how krill fishing impacts nutrient fertilisation and the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. Our synthesis shows fishery management should consider the influential biogeochemical role of both adult and larval Antarctic krill.


Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al Sep 2019

Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple ...


It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al Aug 2019

It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The timing of recurring biological and seasonal environmental events is changing on a global scale relative to temperature and other climate drivers. This study considers the Gulf of Maine ecosystem, a region of high social and ecological importance in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and synthesizes current knowledge of (a) key seasonal processes, patterns, and events; (b) direct evidence for shifts in timing; (c) implications of phenological responses for linked ecological-human systems; and (d) potential phenology-focused adaptation strategies and actions. Twenty studies demonstrated shifts in timing of regional marine organisms and seasonal environmental events. The most common response was earlier timing ...


Lipid Biomarkers Of Bering And Chukchi Sea Euphausiids And Their Application To Diet History, Rachel L. Pleuthner Jul 2019

Lipid Biomarkers Of Bering And Chukchi Sea Euphausiids And Their Application To Diet History, Rachel L. Pleuthner

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

In the eastern Bering Sea, Thysanoessa raschii are the most abundant krill species and a keystone trophic member that serve as both an important grazer and link to upper level consumers. In this system krill experience large annual variation in food resources, especially during ice advance and retreat; multiple lipid classes are used to temper the effects of those fluctuations, as well as to fuel reproduction and growth. Two shipboard feeding experiments that occurred during late spring and early summer of 2010, respectively, monitored the lipid retention in adult T. raschii and examined the fluctuation of specific lipid biomarkers under ...


Nutrient Controls Over Cyanobacterial Synthesis Of The Neurotoxin Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) And Its Potential Accumulation In The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus), Madeline M. Hummel Jul 2019

Nutrient Controls Over Cyanobacterial Synthesis Of The Neurotoxin Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) And Its Potential Accumulation In The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus), Madeline M. Hummel

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are known to produce a variety of toxins that negatively impact both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. One putative neurotoxic compound is the non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), which has epidemiological linkages to the development of several human neurological diseases. Three cyanobacterial species thought to produce BMAA —Microcystis aeruginosa, Synechococcus bacillaris, and Nostoc sp. —were grown in nutrient replete cultures to examine its synthesis and cellular distribution over a growth cycle. Production of BMAA was also examined in nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) deplete cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa. In addition, natural assemblages of phytoplankton dominated by cyanobacteria were collected from two ...


Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, M Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, J D. Loftis, J Boon, D Malmquist Jun 2019

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, M Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, J D. Loftis, J Boon, D Malmquist

VIMS Articles

As communities grapple with rising seas and more frequent flooding events, they need improved projections of future rising and flooding over multiple time horizons, to assist in a multitude of planning efforts. There are currently a few different tools available that communities can use to plan, including the Sea Level Report Card and products generated by a United States. Federal interagency task force on sea level rise. These tools are a start, but it is recognized that they are not necessarily enough at present to provide communities with the type of information needed to support decisions that range from seasonal ...


Carbonate Chemistry Characterization In A Low-Inflow Estuary With Recent Seagrass Loss, Jolie Higgins Jun 2019

Carbonate Chemistry Characterization In A Low-Inflow Estuary With Recent Seagrass Loss, Jolie Higgins

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Estuaries are dynamic environments that are strongly affected by natural variability, as well as direct and indirect anthropogenic impacts. A better understanding of the drivers of carbon fluxes and biogeochemical variability in estuarine systems is needed, particularly with the increasing threat of ocean acidification. Morro Bay in Central California is a small nationally protected estuary, with seasonally low freshwater inputs. Since 2007, the bay has experienced a significant loss of native seagrass, Zostera marina, which is an important component of the marine ecosystem. Because seagrass photosynthesis decreases carbon dioxide and increases oxygen in the water column, the loss of seagrass ...


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith May 2019

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


The House Of The Fish: Collaborative Coral Reef Awareness Project On Nosy Be, Meghan Hurley Apr 2019

The House Of The Fish: Collaborative Coral Reef Awareness Project On Nosy Be, Meghan Hurley

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this project was to initiate a place-based coral reef education project, with the ultimate goal of improved localized conservation efforts in the face of growing global threats. Three principal groups that interact with coral reefs on Nosy Be were interviewed: fishers, tourist guides, and conservationists. Research was conducted on the biology of coral reefs, and on the most prominent threats facing coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and around Nosy Be. Information and direct quotes from interviews, and the results of research, were incorporated into a photographic journal entitled "In the House of the Fish" or "An-tragno ...


Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson Apr 2019

Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Estuaries are important sites of carbon cycling; however, the impact of increasingly prevalent harmful algal blooms (HABs) on cycling in these systems remains unclear. To examine the impact of two bloom species, Alexandrium monilatum and Margalefidinium polykrikoides on the quantity and composition of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) pools and rates of benthic and pelagic microbial respiration in the lower York River Estuary, VA, a series field samplings and laboratory incubations were performed. The two HAB species greatly increased the size of the DOC and CDOM pools and altered the character of the CDOM ...


Ecological Response Of Phytoplankton To The Oil Spills In The Oceans, Danling Tang, Jing Sun, Li Zhou, Sufen Wang, Ramesh P. Singh, Gang Pan Feb 2019

Ecological Response Of Phytoplankton To The Oil Spills In The Oceans, Danling Tang, Jing Sun, Li Zhou, Sufen Wang, Ramesh P. Singh, Gang Pan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Oil spills in oceans have substantial influence on marine ecosystems. This study investigates 21 oil spills in the world. Analyzing Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomerer (MODIS) data after Penglai oil spills on 4 June 2011, found a bloom with peak value of Chl-a (13.66 mg m−3) spread over an area of 800 km2 during 18–25 June 2011, and a pronounced increase in the monthly Chl-a concentration (6.40 mg m−3) on June 2012 in the Bohai Sea. Out of the 21 oil spills, 14 blooms were observed, while 11 ...


Nutrient And Phytoplankton Dynamics On The Inner Shelf Of The Eastern Bering Sea, Calvin W. Mordy, Allan H. (Allan Houston) Devol, Lisa B. Eisner, Nancy Kachel, Carol A. Ladd, Michael W. Lomas, Peter Proctor, Raymond Nicholas Sambrotto, David Shull, Phyllis Jean Stabeno, Eric Wisegarver Jan 2019

Nutrient And Phytoplankton Dynamics On The Inner Shelf Of The Eastern Bering Sea, Calvin W. Mordy, Allan H. (Allan Houston) Devol, Lisa B. Eisner, Nancy Kachel, Carol A. Ladd, Michael W. Lomas, Peter Proctor, Raymond Nicholas Sambrotto, David Shull, Phyllis Jean Stabeno, Eric Wisegarver

David H. Shull

In the Bering Sea, the nitrogen cycle near Nunivak Island is complicated due to limited nutrient replenishment across this broad shelf, and substantial nitrogen loss through sedimentary processes. While diffusion at the inner front may periodically support new production, the inner shelf in this region is generally described as a regenerative system. This study combines hydrographic surveys with measurements of nitrogen assimilation and benthic fluxes to examine nitrogen cycling on the inner shelf, and connectivity between the middle and inner shelves of the southern and central Bering Sea. Results establish the inner shelf as primarily a regenerative system even in ...


Spatial Variability In Recruitment Of Chilipepper Rockfish (Sebastes Goodei) In The California Current System, Laura K. Solinger Jan 2019

Spatial Variability In Recruitment Of Chilipepper Rockfish (Sebastes Goodei) In The California Current System, Laura K. Solinger

Theses and projects

Properly describing variability in population dynamics (e.g., growth, fecundity, recruitment) is expected to improve management of important fisheries stocks (Maunder & Piner, 2014). As recruitment to most fish stocks is determined during early life history stages (Houde, 1997; Iles & Beverton, 2000), and early life history stages are influenced by oceanographic conditions (Bjorkstedt et al. 2002; Laidig, 2010), understanding how environmental stochasticity influences recruitment deviations has potential to improve estimates of stock productivity and how productivity might change over time to support more effective management. Chilipepper Rockfish (Sebastes goodei) are an important commercial species that is managed as a single population throughout the continental US (Field et al. 2015), yet spatiotemporal heterogeneity of oceanographic conditions is likely to cause variability in recruitment deviations throughout this range. Field and Ralston (2005) used region-based catch-at-age data ...


Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn Jan 2019

Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

We examined metaproteome profiles from two Arctic microbiomes during 10-day shipboard incubations to directly track early functional and taxonomic responses to a simulated algal bloom and an oligotrophic control. Using a novel peptide-based enrichment analysis, significant changes (p-value < 0.01) in biological and molecular functions associated with carbon and nitrogen recycling were observed. Within the first day under both organic matter conditions, Bering Strait surface microbiomes increased protein synthesis, carbohydrate degradation, and cellular redox processes while decreasing C1 metabolism. Taxonomic assignments revealed that the core microbiome collectively responded to algal substrates by assimilating carbon before select taxa utilize and metabolize nitrogen intracellularly. Incubations of Chukchi Sea bottom water microbiomes showed similar, but delayed functional responses to identical treatments. Although 24 functional terms were shared between experimental treatments, the timing, and degree of the remaining responses were highly variable, showing that organic matter perturbation directs community functionality prior to alterations to the taxonomic distribution at the microbiome class level. The dynamic responses of these two oceanic microbial communities have important implications for timing and magnitude of responses to organic perturbations within the Arctic Ocean and how community-level functions may forecast biogeochemical gradients in oceans.


Metagenomic Sequencing Identifies Highly Diverse Assemblages Of Dinoflagellate Cysts In Sediments From Ships' Ballast Tanks, Lixia Shang, Zhangxi Hu, Yunyan Deng, Yuyang Liu, Xinyu Zhai, Zhaoyang Chai, Xiaohan Liu, Zifeng Zhan, Fred C. Dobbs, Ying Zhong Tang Jan 2019

Metagenomic Sequencing Identifies Highly Diverse Assemblages Of Dinoflagellate Cysts In Sediments From Ships' Ballast Tanks, Lixia Shang, Zhangxi Hu, Yunyan Deng, Yuyang Liu, Xinyu Zhai, Zhaoyang Chai, Xiaohan Liu, Zifeng Zhan, Fred C. Dobbs, Ying Zhong Tang

OEAS Faculty Publications

Ships' ballast tanks have long been known as vectors for the introduction of organisms. We applied next-generation sequencing to detect dinoflagellates (mainly as cysts) in 32 ballast tank sediments collected during 2001-2003 from ships entering the Great Lakes or Chesapeake Bay and subsequently archived. Seventy-three dinoflagellates were fully identified to species level by this metagenomic approach and single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing, including 19 toxic species, 36 harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming species, 22 previously unreported as producing cysts, and 55 reported from ballast tank sediments for the first time (including 13 freshwater species), plus 545 operational taxonomic ...


Ebullition Of Oxygen From Seagrasses Under Supersaturated Conditions, Matthew H. Long, Kevin Sutherland, Scott D. Wankel, David J. Burdige, Richard C. Zimmerman Jan 2019

Ebullition Of Oxygen From Seagrasses Under Supersaturated Conditions, Matthew H. Long, Kevin Sutherland, Scott D. Wankel, David J. Burdige, Richard C. Zimmerman

OEAS Faculty Publications

Gas ebullition from aquatic systems to the atmosphere represents a potentially important fraction of primary production that goes unquantified by measurements of dissolved gas concentrations. Although gas ebullition from photosynthetic surfaces has often been observed, it is rarely quantified. The resulting underestimation of photosynthetic activity may significantly bias the determination of ecosystem trophic status and estimated rates of biogeochemical cycling from in situ measures of dissolved oxygen. Here, we quantified gas ebullition rates in Zostera marina meadows in Virginia, U.S.A. using simple funnel traps and analyzed the oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of the captured gas. Maximum hourly ...


Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, P. St-Laurent, P. L. Yager, R. M. Sherrell, H. Oliver, M. S. Dinniman, S. E. Stammerjohn Jan 2019

Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, P. St-Laurent, P. L. Yager, R. M. Sherrell, H. Oliver, M. S. Dinniman, S. E. Stammerjohn

CCPO Publications

The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) is distinguished by having the highest net primary production per unit area in the coastal Antarctic. Recent studies have related this high productivity to the presence of fast-melting ice shelves, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study we describe the first numerical model of the ASP to represent explicitly the ocean-ice interactions, nitrogen and iron cycles, and the coastal circulation at high resolution. The study focuses on the seasonal cycle of iron and carbon, and the results are broadly consistent with field observations collected during the summer of 2010–2011. The ...


Dynamics Of Prochlorococcus Diversity And Photoacclimation During Short-Term Shifts In Water Column Stratification At Station Aloha, Anne W. Thompson, Ger Van Den Engh, Nathan A. Ahlgren, Kathleen Kouba, Samantha Ward, Samuel T. Wilson, David M. Karl Dec 2018

Dynamics Of Prochlorococcus Diversity And Photoacclimation During Short-Term Shifts In Water Column Stratification At Station Aloha, Anne W. Thompson, Ger Van Den Engh, Nathan A. Ahlgren, Kathleen Kouba, Samantha Ward, Samuel T. Wilson, David M. Karl

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the dominant phototroph in surface waters of the vast oligotrophic oceans, the foundation of marine food webs, and an important component of global biogeochemical cycles. The prominence of Prochlorococcus across the environmental gradients of the open ocean is attributed to its extensive genetic diversity and flexible chlorophyll physiology, enabling light capture over a wide range of intensities. What remains unknown is the balance between temporal dynamics of genetic diversity and chlorophyll physiology in the ability of Prochlorococcus to respond to a variety of short (approximately 1 day) and longer (months to year) changes in the environment ...


Symbiotic Unicellular Cyanobacteria Fix Nitrogen In The Arctic Ocean, K. Harding, K. A. Turk-Kubo, R. E. Sipler, M. M. Mills, D. A. Bronk Dec 2018

Symbiotic Unicellular Cyanobacteria Fix Nitrogen In The Arctic Ocean, K. Harding, K. A. Turk-Kubo, R. E. Sipler, M. M. Mills, D. A. Bronk

VIMS Articles

Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation is an important source of nitrogen (N) in low-latitude open oceans. The unusual N2-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria (UCYN-A)/haptophyte symbiosis has been found in an increasing number of unexpected environments, including northern waters of the Danish Straight and Bering and Chukchi Seas. We used nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) to measure 15N2 uptake into UCYN-A/haptophyte symbiosis and found that UCYN-A strains identical to low-latitude strains are fixing N2 in the Bering and Chukchi Seas, at rates comparable to subtropical waters. These results show definitively that cyanobacterial N2 fixation is not constrained to subtropical waters, challenging ...


Trash Talk: The Effects Of Plastic Pollution On Seabirds In Narragansett Bay, Erin A. O'Neill Dec 2018

Trash Talk: The Effects Of Plastic Pollution On Seabirds In Narragansett Bay, Erin A. O'Neill

Pell Scholars and Senior Theses

Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern with more than 8 million tons of plastic dumped into our oceans every year. This policy paper assesses plastic pollution in Narragansett Bay and the negative implications it holds on local seabird populations. Also, essential background information on plastic production and throwaway culture is provided. Moreover, the biological significance of seabirds is described, highlighting the vital role such populations play in local ecosystems such as Narragansett Bay. This paper contributes research to the global issue of plastic pollution by observing declining native wildlife life populations, such as seabirds, on a local ...


Along-Shelf Connectivity And Circumpolar Gene Flow In Antarctic Silverfish (Pleuragramma Antarctica), Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Chiara Papetti, Maj Wetjen, Rainer Knust, Julian R. Ashford, Lorenzo Zane Dec 2018

Along-Shelf Connectivity And Circumpolar Gene Flow In Antarctic Silverfish (Pleuragramma Antarctica), Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Chiara Papetti, Maj Wetjen, Rainer Knust, Julian R. Ashford, Lorenzo Zane

OEAS Faculty Publications

The Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) is a critically important forage species with a circumpolar distribution and is unique among other notothenioid species for its wholly pelagic life cycle. Previous studies have provided mixed evidence of population structure over regional and circumpolar scales. The aim of the present study was to test the recent population hypothesis for Antarctic silverfish, which emphasizes the interplay between life history and hydrography in shaping connectivity. A total of 1067 individuals were collected over 25 years from different locations on a circumpolar scale. Samples were genotyped at fifteen microsatellites to assess population differentiation and genetic structuring ...


Evaluation Of Spatial Generalization Characteristics Of A Robust Classifier As Applied To Coral Reef Habitats In Remote Islands Of The Pacific Ocean, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik J. Linstead, Thomas Piechota Nov 2018

Evaluation Of Spatial Generalization Characteristics Of A Robust Classifier As Applied To Coral Reef Habitats In Remote Islands Of The Pacific Ocean, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik J. Linstead, Thomas Piechota

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study was an evaluation of the spectral signature generalization properties of coral across four remote Pacific Ocean reefs. The sites under consideration have not been the subject of previous studies for coral classification using remote sensing data. Previous research regarding using remote sensing to identify reefs has been limited to in-situ assessment, with some researchers also performing temporal analysis of a selected area of interest. This study expanded the previous in-situ analyses by evaluating the ability of a basic predictor, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), trained on Depth Invariant Indices calculated from the spectral signature of coral in one location ...


The Influence Of Habitat Preference On Longitudinal Population Composition And Distribution Of Groupers (Serranidae) In Chumbe Island Coral Park, Zanzibar Tanzania, Caroline Daley Oct 2018

The Influence Of Habitat Preference On Longitudinal Population Composition And Distribution Of Groupers (Serranidae) In Chumbe Island Coral Park, Zanzibar Tanzania, Caroline Daley

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

A survey of six common grouper (Serranidae) species was conducted on both the western protected and eastern unprotected reefs around Chumbe Island. Species, estimated maturity, and fundamental niche and general habitat preference was extrapolated based on observed realized niche and qualified according to substrate, depth, slope position, and general reef region. Abundance, biomass density, and biodiversity of Serranid populations were compared among locations on the reef with habitat preference in mind in order to best assess how habitat influences population composition, distribution, and health. The results of this study provide depth to previous research on the protected reef and indicate ...


Correlations Between Reef Health And Vertical Zonation On Ushongo Village Reef And Fungu Zinga Reef, Daniel Gates Oct 2018

Correlations Between Reef Health And Vertical Zonation On Ushongo Village Reef And Fungu Zinga Reef, Daniel Gates

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

While the existence of vertical zonation on coral reefs is well-known, the driving mechanisms and the influence each has is not clear. This study seeks to investigate the influence of reef health on vertical zonation. Reef health is used as a potential factor since it is essentially a broad description of reef diversity. Therefore, a healthy reef which is very diverse is likely to have more and different interspecies interactions than an unhealthy one. This project investigates whether these altered interactions results in different depth distributions of various coral types, categorized broadly by colony shape. Reef health did not seem ...


Habitat Preferences Of Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans) And Black Marlin (Istiompax Indica) In The Eastern Pacific Ocean, Nima Farchadi, Michael G. Hinton, Andrew R. Thompson, Zhi-Yong Yin Sep 2018

Habitat Preferences Of Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans) And Black Marlin (Istiompax Indica) In The Eastern Pacific Ocean, Nima Farchadi, Michael G. Hinton, Andrew R. Thompson, Zhi-Yong Yin

Theses

Overexploitation and climate change can reduce the abundance and shift the spatial distribution of marine species. Determining the habitat suitability of a mobile pelagic species, such as Makaira nigricans (BUM) and Istiompax indica (BLM), can help describe their spatiotemporal distribution patterns over a broad spatial scale, which is a crucial need for fisheries management. Using 14 years (1997-2010) of Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) catch data from purse-seine vessels in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO), we modeled the dynamic habitat suitability of BUM and BLM in response to environmental variables within the EPO using a species distribution model (MaxEnt) with ...


The Effects Of Density Gradients On The Distribution And Behavior Of Copepods, Connor Cayson Aug 2018

The Effects Of Density Gradients On The Distribution And Behavior Of Copepods, Connor Cayson

Theses

Observations of fine-scale behavioral dynamics of zooplankton may shed insight into much larger-scale ecosystem patterns and phenomena. Some zooplankton, such as copepods, are known to aggregate near density gradients; however, it is not clear the extent to which density gradients alone affect copepod distribution and behavior, since these gradients are often associated with phytoplankton layers. In this study, we investigated the behavior of Calanus pacificus in response to salinity gradients through laboratory experiments observed with high-resolution video and analyzed using computational techniques. Image data were collected using two cameras recording continuously for a duration of 30 minutes or more, allowing ...


Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson Aug 2018

Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson

LSU Master's Theses

Nearshore marine fisheries provide the main source of protein for nearly 9 million people in the coastal villages of Tanzania, yet for decades the fisheries have shown signs of overexploitation. These fisheries are small-scale and co-managed by local coastal communities in groups known as Beach Management Units (BMUs). BMUs monitor individual fishing trip data (e.g. gear, vessel, taxa); however, these data have only been analyzed in nationally aggregated statistics and to our knowledge, are not presently used in management decision making. The present thesis aimed to identify the forms of data and information that local fishery monitoring can record ...


Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko Aug 2018

Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko

HCNSO Student Capstones

When analyzing the water quality of the coastal zone, culture-based techniques have been utilized most often to identify Fecal Indicator Bacteria in samples. Since the advent of the Sanger Method for DNA sequencing, other techniques have arisen that provide significantly more information on the microorganisms in sample, but they are still not the mainstream for water quality analysis. This capstone reviews and compares culture-based techniques, DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing, qPCR for biomarker, and 16S rDNA sequencing to highlight their merits and shortcomings for analyzing environmental water samples. The technique presented that provides the broadest range of information (including the identification ...


Bubble Stream Production By Belugas (Delphinapterus Leucas), Megan Slack Aug 2018

Bubble Stream Production By Belugas (Delphinapterus Leucas), Megan Slack

Theses

Bubble stream production in belugas has been poorly characterized and its function is not well understood. I examined behavioral states when producing bubble streams (“bubbling”), and when bubbling calls, to determine whether bubbling was significantly associated with a particular call category or behavioral state. Using 19 hours of video and audio recordings collected over a two-day period, I quantified bubble streams of a 4-month old calf and an unrelated adult female housed together. Based on the overall activity budgets and pool of vocalizations for both animals, I calculated the expected counts of bubble streams with and without vocalizations, assuming that ...


Hydrodynamic Drivers Of Dissolved Oxygen Variability Within A Highly Developed Tidal Creek In Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Douglas Matthew Pastore Jul 2018

Hydrodynamic Drivers Of Dissolved Oxygen Variability Within A Highly Developed Tidal Creek In Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Douglas Matthew Pastore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Erosion and water quality degradation have been observed in Singleton Swash in Myrtle Beach, SC, and have been hypothesized to be related to migration of the beach-face channel. Dredging this channel temporarily fixes erosional threats to nearby infrastructure but the effects on water quality are not well understood. It is hypothesized that variations in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (used here as a proxy for water quality) within the water column are related to changes in vertical mixing and transport due to oceanic tidal forcing. This study utilizes current meters, pressure sensors, and optical DO probes to measure and study the ...