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Microbiology

Biofilm

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cyanobacterial And Algal Abundance And Biomass In Cave Biofilms And Relation To Environmental And Biofilm Parameters, Slađana Popović, Nataša Nikolić, Jelena Jovanović, Dragana Predojević, Ivana Trbojević, Ljiljana Manić, Gordana Subakov Simić Feb 2019

Cyanobacterial And Algal Abundance And Biomass In Cave Biofilms And Relation To Environmental And Biofilm Parameters, Slađana Popović, Nataša Nikolić, Jelena Jovanović, Dragana Predojević, Ivana Trbojević, Ljiljana Manić, Gordana Subakov Simić

International Journal of Speleology

Due to life in extreme environments, cyanobacteria and algae from cave biofilms that form at the entrances or deep inside the cave around artificial lights are of increasing interest to many scientists. It is well-known that many phototrophic microorganisms are first to colonize exposed substrata and produce the organic matter on which other biofilm constituents relly. Many studies dealing with phototrophic microorganisms from biofilms focus on the diversity and community composition of cyanobacteria and algae, while quantitative assessments are rarely implemented. Biofilm sampling was conducted in Degurić and Vernjikica Cave located in Western and Eastern Serbia, respectively. Ecological parameters (temperature ...


Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi Dec 2018

Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms associated by a matrix of extracellular polymers. In this state, microorganisms occupy an ecological niche distinct from their free-floating, planktonic counterparts. Also, biofilm bacteria become biologically unique as they form communities and lose motility. The acquisition of these physiological attributes enables the biofilm to persist through harsh environmental conditions, including antimicrobial induced stress and to resist sanitization efforts. Because of these features, biofilms can rapidly disseminate across numerous surfaces and as they establish, become challenging to remove. This is a particular issue for the food industry as processing plants offer favorable conditions for biofilm formation ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Targeted Bar Encapsulated Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Ranjith Radha Krishnan Dec 2018

Synthesis And Characterization Of Targeted Bar Encapsulated Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Ranjith Radha Krishnan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Between 30-50% of the global adult population suffers from periodontal disease. Some form of periodontitis is present in 46% of American adults, corresponding to annual expenditures in excess of 14 billion dollars for treatment and prevention. Current treatments for periodontal diseases involve mechanical removal of plaque, correction of risk factors, gingival surgery and/or antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge there is no effective therapeutic approach that aims to limit pathogen colonization of the oral biofilm or re-colonization after treatment. Interaction of the pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis with oral streptococci is ...


Biofilm Producing Clinical Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Augmented Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Cases In Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Nepal, Sarita Manandhar, Anjana Singh, Ajit Varma, Shanti Pandey, Neeraj Shrivastava Nov 2018

Biofilm Producing Clinical Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Augmented Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Cases In Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Nepal, Sarita Manandhar, Anjana Singh, Ajit Varma, Shanti Pandey, Neeraj Shrivastava

Student Publications

Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious human pathogen, is a major cause of the community as well as healthcare associated infections. It can cause a diversity of recalcitrant infections mainly due to the acquisition of resistance to multiple drugs, its diverse range of virulence factors, and the ability to produce biofilm in indwelling medical devices. Such biofilm associated chronic infections often lead to increase in morbidity and mortality posing a high socio-economic burden, especially in developing countries. Since biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance function dependent on each other, detection of biofilm expression in clinical isolates would be advantageous in treatment decision. In ...


Evaluation Of Methods To Detect In Vitro Biofilm Formation By Staphylococcal Clinical Isolates, Sarita Manandhar, Anjana Singh, Ajit Varma, Shanti Pandey, Neeraj Shrivastava Oct 2018

Evaluation Of Methods To Detect In Vitro Biofilm Formation By Staphylococcal Clinical Isolates, Sarita Manandhar, Anjana Singh, Ajit Varma, Shanti Pandey, Neeraj Shrivastava

Student Publications

Staphylococcus genus comprising both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are widely distributed in nature and can infect diversity of hosts. Indeed, staphylococci are the major pathogens causing biofilm associated infections caused by contaminated hospital indwelling devices. These infections are persistent in nature being highly refractory to various stresses including antibiotics. Implementation of efficient diagnostic techniques for the biofilm production would help minimize the disease burden. Thus, early detection of pathogenic strains producing biofilms warrant the utmost importance in diagnostic laboratories especially in resource limited settings.


Sulfur Cave (Romania), An Extreme Environment With Microbial Mats In A Co2-H2S/O2 Gas Chemocline Dominated By Mycobacteria, Serban M. Sarbu, Joost W. Aerts, Jean-François Flot, Rob J.M. Van Spanning, Calin Baciu, Artur Ionescu, Boglárka M. Kis, Reka Incze, Sándor Sikó-Barabási, Zoltan Para, Botond Hegyeli, Nicu-Viorel Atudorei, Casey Barr, Kenneth Nealson, Ferenc L. Forray, Cristian Lascu, Emily J. Fleming, Wilbert Bitter, Radu Popa May 2018

Sulfur Cave (Romania), An Extreme Environment With Microbial Mats In A Co2-H2S/O2 Gas Chemocline Dominated By Mycobacteria, Serban M. Sarbu, Joost W. Aerts, Jean-François Flot, Rob J.M. Van Spanning, Calin Baciu, Artur Ionescu, Boglárka M. Kis, Reka Incze, Sándor Sikó-Barabási, Zoltan Para, Botond Hegyeli, Nicu-Viorel Atudorei, Casey Barr, Kenneth Nealson, Ferenc L. Forray, Cristian Lascu, Emily J. Fleming, Wilbert Bitter, Radu Popa

International Journal of Speleology

Sulfur Cave (Puturosu Mountain, Romania) is an extreme environment, unique for displaying life in a gas chemocline. The lower part of the cave is filled with CO2, CH4, and H2S of mofettic origin, while the upper part contains air that floats above the heavier volcanic gasses. S° and H2SO4 (from sulfur-oxidation) cover the cave wall at and below the CO2-H2S:O2 gas/gas interface. On the cave wall, near the interface the pH is < 1 and unusual microbial biofilms occur on the rock’s surface. We provide context information on the geology, mineralogy, chemistry and biology to better understand this unique environment. We have used X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with EDAX capabilities, stable isotope analysis and 16S and 18S rDNA amplicon sequencing. The most common taxa in the microbial biofilms are Mycobacteria, Acidithiobacillus and Ferroplasmaceae. Liquid water in this system originates solely from condensation of water ...


Hospital And Meat Associated Staphylococcus Aureus And Their Biofilm Characteristics, Trevor Michael Wienclaw Apr 2018

Hospital And Meat Associated Staphylococcus Aureus And Their Biofilm Characteristics, Trevor Michael Wienclaw

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilm phenotypes were studied in 32 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from store-bought meats and 22 from diseased patients in hospitals. Of the meat-associated strains, 21 were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 11 were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The hospital-associated strains included 15 MRSAs and 7 MSSAs. We studied the robustness and composition of the biofilms produced by these strains. We found that on average hospital-associated strains form more robust biofilms than meat associated strains. The model often used to describe S. aureus biofilm composition includes two biofilm types defined by the presence or absence of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), PIA-dependent ...


Relationships Between Factors Influencing Biofilm Formation And Pathogen Retention In Complex Rhizosphere Microbial Communities, Aaron Coristine Jan 2018

Relationships Between Factors Influencing Biofilm Formation And Pathogen Retention In Complex Rhizosphere Microbial Communities, Aaron Coristine

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Riparian wetlands are unique habitats facilitating all forms of life. The riverbanks of these environments provide ideal conditions for bacteria, plants, and higher organisms. Of particular interest to this research was the variation in microbial community structure at high, intermediate and poor water quality impacted areas. Assessing the capabilities of plants to retain microbial pathogens was identified. Root systems and corresponding soil are ideal locations for bacterial deposition, resulting in attachment at these areas. Biofilm production in these regions is important for long-term establishment, leading to persistence and potential naturalization. Opportunistic pathogens originating from mammalian fecal matter are introduced into ...


Role Of Viruses Within Metaorganisms: Ciona Intestinalis As A Model System, Brittany A. Leigh Sep 2017

Role Of Viruses Within Metaorganisms: Ciona Intestinalis As A Model System, Brittany A. Leigh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Marine animals live and thrive in a literal sea of microorganisms, yet are often able to maintain specific associations that are largely dictated by the environment, host immunity and microbial interactions. Animal-associated microbiomes include bacteria and viruses that vastly outnumber host cells, especially in the gut environment, and are considered to be integral parts of healthy, functioning animals that act as a metaorganism. However, the processes underlying the initial establishment of these microbial communities are not very well understood. This dissertation focuses on the establishment of a well-known developmental animal model, Ciona intestinalis (sea squirt), to study the establishment and ...


Redirection Of The Immune Response To Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Infection, Anna G. Staudacher Aug 2017

Redirection Of The Immune Response To Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Infection, Anna G. Staudacher

Theses & Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading cause of community- and healthcare-associated infections and has a propensity to form biofilms. Biofilm infections are recalcitrant to host immune-mediated clearance as well as antibiotics, making them exceptionally difficult to eradicate. The biofilm environment has been shown to skew the host immune response towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, characterized by alternatively activated macrophages, recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and minimal neutrophil and T cell infiltrates. Our laboratory has attempted to redirect the host immune response towards one that would favor bacterial clearance by employing strategies to augment pro-inflammatory mechanisms. One such approach was ...


The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers May 2017

The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers

Masters Theses

Antibiotic resistant infections are responsible for approximately 23,000 deaths every year in the United States alone. The formation of bacterial biofilms makes resistant bacteria difficult to eliminate completely using chemical treatment. Therefore, novel antimicrobial compounds such as amphiphiles are essential to slow or stop the spread of resistant bacteria. Several novel series of amphiphiles were synthesized, and discrete aspects of their chemical structure were altered to investigate the relationship between structure and antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were used to measure antibacterial activity against two Gram-negative and five Gram-positive bacteria, and the most effective compounds were tested ...


Determination Of The Effects That A Previously Uncharacterized Secreted Product From Klebsiella Pneumoniae Has On Citrobacter Freundii And Enterobacter Cloacae Biofilms, Cody M. Hastings May 2017

Determination Of The Effects That A Previously Uncharacterized Secreted Product From Klebsiella Pneumoniae Has On Citrobacter Freundii And Enterobacter Cloacae Biofilms, Cody M. Hastings

Undergraduate Honors Theses

More so than ever, Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria are on the rise due to overuse of antibiotics along with natural selection for adaptations that enhance drug-resistant properties. One particular bacterial family, Enterobacteriaceae, has been problematic, exhibiting several bacterial members that have developed a precipitous resistance to modern antibiotics and are also primary causative agents of nosocomial, or hospital acquired, infections. Citrobacter freundii (CF) and Enterobacter cloacae (ECL) are two species of the Enterobacteriaceae family causing significant medical concern due to their role in producing numerous opportunistic infections such as bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis ...


A Novel Link Between The Chemotaxis And Biofilm Dispersion Systems Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Jesse Michael Reinhardt May 2017

A Novel Link Between The Chemotaxis And Biofilm Dispersion Systems Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Jesse Michael Reinhardt

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chemotaxis is the movement of a cell towards an attractant or away from a repellent. This controlled movement is possible due to the chemotaxis system, which is typically made up of several proteins that collectively sense the stimuli and transduce the signal within the cell to mediate a motility response. The chemotaxis proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are encoded in two clusters, which are located at different regions of the chromosome: che I and che V. These gene clusters are known to control chemotaxis via swimming, or flagellar-based, motility. When expressed, these chemotaxis proteins associate with each other to form ...


Comparative Evaluation Of The Antibacterial, Anti-Biofilm And Anti-Spore Effects Of Theaflavins And Palmitoyl-Egcg, Gabriella M. Appice May 2017

Comparative Evaluation Of The Antibacterial, Anti-Biofilm And Anti-Spore Effects Of Theaflavins And Palmitoyl-Egcg, Gabriella M. Appice

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Tea, one of the most common beverages, originates from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. Two major groups of tea are fermented black tea and unfermented green tea. Theaflavins (TFs) are the major polyphenols present in black tea, while mono-palmitoyl-epigallocatechin-gallate (pEGCG) is a modified green tea polyphenol. In this study, the antibacterial effects of TF and pEGCG were evaluated against six selected bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris, using an antibacterial assay. A viability assay using SYTOX® staining and flow cytometry was also used to determine the effect of these compounds ...


Studying Microflora Of Semi-Hard Cheese, And Sporulation Within Contact Surface Biofilms, Dalia Khan Jan 2017

Studying Microflora Of Semi-Hard Cheese, And Sporulation Within Contact Surface Biofilms, Dalia Khan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The first study was conducted on commercial Italian semi-hard cheese samples that were analyzed microbiologically to understand the effect of fast and slow rate of cooling on cheese microflora during ripening process at different temperatures. A cheese plant noticed an active growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria, especially the heterofermentative bacteria, in ripened cheese blocks, which weren’t fully cooled. For that, three cheese sample sets, each having 8 samples, were received from the cheese plant for microbiological analysis. The first set included a group of fast cooled cheese samples to 38°F, and the other group was slow cooled ...


Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden Jan 2017

Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden

Masters Theses

Dispersion is a natural part of a biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. Dispersion occurs when bacteria revert from a stationary, sessile state to a free-swimming, planktonic state and are freed from a biofilm. Bacterial biofilms consist of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA that together make up the extracellular polymeric substances. Surrounded by this mucus-like substance, sessile cells can be extremely difficult to eradicate as compared to the planktonic form of Listeria monocytogenes. Biofilms are robust due to increased surface adherence, inhibition of diffusion of harmful compounds, and increased genetic diversity that exists within a biofilm. As a result ...


Analysis Of The Prevention Of Biocorrosion Caused By Desulfovibrio Alaskensis G20, Michael Boring Jan 2017

Analysis Of The Prevention Of Biocorrosion Caused By Desulfovibrio Alaskensis G20, Michael Boring

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 and other sulfate-reducing bacteria cause significant damage to metal pipelines and other infrastructure through a metabolic pathway that releases toxic hydrogen sulfide into their surroundings. The biocorrosion that results from the release of hydrogen sulfide creates significant economic burden, and can pose health risks for those exposed to this chemical. They are commonly present in the form of biofilms, an extracellular matrix composed of bacterial cells, polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and other materials. These biofilms are difficult to remove, and they provide protection to the bacteria within from anti-bacterial treatments. Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 is a strain derived ...


Structure-Function Investigation Of Proteins Involved In Cellulose Biosynthesis By Escherichia Coli, Thomas Brenner Jan 2017

Structure-Function Investigation Of Proteins Involved In Cellulose Biosynthesis By Escherichia Coli, Thomas Brenner

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Bacteria thrive within multicellular communities called biofilms consisting of a self-produced matrix. Biofilm matrices improve bacterial adherence to surfaces while creating a barrier from host immune responses, disinfectants, antibiotics and other environmental factors. Persistent colonization by the widely distributed pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., has been linked to production of biofilms composed of the exopolysaccharide cellulose. Cellulose-containing biofilms are also important to Acetobacter, Sarcina, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium species to form symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. In Enterobacteriaceae, two operons (bcsABZC and bcsEFG) are proposed to encode for proteins that form a cellulose biosynthetic complex that spans the bacterial cell wall ...


Controlling Brochothrix Thermosphacta As A Spoilage Risk Using In Package Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke Jan 2017

Controlling Brochothrix Thermosphacta As A Spoilage Risk Using In Package Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke

Articles

Brochothrix thermosphacta is a predominant spoilage microorganism in meat and its control in processing environments is important to maintain meat product quality. Atmospheric cold plasma is of interest for control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. This study ascertained the potential of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) for control of B. thermosphacta in response to key parameters such as treatment time, voltage level, interactions with media composition and post treatment storage conditions. Challenge populations were evaluated as suspensions in PBS, as biofilms in meat model medium and surface attached on raw lamb chops under MAP.

ACP treatment ...


A Nutrient-Regulated Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase Controls Clostridium Difficile Biofilm And Toxin Production During Stationary Phase, Erin B. Purcell, Robert W. Mckee, David S. Courson, Elizabeth M. Garrett, Shonna M. Mcbride, Richard E. Cheney, Rita Tamayo Jan 2017

A Nutrient-Regulated Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase Controls Clostridium Difficile Biofilm And Toxin Production During Stationary Phase, Erin B. Purcell, Robert W. Mckee, David S. Courson, Elizabeth M. Garrett, Shonna M. Mcbride, Richard E. Cheney, Rita Tamayo

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) mediates physiological adaptation to extracellular stimuli in a wide range of bacteria. The complex metabolic pathways governing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation are highly regulated, but the specific cues that impact c-di-GMP signaling are largely unknown. In the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, c-di-GMP inhibits flagellar motility and toxin production and promotes pilus-dependent biofilm formation, but no specific biological functions have been ascribed to any of the individual c-di-GMP synthases or phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP PDE, PdcA, 1 of 37 confirmed or putative c-di-GMP metabolism proteins in ...


Novel Roles Of Staphylococcal Proteases And Cross Talk In Biofilm Formation And Virulence, Alexandra E. Paharik Dec 2016

Novel Roles Of Staphylococcal Proteases And Cross Talk In Biofilm Formation And Virulence, Alexandra E. Paharik

Theses and Dissertations

The Staphylococcus genus comprises a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria that are opportunistic pathogens of humans and other mammals. S. epidermidis and S. aureus are the most common human pathogens of the staphylococci, causing a variety of infections including biofilm-based medical device infections, skin infections, and pneumonia. Both of these organisms produce proteases whose functions in virulence are not fully characterized. In S. epidermidis, protein-mediated biofilm formation requires a cell wall-anchored adhesin called Aap that must be proteolytically processed in order to allow intercellular adhesion. The S. epidermidis protease(s) responsible for cleaving Aap were unknown. Chapter II describes our ...


Fluid Dynamic Factors As A Cause And Effect Of Biofilm Formation Of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms, Erica Sherman Oct 2016

Fluid Dynamic Factors As A Cause And Effect Of Biofilm Formation Of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms, Erica Sherman

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are able to form biofilms and distinctive tower structures that facilitate their ability to tolerate treatment and to spread within the human body. The formation of towers, which break off, get carried downstream and serve to initiate biofilms in other parts of the body are of particular interest here. It is known that flow conditions play a role in the development, dispersion and propagation of biofilms. The influence of flow on tower formation and what factors lead to tower formation is not at all understood The hypothesis being examined is that tower structures form within a specific ...


The Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Efflux Pump Mexghi-Opmd Transports A Natural Phenazine That Controls Gene Expression And Biofilm Development, Hassan Sakhtah, Leslie Koyama, Yihan Zhang, Diana K. Morales, Blanche Fields, Alexa Price-Whelan, Deborah Hogan Jun 2016

The Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Efflux Pump Mexghi-Opmd Transports A Natural Phenazine That Controls Gene Expression And Biofilm Development, Hassan Sakhtah, Leslie Koyama, Yihan Zhang, Diana K. Morales, Blanche Fields, Alexa Price-Whelan, Deborah Hogan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Redox-cycling compounds, including endogenously produced phenazine antibiotics, induce expression of the efflux pump MexGHI-OpmD in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa Previous studies of P. aeruginosa virulence, physiology, and biofilm development have focused on the blue phenazine pyocyanin and the yellow phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). In P. aeruginosa phenazine biosynthesis, conversion of PCA to pyocyanin is presumed to proceed through the intermediate 5-methylphenazine-1-carboxylate (5-Me-PCA), a reactive compound that has eluded detection in most laboratory samples. Here, we apply electrochemical methods to directly detect 5-Me-PCA and find that it is transported by MexGHI-OpmD in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 planktonic and biofilm cells. We ...


Biosynthesis And Roles Of Virulence Conferring Cell Wall Associated Dimycocerosate Esters In Mycobacterium Marinum, Poornima Mohandas Jun 2016

Biosynthesis And Roles Of Virulence Conferring Cell Wall Associated Dimycocerosate Esters In Mycobacterium Marinum, Poornima Mohandas

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mycobacterial species include a variety of obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause several important diseases affecting mankind such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The most unique feature of these bacteria is their intricate cell wall that poses a permeability barrier to antibiotics and contributes to their pathogenicity and persistence within the host. The cell wall hosts several complex lipids such as dimycocerosate esters (DIMs), which are found in many clinically relevant pathogenic species of mycobacteria. DIMs have been implicated in the virulence of mycobacteria and play a major role in helping the bacteria evade host immune responses. It is therefore crucial ...


Flood Events Can Reduce Key Fatty Acid Content Of Early-Stage Benthic Algal Assemblages In An Urban Stream, Sarah Whorley, John Wehr Jun 2016

Flood Events Can Reduce Key Fatty Acid Content Of Early-Stage Benthic Algal Assemblages In An Urban Stream, Sarah Whorley, John Wehr

Faculty Articles

Effects of urbanization on stream chemistry and biota have been widely examined. However, few studies quantify the effect of urban stream characteristics on the biochemical properties of basal food resources, such as benthic algae, which can affect aquatic consumers and food webs. A common feature of urban streams is the high frequency of short floods, which may disrupt aquatic communities and their biotic controls. These disturbances can create algal assemblages low in biomass and which remain in early successional stages. This study examined the effects of frequent flood events and macroinvertebrate grazing on biomass, elemental stoichiometry, and essential fatty acid ...


Controlling Microbial Safety Challenges Of Meat Using High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Lu Han, Dana Ziuzina, Caitlin Marie Heslin, Daniela Boehm, Apurva Patange, David Millan-Sango, Vasilis Valdramidis, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke Jan 2016

Controlling Microbial Safety Challenges Of Meat Using High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Lu Han, Dana Ziuzina, Caitlin Marie Heslin, Daniela Boehm, Apurva Patange, David Millan-Sango, Vasilis Valdramidis, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke

Articles

Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a non-thermal technology, effective against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Inactivation efficacy results from plasma generated reactive species. These may interact with any organic components in a test matrix including the target microorganism, thus food components may exert a protective effect against the antimicrobial mode of action. The effect of an in-package high voltage ACP process applied in conjunction with common meat processing MAP gas compositions as well as bacteria type and meat model media composition have been investigated to determine the applicability of this technology for decontamination of safety challenges associated with meat ...


Cyclic Di-Gmp-Mediated Repression Of Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Requires The Motab Stator, S. L. Kuchma, N. J. Delalez, L. M. Filkins, E. A. Snavely, J. P. Armitage, G. A. O'Toole Oct 2015

Cyclic Di-Gmp-Mediated Repression Of Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Requires The Motab Stator, S. L. Kuchma, N. J. Delalez, L. M. Filkins, E. A. Snavely, J. P. Armitage, G. A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) plays a critical role in the regulation of motility. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, c-di-GMP inversely controls biofilm formation and surface swarming motility, with high levels of this dinucleotide signal stimulating biofilm formation and repressing swarming. P. aeruginosa encodes two stator complexes, MotAB and MotCD, that participate in the function of its single polar flagellum. Here we show that the repression of swarming motility requires a functional MotAB stator complex. Mutating the motAB genes restores swarming motility to a strain with artificially elevated levels of c-di-GMP as well as stimulates swarming in the wild-type strain ...


Identification Of Transcription Factors Gzf3, Rfx1, Orf19.3928 As Being Implicated In Candida-Bacterial Interactions., Joni Watson May 2015

Identification Of Transcription Factors Gzf3, Rfx1, Orf19.3928 As Being Implicated In Candida-Bacterial Interactions., Joni Watson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that is present in the normal flora in a majority of individuals. One key factor in C. albicans virulence is the ability to change its morphology from yeast to an elongated or hyphal form. The regulation of this morphogenesis relies in part upon quorum sensing (QS) molecules. C. albicans often exists as part of a mixed culture alongside other microbes and is influenced by their presence as well as the presence of QS molecules that they produce. In this study, a library of diploid homozygous transcriptional regulator knockout (TRKO) mutants were screened to identify ...


Cyanobacteria, Algae And Microfungi Present In Biofilm From Božana Cave (Serbia), Slađana Popović, Gordana Subakov Simić, Miloš Stupar, Nikola Unković, Dragana Predojević, Jelena Jovanović, Milica Ljaljević Grbić Feb 2015

Cyanobacteria, Algae And Microfungi Present In Biofilm From Božana Cave (Serbia), Slađana Popović, Gordana Subakov Simić, Miloš Stupar, Nikola Unković, Dragana Predojević, Jelena Jovanović, Milica Ljaljević Grbić

International Journal of Speleology

Phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and algae) and microfungi, were identified from biofilm on the walls of the entrance of BožanaCavein west Serbia. Temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were measured, and chlorophyll a content determined. Light intensity differed from the entrance inwards. However, Chl a content was not proportional to light intensity, instead it was positively correlated to biofilm weight. Biofilm samples from two sites were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. Coccoid forms of cyanobacteria were abundant at the sampling site with the lowest light intensity, while members of the order Nostocales were predominant at the sampling site with ...


Signaling Between Two Sensor Kinases Controls Biofilms And Host Colonization In A Bacterial Symbiont, Allison N. Norsworthy Jan 2015

Signaling Between Two Sensor Kinases Controls Biofilms And Host Colonization In A Bacterial Symbiont, Allison N. Norsworthy

Dissertations

Organisms within all domains of life must acclimate to fluctuating environments to survive. To do this, cells utilize sensory circuits, which function to connect environmental stimuli to an intracellular response. One common sensory pathway utilized by bacteria is two-component signaling (TCS), composed of an environmental sensor (the sensor kinase, SK) and a cognate, intracellular effector (the response regulator, RR). The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses an elaborate TCS phosphorelay containing a hybrid SK, RscS, and two RRs, SypE and SypG, to colonize its natural squid host, Euprymna scolopes. This TCS pathway regulates V. fischeri's ability to form a biofilm ...