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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge Sep 2019

Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus gattii R265 is a hyper-virulent fungal strain responsible for the major outbreak of cryptococcosis in Vancouver Island of British Columbia in 1999. It differs significantly from C. neoformans in its natural environment, its preferred site in the mammalian host, and in the nature and mode of pathogenesis. Our previous studies in C. neoformans have shown that the presence of chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, in the cell wall attenuates inflammatory responses in the host, while its absence induces robust immune responses, which in turn facilitate clearance of the fungus and induces a protective response. The results of the ...


Postnatal Zika Virus Infection Of Nonhuman Primate Infants Born To Mothers Infected With Homologous Brazilian Zika Virus, Nicholas J. Maness, Diogo Magnani Sep 2019

Postnatal Zika Virus Infection Of Nonhuman Primate Infants Born To Mothers Infected With Homologous Brazilian Zika Virus, Nicholas J. Maness, Diogo Magnani

Open Access Articles

Recent data in a nonhuman primate model showed that infants postnatally infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) were acutely susceptible to high viremia and neurological damage, suggesting the window of vulnerability extends beyond gestation. In this pilot study, we addressed the susceptibility of two infant rhesus macaques born healthy to dams infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. Passively acquired neutralizing antibody titers dropped below detection limits between 2 and 3 months of age, while binding antibodies remained detectable until viral infection at 5 months. Acute serum viremia was comparatively lower than adults infected with the same Brazilian isolate of ZIKV (n ...


Tungsten Is Essential For Long-Term Maintenance Of Members Of Candidate Archaeal Genus Aigarchaeota Group 4, Joshua Robert Reyes Dimapilis Sep 2019

Tungsten Is Essential For Long-Term Maintenance Of Members Of Candidate Archaeal Genus Aigarchaeota Group 4, Joshua Robert Reyes Dimapilis

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Aigarchaeota, a deeply branching archaeal lineage with no cultivated representatives, is found in geothermal and hydrothermal systems worldwide and consists of at least 9 genus-level groups, each predicted to have diverse metabolic capabilities. This candidate archaeal phylum is part of the TACK superphylum, members of which possess eukaryotic-signature proteins, thus suggesting that they may represent evolutionary steps along the way to the genesis of the first eukaryotic cells. Cultivating members of Aigarchaeota would elucidate how eukaryotes arose in evolutionary history and provide biotechnological applications. Aigarchaeota Group 4 (AigG4), one genus in Aigarchaeota, was previously found to be abundant in corn ...


Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado Sep 2019

Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phylum with no representatives in pure culture, is found in various anaerobic environments worldwide. “Caldatribacterium”, a lineage within Atribacteria that is predicted to be a strictly anaerobic sugar fermenter based on cultivation-independent genomic analyses, is currently being maintained in lab enrichment cultures with fucose as its sole growth substrate. Metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing indicated that the fucose culture was a co-culture of “Caldatribacterium” and an uncultivated member of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium. Due to failed attempts to isolate “Caldatribacterium” by dilution-to-extinction and plating, it was hypothesized that “Caldatribacterium” is dependent in some way on the ...


Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier Sep 2019

Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

‘Aigarchaeota’, a deeply branching lineage in the domain Archaea with no cultivated representatives, includes both thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms that reside in terrestrial and marine geothermal environments. The ‘Aigarchaeota’ consists of at least nine proposed genus-level groups that have been confirmed via 16S rRNA sequencing, with ‘Aigarchaeota’ Group 1 (AigG1) being the focus of this study. Based on cultivation-independent genomic data available from several AigG1 members in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, and Yellowstone National Park, 22 different types of growth media were designed and tested for their ability to support growth of AigG1. One of these cultures, G1-10, was ...


Intrinsic Challenges In Ancient Microbiome Reconstruction Using 16s Rrna Gene Amplification, Kirsten Ziesemer, Allison Mann, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Bernd W. Brandt, Egija Zaura, Andrea Waters-Rist, Menno Hoogland, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Mark Aldenderfer, Camilla Speller, Jessica Hendy, Darlene A. Weston, Sandy J. Macdonald, Gavin H. Thomas, Matthew J. Collins, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Corinne Hofman, Christina Warinner Aug 2019

Intrinsic Challenges In Ancient Microbiome Reconstruction Using 16s Rrna Gene Amplification, Kirsten Ziesemer, Allison Mann, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Bernd W. Brandt, Egija Zaura, Andrea Waters-Rist, Menno Hoogland, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Mark Aldenderfer, Camilla Speller, Jessica Hendy, Darlene A. Weston, Sandy J. Macdonald, Gavin H. Thomas, Matthew J. Collins, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Corinne Hofman, Christina Warinner

Andrew Ozga

To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli341–534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon ...


Differential Preservation Of Endogenous Human And Microbial Dna In Dental Calculus And Dentin, Allison E. Mann, Susanna Sabin, Kirsten Ziesemer, Ashild J. Vagene, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, James A. Fellows Yates, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Bruno Frohlich, Mark Aldenderfer, Menno Hoogland, Christopher Read, George R. Milner, Anne C. Stone, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Johannes Krause, Corinne Hofman, Kirsten I. Bos, Christina Warinner Aug 2019

Differential Preservation Of Endogenous Human And Microbial Dna In Dental Calculus And Dentin, Allison E. Mann, Susanna Sabin, Kirsten Ziesemer, Ashild J. Vagene, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, James A. Fellows Yates, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Bruno Frohlich, Mark Aldenderfer, Menno Hoogland, Christopher Read, George R. Milner, Anne C. Stone, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Johannes Krause, Corinne Hofman, Kirsten I. Bos, Christina Warinner

Andrew Ozga

Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is prevalent in archaeological skeletal collections and is a rich source of oral microbiome and host-derived ancient biomolecules. Recently, it has been proposed that dental calculus may provide a more robust environment for DNA preservation than other skeletal remains, but this has not been systematically tested. In this study, shotgun-sequenced data from paired dental calculus and dentin samples from 48 globally distributed individuals are compared using a metagenomic approach. Overall, we find DNA from dental calculus is consistently more abundant and less contaminated than DNA from dentin. The majority of DNA in dental calculus is ...


The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge Aug 2019

The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immune-compromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease, therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall, is required for survival in the mammalian host, and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis.


Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault Aug 2019

Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida yeasts are common commensals that can cause mucosal disease and life-threatening systemic infections. While many of the components required for defense against Candida albicans infection are well established, questions remain about how various host cells at mucosal sites assess threats and coordinate defenses to prevent normally commensal organisms from becoming pathogenic. Using two Candida species, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, which differ in their abilities to damage epithelial tissues, we used traditional methods (pathogen CFU, host survival, and host cytokine expression) combined with high-resolution intravital imaging of transparent zebrafish larvae to illuminate host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level in ...


Are Microclimate Conditions In El Malpais National Monument Caves In New Mexico, Usa Suitable For Pseudogymnoascus Growth?, Terry J. Torres-Cruz, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Nicole A. Caimi, Ogochukwu Nwabologu, Edward W. Strach, Kaitlyn J.H. Read, Jesse M. Young, Debbie C. Buecher, Diana E. Northup Aug 2019

Are Microclimate Conditions In El Malpais National Monument Caves In New Mexico, Usa Suitable For Pseudogymnoascus Growth?, Terry J. Torres-Cruz, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Nicole A. Caimi, Ogochukwu Nwabologu, Edward W. Strach, Kaitlyn J.H. Read, Jesse M. Young, Debbie C. Buecher, Diana E. Northup

International Journal of Speleology

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a bat disease caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which thrives in cold and very humid environments where bats frequently hibernate. Conidia of Pseudogymnoascus species are often documented on bats prior to the onset of WNS, but characterization of high-risk areas defined by microclimate cave conditions have been lacking. Investigating the occurrence of this fungal genus and appropriate environmental conditions to support P. destructans in southwestern U.S. caves is key to understanding the sites most likely to be impacted by WNS. Microclimate conditions in ten caves at El Malpais (ELMA) National Monument in New ...


Secretory Iga Enhances Gut B Cells Priming And Systemic Igg Responses Towards Commensals, You Zhou Aug 2019

Secretory Iga Enhances Gut B Cells Priming And Systemic Igg Responses Towards Commensals, You Zhou

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

IgA is the primary antibody response at mucosal surfaces and is reported to inhibit adaptive immune responses against gut bacteria. Here, we utilize an in vitro system to expand and screen IgA memory B cells for their ability to recognize gut bacteria in the context of secretory IgA (sIgA) deficiency in polymeric Ig receptor (Pigr–/–) mice. Contrary to the prevailing hypothesis that IgA provides an immune exclusionary function, we found that mice lacking sIgA showed decreased anti-bacterial IgA specificities as assessed using flow cytometry. IgA B cell responses against certain taxa such as those of order Bacteriodales showed greater dependence ...


Rig-I-Like Receptors Direct Inflammatory Macrophage Polarization Against West Nile Virus Infection., Amy E. L. Stone, Richard Green, Courtney Wilkins, Emily A. Hemann, Michael Gale Jr. Aug 2019

Rig-I-Like Receptors Direct Inflammatory Macrophage Polarization Against West Nile Virus Infection., Amy E. L. Stone, Richard Green, Courtney Wilkins, Emily A. Hemann, Michael Gale Jr.

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLRs) RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2, are vital pathogen recognition receptors in the defense against RNA viruses. West Nile Virus (WNV) infections continue to grow in the US. Here, we use a systems biology approach to define the contributions of each RLR in the innate immune response to WNV. Genome-wide RNAseq and bioinformatics analyses of macrophages from mice lacking either RLR reveal that the RLRs drive distinct immune gene activation and response polarization to mediate an M1/inflammatory signature while suppressing the M2/wound healing phenotype. While LGP2 functions to modulate inflammatory signaling, RIG-I and MDA5 together are essential ...


16s Rrna Analysis And Toxin Gene Presence In Escherichia Coli Isolated From Beach Water And Sand At A Public Beach (Erie County, Ny), Jennifer D. Jackson Aug 2019

16s Rrna Analysis And Toxin Gene Presence In Escherichia Coli Isolated From Beach Water And Sand At A Public Beach (Erie County, Ny), Jennifer D. Jackson

Biology Theses

Every year, thousands of people utilize beaches for recreation, but most are unaware of Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination and the possibility of acquiring an infection. In this study, 173 strains of E. coli were isolated from sand and adjacent waters from a public beach in Erie County, NY and analyzed for genetic relatedness based on sequence differences in the variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Some of the variable regions (V1 and V6) proved useful in constructing phylogenetic trees but the discriminatory power of these regions was inadequate to resolve intraspecies differences. Therefore, whether extant populations of E ...


Properties Of Hiv-1 Env And Human Seminal Fluid That Determine Virus Inhibition By Antibodies And Microbicides, Jacklyn Johnson Aug 2019

Properties Of Hiv-1 Env And Human Seminal Fluid That Determine Virus Inhibition By Antibodies And Microbicides, Jacklyn Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes a persistent infection that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Approximately 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV-1, which is commonly acquired through sexual contact. Antiviral therapies control disease progression, but do not eliminate this virus from the host. Thus, global efforts are focused on developing vaccines that prevent HIV-1 transmission. Such vaccines are based on eliciting the production of protective antibodies that target the envelope glycoproteins (Envs) of this virus. Unfortunately, HIV-1 immunization trials have shown limited efficacy. A better understanding of the antibody-mediated inactivation process is needed to improve vaccine ...


Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari Aug 2019

Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari

Theses and Dissertations

The microbiotas play vital roles in health and diseases of both humans and animals. 16S rRNA genes sequence analysis is one of the most popular and commonly used methods in the analysis of microbiotas associated with hosts. In this dissertation, the microbiotas of chickens (broilers, breeders, and layers) and turkeys were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Characterization of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus in the chicken gut can serve as a valuable resource for probiotic development. In Chapter 2, Lactobacillus subpopulations recovered on MRS from chicken gut were defined comprehensively for the first time using 16S rRNA gene profiling ...


Flavobacterium Gliding Motility: From Protein Secretion To Cell Surface Adhesin Movements, Joseph Johnston Aug 2019

Flavobacterium Gliding Motility: From Protein Secretion To Cell Surface Adhesin Movements, Joseph Johnston

Theses and Dissertations

Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits rapid gliding motility over surfaces. At least twenty genes are involved in this process. Seven of these, gldK, gldL, gldM, gldN, sprA, sprE, and sprT encode proteins of the type IX protein secretion system (T9SS). The T9SS is required for surface localization of the motility adhesins SprB and RemA, and for secretion of the soluble chitinase ChiA. This thesis demonstrates that the gliding motility proteins GldA, GldB, GldD, GldF, GldH, GldI and GldJ are also essential for secretion. Cells with mutations in the genes encoding any of these seven proteins had normal levels of gldK mRNA but ...


Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez Jul 2019

Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez

Abigail Benitez, PhD

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis are B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases that afflict millions of people worldwide. B cell-targeted therapies for these diseases result in variable clinical outcomes. Thus, a need exists to better understand the dynamics of human B cell production and function. The mouse model has provided a foundation for understanding the mechanisms involved in human B cell development and autoimmune disease. However, differences in mouse and human B cells are not fully understood. Our work shows that the co-expression of CD21 and CD24, determined by 7-color flow cytometry, can be used to demarcate developmental subsets of B ...


Common Variants In The Glycerol Kinase Gene Reduce Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy, Michelle M. Bellerose, Seung-Hun Baek, Chuan-Chin Huang, Caitlin E. Moss, Eun-Ik Koh, Megan K. Proulx, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Jong Seok Lee, Seokyong Eum, Sung Jae Shin, Sang-Nae Cho, Megan Murray, Christopher M. Sassetti Jul 2019

Common Variants In The Glycerol Kinase Gene Reduce Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy, Michelle M. Bellerose, Seung-Hun Baek, Chuan-Chin Huang, Caitlin E. Moss, Eun-Ik Koh, Megan K. Proulx, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Jong Seok Lee, Seokyong Eum, Sung Jae Shin, Sang-Nae Cho, Megan Murray, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Despite the administration of multiple drugs that are highly effective in vitro, tuberculosis (TB) treatment requires prolonged drug administration and is confounded by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. To understand the mechanisms that limit antibiotic efficacy, we performed a comprehensive genetic study to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes that alter the rate of bacterial clearance in drug-treated mice. Several functionally distinct bacterial genes were found to alter bacterial clearance, and prominent among these was the glpK gene that encodes the glycerol-3-kinase enzyme that is necessary for glycerol catabolism. Growth on glycerol generally increased the sensitivity of M. tuberculosis to antibiotics in ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker Jul 2019

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Teaching In A Competitive Science-Focused High School, Crystal Randall Jul 2019

Teaching In A Competitive Science-Focused High School, Crystal Randall

Faculty Publications & Research

• What is IMSA?
What students do we serve, our role in the school system
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Responsibilities, course load, students, teaching philosophies, resources
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Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman Jul 2019

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Flow Cytometric Analysis Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria: A Case Study, Tin-Chun Chu, Ruchit Patel, Aline De Oliveira, Robert Newby Jr Jul 2019

Flow Cytometric Analysis Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria: A Case Study, Tin-Chun Chu, Ruchit Patel, Aline De Oliveira, Robert Newby Jr

Tinchun Chu, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


A Method For Improving The Accuracy And Efficiency Of Bacteriophage Genome Annotation, Alicia Salisbury, Philippos K. Tsourkas Jul 2019

A Method For Improving The Accuracy And Efficiency Of Bacteriophage Genome Annotation, Alicia Salisbury, Philippos K. Tsourkas

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Bacteriophages are the most numerous entities on Earth. The number of sequenced phage genomes is approximately 8000 and increasing rapidly. Sequencing of a genome is followed by annotation, where genes, start codons, and functions are putatively identified. The mainstays of phage genome annotation are auto-annotation programs such as Glimmer and GeneMark. Due to the relatively small size of phage genomes, many groups choose to manually curate auto-annotation results to increase accuracy. An additional benefit of manual curation of auto-annotated phage genomes is that the process is amenable to be performed by students, and has been shown to improve student recruitment ...


Intratypic Genetic Variability Of Human Adenovirus Type 4: Implication For Viral Pathogenesis, Camden Roy Bair Jul 2019

Intratypic Genetic Variability Of Human Adenovirus Type 4: Implication For Viral Pathogenesis, Camden Roy Bair

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-E4) is a causative agent of acute respiratory disease and conjunctivitis worldwide. Two major lineages of HAdV-E4 genomic variants have been identified by their distinct BamHI restriction profiles: prototype-like (p-like) strains and the a-like genomic variants. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have shown a predominance of a-like genomic variants detected in association with disease which suggests a-like strains have a fitness advantage or they may be more pathogenic. The impact of HAdV-E4 intratypic genetic variability on in vitro and in vivo phenotypes relevant to pathogenesis is a major gap in knowledge. I hypothesize that HAdV-E4 comprises two ...


Position-Specific Metabolic Probing And Metagenomics Of Microbial Communities Reveal Conserved Central Carbon Metabolic Network Activities At High Temperatures, Scott C. Thomas, Kevin O. Tamadonfar, Cale O. Seymour, Dengxun Lai, Jeremy A. Dodsworth, Senthil K. Murugapiran, Emiley A. Eloe-Fadrosh, Paul Dijkstra, Brian P. Hedlund Jul 2019

Position-Specific Metabolic Probing And Metagenomics Of Microbial Communities Reveal Conserved Central Carbon Metabolic Network Activities At High Temperatures, Scott C. Thomas, Kevin O. Tamadonfar, Cale O. Seymour, Dengxun Lai, Jeremy A. Dodsworth, Senthil K. Murugapiran, Emiley A. Eloe-Fadrosh, Paul Dijkstra, Brian P. Hedlund

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Temperature is a primary driver of microbial community composition and taxonomic diversity; however, it is unclear to what extent temperature affects characteristics of central carbon metabolic pathways (CCMPs) at the community level. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenome sequencing were combined with 13C-labeled metabolite probing of the CCMPs to assess community carbon metabolism along a temperature gradient (60–95°C) in Great Boiling Spring, NV. 16S rRNA gene amplicon diversity was inversely proportional to temperature, and Archaea were dominant at higher temperatures. KO richness and diversity were also inversely proportional to temperature, yet CCMP genes were similarly ...


Persistent Inflammation During Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment With Diabetes Comorbidity, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Thabata Alves, Paulo S. Silveira-Mattos, Michael S. Rocha, Kim West, Mohan Natarajan, Vijay Viswanathan, Subash Babu, Bruno B. Andrade, Hardy Kornfeld Jul 2019

Persistent Inflammation During Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment With Diabetes Comorbidity, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Thabata Alves, Paulo S. Silveira-Mattos, Michael S. Rocha, Kim West, Mohan Natarajan, Vijay Viswanathan, Subash Babu, Bruno B. Andrade, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Articles

Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and adverse treatment outcomes. Systemic hyper-inflammation is characteristic in people with TB and concurrent DM (TBDM) at baseline, but the impact of TB treatment on this pattern has not been determined. We measured 17 plasma cytokines and growth factors in longitudinal cohorts of Indian and Brazilian pulmonary TB patients with or without DM. Principal component analysis revealed virtually complete separation of TBDM from TB individuals in both cohorts at baseline, with hyper-inflammation in TBDM that continued through treatment completion at six months. By one year after treatment completion, there was substantial ...


Excellence By Simplicity: Life And Contributions Of Professor Ramesh Maheshwari (1940-2019), Keyur Adhvaryu Jul 2019

Excellence By Simplicity: Life And Contributions Of Professor Ramesh Maheshwari (1940-2019), Keyur Adhvaryu

Fungal Genetics Reports

Professor Ramesh Maheshwari passed in Bangalore on 30 March 2019. His work generated fundamental understanding in diverse areas of fungal biology including the germination and infection of plants by rust fungi, the life-cycle of Neurospora in its natural habitat; fungal senescence and heterokaryosis, and the production of microconidia in fungi. He was a member of many professional societies including the American Society of Plant Physiologists, Society of Microbiologists of India, and the Indian Phytopathological Society, and he served on the Editorial Board for Journal of Genetics. He nurtured scientific curiosity in his students and colleagues.


Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew Jul 2019

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


Mtorc2/Akt Activation In Adipocytes Is Required For Adipose Tissue Inflammation In Tuberculosis, Nuria Martinez, Catherine Y. Cheng, Natkunam Ketheesan, Aidan Cullen, Yuefeng Tang, Josephine Lum, Kim West, Michael Poidinger, David A. Guertin, Amit Singhal, Hardy Kornfeld Jul 2019

Mtorc2/Akt Activation In Adipocytes Is Required For Adipose Tissue Inflammation In Tuberculosis, Nuria Martinez, Catherine Y. Cheng, Natkunam Ketheesan, Aidan Cullen, Yuefeng Tang, Josephine Lum, Kim West, Michael Poidinger, David A. Guertin, Amit Singhal, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis has co-evolved with the human host, adapting to exploit the immune system for persistence and transmission. While immunity to tuberculosis (TB) has been intensively studied in the lung and lymphoid system, little is known about the participation of adipose tissues and non-immune cells in the host-pathogen interaction during this systemic disease.

METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were aerosol infected with M. tuberculosis Erdman and presence of the bacteria and the fitness of the white and brown adipose tissues, liver and skeletal muscle were studied compared to uninfected mice.

FINDINGS: M. tuberculosis infection in mice stimulated immune cell infiltration ...