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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Transient Dynamics Of Infection Transmission In An Intensive Care Unit, Christopher Short, Matthew S. Mietchen, Eric T. Lofgren Oct 2019

Transient Dynamics Of Infection Transmission In An Intensive Care Unit, Christopher Short, Matthew S. Mietchen, Eric T. Lofgren

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers Sep 2019

An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

AAI studies in the nursing home pose a specific set of challenges. In this article the practical and ethical issues encountered during a Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home AAI study are addressed with the aim of sharing our experiences for future researchers as well as AAI practitioners in general.

In our study we compared three groups of clients with dementia who participated in group sessions of either visiting dog teams, visiting FurReal Friend robot animals, or visiting students (control group) and monitored the effect on social interaction and neuropsychiatric symptoms through video analysis and questionnaires. We encountered the following four categories ...


Applying The Plan-Do-Study-Act (Pdsa) Approach To Community Health Worker Job Satisfaction: Local And Global Perspectives, Wendy R. Thal, Rosalinda Jimenez Sep 2019

Applying The Plan-Do-Study-Act (Pdsa) Approach To Community Health Worker Job Satisfaction: Local And Global Perspectives, Wendy R. Thal, Rosalinda Jimenez

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Community Health Workers (CHW) have been a continuing presence in the world health care arena for several decades. While the work they do is diverse, all abide by local social and cultural “norms” and are stakeholders within the population they serve. [1] While much literature is available on the importance of community health workers in the provision of care in regions with limited access to health care, there is little known on what inspires someone to engage in the role. The World Health Organization purports that building value for these lay health care providers within their community via training, support ...


Effect Of Promoting Psychosocial Resilience In Adolescents With Diabetes: An Integrative Literature Review, Britney Sandino Aug 2019

Effect Of Promoting Psychosocial Resilience In Adolescents With Diabetes: An Integrative Literature Review, Britney Sandino

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Adolescent obesity and diabetes increase the risk of numerous physiological health threats and psychosocial stress disorders. Educating this population on how to cope with physical and psychosocial stressors improves their health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

Objectives: The purpose of this review was to provide the nursing community with insight on the health promotion effects of fostering psychosocial resilience in diabetic adolescents aged 7 to 17 and suggest specific methods to integrate into their plan of care.

Methods: An integrative literature review was performed using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Health Literature, Ovid Medline, ProQuest and ...


The Effects Of A Mobile Fitness Application On Weight Management And Physical Acticity Amongst University Students, Erica Deenihan May 2019

The Effects Of A Mobile Fitness Application On Weight Management And Physical Acticity Amongst University Students, Erica Deenihan

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

The prevalence of obesity, and obesity related diseases throughout America, specifically in regard to the college student population has steadily climbed over the course of the last forty years, due largely in part to the increase in sedentary lifestyle behaviors, amongst other factors (Swanson, 2016). Physical activity has been widely recognized as a valid means of combatting obesity and weight gain while promoting health related quality of life (Swanson, 2016). Therefore, implementing strategies aimed at increasing physical fitness in attempt to control weight management is imperative to promoting improved health outcomes. The purpose of this evidence-based project was to examine ...


Learning Science: Physical And Life Sciences In Curricula Across U.S. Schools Of Nursing, Valerie C. Sauda May 2019

Learning Science: Physical And Life Sciences In Curricula Across U.S. Schools Of Nursing, Valerie C. Sauda

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nursing educators are being challenged to provide curriculum that meets the changing healthcare environment and demand for creative, innovative nurses to assist in transforming healthcare into the future (Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, & Day, 2010; Institute Of Medicine, 2011). The liberal education provided within a baccalaureate of science in nursing (BSN) degree program provides a diversity of courses within the curriculum, including courses in the natural, physical, mathematical, and social sciences (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2008). Although nursing programs have included science courses in curriculum since the early 1900s (Nutting & Dock, 1907), there is lack of nursing educational research as to ...


Electronic Cigarettes: Addiction And Physiological Effects Within Adolescents And Young Adults, Matthew Pastrana May 2019

Electronic Cigarettes: Addiction And Physiological Effects Within Adolescents And Young Adults, Matthew Pastrana

Honors Theses

In recent years, different organizations such as the American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the World Health Organization (WHO) have released statements and plans regarding the use of, and possible health risks of electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, mods, vape pens, etc. Data released by the National Institute on Drug Abuse stated that teenagers in grades 8-12 are smoking e-cigarettes but have not smoked cigarettes before. In addition, 66% of those teenagers reported that the liquid they are smoking are “just flavoring” (NIH 2016).

According to the ACS, although electronic cigarettes are ...


Space Race, Siri And The Central Dogma: A Contemporary Nursing Analysis Of Antibiotics Resistance, Donovan Lucibello Apr 2019

Space Race, Siri And The Central Dogma: A Contemporary Nursing Analysis Of Antibiotics Resistance, Donovan Lucibello

Nursing Undergraduate Theses

In the age of information, antibiotic resistance is still a black-box problem in clinical practice; pathogens are often defined in terms of which pharmaceuticals are no longer effective, and treatment protocols are prescribed prophylactically; often at strengths that are in excess of what is known about the pathogen’s susceptibilities or even its identity. All antibiotic resistance mechanisms involve the expression of proteins that provide resistance capabilities. These modified proteins should be detectable by analyzing DNA (or RNA intermediates) that code for them in order to determine a pathogen’s threat profile. Next-Generation and nanopore DNA sequencing technologies are capable ...


Breastfeeding And How It Affects Cognitive Development, Kylie Farris, Barbara Mcclaskey Apr 2019

Breastfeeding And How It Affects Cognitive Development, Kylie Farris, Barbara Mcclaskey

Posters

If one was asked “which is better: breastfeeding or formula feeding?” the most common answer would be “breastfeeding.” This would be the answer 9 times out of 10. It is a known fact by a wide range of people, that in general, breastfeeding is the better option. Infants who are breastfed exclusively in the first six months of life tend to have better overall health outcomes than children that are fed only iron-fortified formula or a combination of the two. Therefore, it is likely that breastfeeding will indeed also improve cognitive developmental outcomes. That is the purpose of this study ...


The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks Mar 2019

The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks

Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between distress and the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the presence of established risk factors. Distress secondary to mental health disparities, stressful life events, and work conditions has been shown to promote insulin resistance and the development of T2DM.

Subjects (N=79) diagnosed with T2DM within the previous six months were recruited from SSM Health Centers and VA Medical Centers in the greater St. Louis area. They completed the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire, ENRICHD Social Support Instrument, and a demographic survey and analyses were conducted to determine differences between the veteran and ...


Improving Access To Clean Water Through Service Learning, Rachel E. Gehr, Tolu Odimayomi, Carolina Tornesi Mackinnon Mar 2019

Improving Access To Clean Water Through Service Learning, Rachel E. Gehr, Tolu Odimayomi, Carolina Tornesi Mackinnon

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Connecting Through Listening & Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Multistate Hepatitis A Outbreak: Vaccination Of Food Service Workers As Part Of The Kentucky Outbreak Response, Ruth M. Carrico, Dawn Balcom, Delanor Mason, Audria G. Denker, Alyson Holland, Kimberley A. Buckner, Stephen P. Furmanek, Wesley Trail Mar 2019

Multistate Hepatitis A Outbreak: Vaccination Of Food Service Workers As Part Of The Kentucky Outbreak Response, Ruth M. Carrico, Dawn Balcom, Delanor Mason, Audria G. Denker, Alyson Holland, Kimberley A. Buckner, Stephen P. Furmanek, Wesley Trail

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Background: In August 2017, a local outbreak of Hepatitis A was identified among homeless individuals in Louisville, Kentucky. This marked the first cases in what has now become recognized as the largest Hepatitis A outbreak in the US. When infection was identified in a Food Service Worker (FSW), vaccination efforts were expanded to target this group.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe: 1) the processes used to provide access to Hepatitis A vaccine for FSWs, 2) results from the immunization activities, and 3) lessons learned from the outcomes.

Methods: Through a partnership between the Louisville Metro Department ...


Volume 11, Jacob Carney, Ryan White, Joseph Hyman, Jenny Raven, Megan Garrett, Ibrahim Kante, Summer Meinhard, Lauren Johnson, William "Editha" Dean Howells, Laura Gottschalk, Christopher Siefke, Pink Powell, Natasha Woodmancy, Katharine Colley, Abbey Mays, Charlotte Potts Jan 2019

Volume 11, Jacob Carney, Ryan White, Joseph Hyman, Jenny Raven, Megan Garrett, Ibrahim Kante, Summer Meinhard, Lauren Johnson, William "Editha" Dean Howells, Laura Gottschalk, Christopher Siefke, Pink Powell, Natasha Woodmancy, Katharine Colley, Abbey Mays, Charlotte Potts

Incite: The Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Table of Contents:

Introduction, Dr. Roger A. Byrne, Dean

From the Editor, Dr. Larissa "Kat" Tracy

From the Designers, Rachel English, Rachel Hanson

Synthesis of 3,5-substituted Parabens and their Antimicrobial Properties, Jacob Coarney, Ryan White

Chernobyl: Putting "Perestroika" and "Glasnot" to the Test, Joseph Hyman

Art by Jenny Raven

Watering Down Accessibility: The Issue with Public Access to Alaska's Federal Waterways, Meagan Garrett

Why Has the Democratic Republic of the Congo outsourced its Responsibility to Educate its Citizens? Ibrahim Kante

Art by Summer Meinhard

A Computational Study of Single Molecule Diodes, Lauren Johnson

Satire of the State through ...


Nurse Practitioner Attitudes, Perceptions And Knowledge About Antimicrobial Stewardship, Evelyn C. Fabian Jan 2019

Nurse Practitioner Attitudes, Perceptions And Knowledge About Antimicrobial Stewardship, Evelyn C. Fabian

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically in the United States, with serious associated medical, social, and economic consequences. The purpose of this project was to assess nurse practitioners' attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship and knowledge in the management of anaerobic infections as well as resistant gram-negative bacteremia. Data were collected using a web-based survey in a hospital facility. The practice question explored whether nurse practitioners' attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship significantly increased after an education program on antimicrobial stewardship. The project was framed by Knowles's adult learning theory. A 16-item survey was administered before and ...


Evidence-Based Practice Self-Study Education Program For Staff Nurses On Genomics, Nancy L. Norman-Marzella Jan 2019

Evidence-Based Practice Self-Study Education Program For Staff Nurses On Genomics, Nancy L. Norman-Marzella

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Nurses routinely obtain genomic data when collecting family health histories. However, they report low confidence in their knowledge and understanding of genomics and the genetically engineered medications prescribed for their patients. The purpose of this project was the development and implementation of an evidence-based online education program about genetics and genomics to increase the nurses' understanding and ability to provide competent care for their patients receiving treatments based on the science of genomics. Knowles's principles of adult learning theory guided the development and delivery of the online education project to 12 medical-surgical registered nurses employed in a hospital in ...


Autologous Skin Cell Spray-Transplantation As An Innovative Alternative To Autologous Split- Thickness Skin Grafts For Deep Partial Thickness Burn Wounds: An Integrative Literature Review, Alexandria M. Beaudet Jan 2019

Autologous Skin Cell Spray-Transplantation As An Innovative Alternative To Autologous Split- Thickness Skin Grafts For Deep Partial Thickness Burn Wounds: An Integrative Literature Review, Alexandria M. Beaudet

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Burn wounds tend to be a critical problem with a complicated healing process. Although advancements have been made and the treatment of burn wounds has improved significantly, the healing process for deep-partial thickness burn wounds remains problematic. The purpose of this thesis is to review the available literature on an innovate biotechnology, autologous skin cell-spray transplantation, to more effectively treat burn wounds and potentially other injuries in the future. This study was conducted by critically researching and comparing (N=7) peer-reviewed research articles focusing not only on burn wounds using traditional treatments, but also the treatment of burn wounds using ...


Effects Of A Plant-Based Vegan Diet On The Risk Of Cancer: An Integrative Review Of The Literature, Chelsie M. Silavent Jan 2019

Effects Of A Plant-Based Vegan Diet On The Risk Of Cancer: An Integrative Review Of The Literature, Chelsie M. Silavent

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Cancer, an aggressive chronic disease, impacts the lives of millions of people every day. There are numerous proposed triggers related to the diagnosis and much remains to be learned about the causes. Associated with this disease's variability is the challenge to identify a single causative agent that lead to its prevention. Specific topics that need additional evidence relate to environmental factors and lifestyle behaviors in the development, treatment and, in some instances, even suppression of disease progression. Specifically, a diet that excludes animal-based products but consists of a variety of fruits and vegetables (i.e., plant-based vegan diet) is ...


Nutritional Intake And Weight Gain In Infants With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Literature Review, Kailey A. Kubisch Jan 2019

Nutritional Intake And Weight Gain In Infants With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Literature Review, Kailey A. Kubisch

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in infants presents unique challenges in feeding and weight gain. The unpredictable clinical manifestations associated with the newborns withdrawal from exposure to drugs in utero can lead to costly delays in transition of the infant out of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).The purpose of this review of literature was to explore feeding positions and nutritional intake with the greatest impact on weight gain in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) following delivery. The secondary purpose was to compare the clinical manifestations of infants with NAS that influence nutritional intake and their relationship to length ...


Undergraduate Bulletin, 2019-2020, Minnesota State University Moorhead Dec 2018

Undergraduate Bulletin, 2019-2020, Minnesota State University Moorhead

Undergraduate Bulletins (Catalogs)

No abstract provided.


Early Oral Feeding After Bowel Resection, Jennifer Strang Dec 2018

Early Oral Feeding After Bowel Resection, Jennifer Strang

Theses & Dissertations

Research Focus: The primary purpose of this project was to determine if there was an association of factors with time to first solid meal in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery patients and the impact solid diet has on length of stay (LOS) in the hospital, GI symptoms, and incidence of post-operative ileus (POI). A secondary purpose was to observe and describe when an oral diet was started and the progression of diet after GI surgery.

Research Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective chart review of a convenience sample in a multi-centered hospital system conducted in 84 GI resection patients who were ...


Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman Nov 2018

Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...


Micronutrient Deficiency Independently Predicts Time To Event In Patients With Heart Failure, Terry A. Lennie, Christina Andreae, Mary Kay Rayens, Eun Kyeung Song, Sandra B. Dunbar, Susan J. Pressler, Seongkum Heo, Jinshil Kim, Debra K. Moser Sep 2018

Micronutrient Deficiency Independently Predicts Time To Event In Patients With Heart Failure, Terry A. Lennie, Christina Andreae, Mary Kay Rayens, Eun Kyeung Song, Sandra B. Dunbar, Susan J. Pressler, Seongkum Heo, Jinshil Kim, Debra K. Moser

Nursing Faculty Publications

Background—Dietary micronutrient deficiencies have been shown to predict event‐free survival in other countries but have not been examined in patients with heart failure living in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine whether number of dietary micronutrient deficiencies in patients with heart failure was associated with shorter event‐free survival, defined as a combined end point of all‐cause hospitalization and death.

Methods and Results—Four‐day food diaries were collected from 246 patients with heart failure (age: 61.5±12 years; 67% male; 73% white; 45% New York Heart Association [NYHA] class III ...


Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar Aug 2018

Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), develops gradually, and tends to be noticed by farmers only after there has been a significant loss of lung function. People with symptoms of COPD often present for health care in later stages of disease, because they accept cough or breathlessness as “normal”.

Measurement of lung health for those at risk of developing COPD provides an opportunity for early detection of lung disease, and deter the progression toward irreversible damage to the lungs. COPD is, however, under-diagnosed.

The importance of bringing primary care providers and farmers together, and acknowledging the high-risk nature of occupational exposures ...


Promoting Adherence To Best Practice Related To Urine Reflex To Culture Testing, Maykel Verdecia Alonso Ba,Rn-Cphn Aug 2018

Promoting Adherence To Best Practice Related To Urine Reflex To Culture Testing, Maykel Verdecia Alonso Ba,Rn-Cphn

Nursing and Health Professions Faculty Research and Publications

Over a two week period, the infection control nurse, from a trauma designated facility located in norther California, planned a practice improvement project in collaboration with the laboratory microsystem to educate referring physicians and increase adherence to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) protocol, which delineates recommended best practices related to urine reflex to culture testing. Urinalysis (UA) is a test that triggers a reflex urine culture when pyuria is present. Frequent urine culturing without the presence of pyuria can cause unnecessary treatment with antimicrobials. From January 2017 to December 2017, 10% of UAs from 200 urine samples from asymptomatic ...


Fat And Caloric Content Of Breast Milk Of Mothers Of Premature Infants: Comparison Of High Vs. Low Volume Producers And The Impact Of Volume In Single Pumping Sessions And The Interval Between Pumping Sessions, Barbara Haase May 2018

Fat And Caloric Content Of Breast Milk Of Mothers Of Premature Infants: Comparison Of High Vs. Low Volume Producers And The Impact Of Volume In Single Pumping Sessions And The Interval Between Pumping Sessions, Barbara Haase

Theses and Dissertations

Premature birth affects 8-18% of all infants worldwide and is the leading cause of death in children less than the age of 5 years. The premature birth rate has been on the rise between 2014-2016 in the United States and 1 in 10 infants are born prematurely. Infants who are born prematurely are at considerable risk of serious infections, visual impairments and neurodevelopmental problems. Human milk, specifically mother’s own milk (MoM), is associated with decreased rates of necrotizing enterocolitis, pneumonia, chronic lung disease and late onset sepsis. MoM is also associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants.

Although ...


Medical Device Alarm Systems: A Multi-Hospital Study Of Alarm-Related Events, Caregiver Alarm Response, And Their Contributing Factors, Colleen K. Lindell May 2018

Medical Device Alarm Systems: A Multi-Hospital Study Of Alarm-Related Events, Caregiver Alarm Response, And Their Contributing Factors, Colleen K. Lindell

Theses and Dissertations

Medical device alarm systems are expected to improve patient care by alerting clinicians about conditions that require attention. However, due to a variety of circumstances, including inadequate training, muting alarms, alarm fatigue, and staffing shortages, the effectiveness of alarm systems may be questionable. This research looked at the appropriateness of time- to-respond (TTR) to alarms, the alarm system configuration, policies and procedures regarding alarms, and the extent of alarm-specific training and education alarms. Using concepts from cognitive systems engineering, organization policy, and organizational learning, a research model was assembled to investigate these relationships.

Quantitative data analysis included an online survey ...


Interventions For Afterschool Programs To Decrease The Likelihood Of Childhood Obesity, Anna R. Boyd, Lauren E. Hendricks, Elexus T. Morton, Kayleigh S. Phillips, Corie Vanarsdale, Msn May 2018

Interventions For Afterschool Programs To Decrease The Likelihood Of Childhood Obesity, Anna R. Boyd, Lauren E. Hendricks, Elexus T. Morton, Kayleigh S. Phillips, Corie Vanarsdale, Msn

Nursing Undergraduate Work

This systematic research review (SRR) looked at the epidemic of childhood obesity and subsequent complications. Afterschool programs (ASPs) were targeted as a key area where children spend many hours each day and, therefore, an ideal place for obesity interventions. The purpose of this SRR was to search the current benefits ASPs can have on decreasing the risk and prevalence of childhood obesity and to answer the research question, "What are nursing interventions within ASPs that decrease the risk of obesity in children in the United States of America?" Childhood obesity influences nurses in many areas, including inpatient hospitals, schools, and ...


A Systematic Review: Infant And Maternal Mortality And Morbidity In Developing Countries, Michayla Evans, Jamie Jeemon, Christiana Strysko, Lauren Toole, Patricia Catts, Rn, Phd May 2018

A Systematic Review: Infant And Maternal Mortality And Morbidity In Developing Countries, Michayla Evans, Jamie Jeemon, Christiana Strysko, Lauren Toole, Patricia Catts, Rn, Phd

Nursing Undergraduate Work

Maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates are high within developing nations. The World Health Organization reports 800 women die daily due to pregnancy and labor complications (Maternal mortality, 2016). These complications are related to a wide variety of perinatal problems including preeclampsia and prolonged labor. Infant morbidity and mortality is related to infections, asphyxia, and low birthweight (Newborns: reducing mortality, 2016). The purpose of this systematic review was to research current literature to answer the question: “What are the nursing interventions to decrease maternal and infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries?”. This systematic research review included a sample ...


Protocol Development In The Or: Lessons Learned, Megan Sims May 2018

Protocol Development In The Or: Lessons Learned, Megan Sims

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

The management of pain in those undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is complex and challenging. There have been advances in the understanding of the physiology of pain and a wide variety of treatment options are now available. Establishing a preventative multi-modal protocol with different types of pain medications that work on a variety of receptors along the pain pathway is imperative. Through an exhaustive literature review, a preventative multi-modal approach was established and introduced at a small hospital in Central Illinois available for all laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients undergoing surgery over a 10 week implementation period. There was only one completed case ...


Efficacy Of Technology-Based And In-Person Health Education For Behavior Change In College-Aged Women, Madeline Bremel May 2018

Efficacy Of Technology-Based And In-Person Health Education For Behavior Change In College-Aged Women, Madeline Bremel

All College Thesis Program, 2016-present

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether an in-person or technology based bone health intervention improved bone health knowledge and behaviors in college-aged women. Methods: 30 college-aged women were randomly divided into three groups: personal intervention (n = 10), technological intervention (n = 10), and control (n = 10). Both intervention groups received identical information regarding the importance of bone health and the appropriate behaviors for maintaining strong bones including weight-bearing exercise, calcium consumption, and vitamin D consumption. The technology group received the information via an online video, and the personal group via a one-on-one health intervention. Changes in bone ...