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Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa Mar 2017

Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa

Jonathan McMurry

The flagellar cytoplasmic ring (C ring), which consists of three proteins, FliG, FliM, and FliN, is located on the cytoplasmic side of the flagellum. The C ring is a multifunctional structure necessary for flagellar protein secretion, torque generation, and switching of the rotational direction of the motor. The deletion of any one of the fliG, fliM, and fliN genes results in a Fla - phenotype. Here, we show that the overproduction of the flagellum-specific ATPase FliI overcomes the inability of basal bodies with partial C-ring structures to produce complete flagella. Flagella made upon FliI overproduction were paralyzed, indicating that an intact ...


Loss Of Outer Membrane Porins In Clonally Related Clinical Isolates Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Modifies The Bacteria; Resulting In Altered Resistance To Phagocytosis By Macrophages, Debra Nickole Brunson Jan 2017

Loss Of Outer Membrane Porins In Clonally Related Clinical Isolates Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Modifies The Bacteria; Resulting In Altered Resistance To Phagocytosis By Macrophages, Debra Nickole Brunson

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for lobar pneumoniae, liver abscess, and septicemia. Clinical isolates are found to be extended spectrum beta lactamase positive with differential expression of the two classical porins, OmpK35 and OmpK36. Porin loss is associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta lactam, cephalosporin, and carbapenem antibiotics that target the peptidoglycan. However, little is known about how porin loss affects other aspects of the cell envelope. The focus of this study was to characterize clinical isolates exhibiting differential porin expression and determine if the cumulative changes altered the resistance to phagocytosis by macrophages. The results ...


Spatiotemporal Control Of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Development, Derek E. Moormeier May 2016

Spatiotemporal Control Of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Development, Derek E. Moormeier

Theses & Dissertations

Chronic biofilm-related infections caused by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus often lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality in both hospital- and community-associated settings. Typically, S. aureus biofilm development occurs in three stages: 1) attachment, 2) tower maturation, and 3) dispersal. Here, utilizing BioFlux1000 time-lapse microscopy we have expanded upon these fundamental stages of biofilm development and also unveiled and characterized two additional stages (multiplication and exodus).

The attachment and multiplication stages were shown to be protease sensitive but independent of most cell surface-associated proteins. Following multiplication, an exodus of the biofilm population that followed the transition of the ...


Diversity Of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria In The Badlands Of South Dakota, Bibha Dahal Jan 2016

Diversity Of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria In The Badlands Of South Dakota, Bibha Dahal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biological Nitrogen Fixation is carried out by a highly diverse group of members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea which express a nitrogenase enzyme complex and are termed diazotrophs. The best known diazotrophs form symbiotic associations with plants, but free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria also contribute a substantial amount of nitrogen to ecosystems, including arid lands. The aim of this study was to isolate free-living diazotrophs from the soil crusts of sod tables of South Dakota Badlands. Samples were obtained from sod tables and the surrounding base (matrix) in spring and fall of 2014. A culture dependent approach was used to ...


Cyclic Di-Gmp-Mediated Repression Of Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Requires The Motab Stator, S. L. Kuchma, N. J. Delalez, L. M. Filkins, E. A. Snavely, J. P. Armitage, G. A. O'Toole Oct 2015

Cyclic Di-Gmp-Mediated Repression Of Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Requires The Motab Stator, S. L. Kuchma, N. J. Delalez, L. M. Filkins, E. A. Snavely, J. P. Armitage, G. A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) plays a critical role in the regulation of motility. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, c-di-GMP inversely controls biofilm formation and surface swarming motility, with high levels of this dinucleotide signal stimulating biofilm formation and repressing swarming. P. aeruginosa encodes two stator complexes, MotAB and MotCD, that participate in the function of its single polar flagellum. Here we show that the repression of swarming motility requires a functional MotAB stator complex. Mutating the motAB genes restores swarming motility to a strain with artificially elevated levels of c-di-GMP as well as stimulates swarming in the wild-type strain ...


Determination Of Extracellular Molecules Produced By Vibrio Harveyi Using Ms/Ms, Jose G. Roble Jul 2015

Determination Of Extracellular Molecules Produced By Vibrio Harveyi Using Ms/Ms, Jose G. Roble

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process that allows bacteria to sense the population density of cells around them by communicating with each other via autoinducer molecules. This cross-communication is crucial in the regulation of bacterial processes such as bioluminescence, virulence, and biofilm formation. Previous research by Milburn and Makemson on Vibrio harveyi suggested that in addition of the known biosynthesis of three well-characterized autoinducers, dozens of unknown molecules are also produced and released to the environment by V. harveyi. This study was performed using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with the purpose of detection and characterization of the extracellular molecules produced ...


Nitric Oxide Sensing And Response In Vibrio Cholerae, Andrew Stern Jan 2014

Nitric Oxide Sensing And Response In Vibrio Cholerae, Andrew Stern

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Nitric oxide (NO) is a radical capable of inhibiting bacterial growth. Bacteria in turn have multiple mechanisms of resisting the toxic effects of NO, usually encoded by genes under the control of NO-responsive transcription factors. However, our knowledge of the protein targets of NO is limited, as is the function of many NO-regulated genes. We studied two genes in V. cholerae, hmpA and nnrS, which encode a flavohemoglobin and a protein of unknown function, respectively, both predicted to be under control of the NO-responsive transcription factor NorR. We confirmed that both promoters were regulated by NorR and found that all ...


Characterization Of Brer Interaction With The Bile Response Promoters Breab And Brer In Vibrio Cholerae, Francisca A. Cerda-Maira, Gabriela Kovacikova, Brooke A. Jude, Karen Skorupski, Ronald Taylor Jan 2013

Characterization Of Brer Interaction With The Bile Response Promoters Breab And Brer In Vibrio Cholerae, Francisca A. Cerda-Maira, Gabriela Kovacikova, Brooke A. Jude, Karen Skorupski, Ronald Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The Vibrio cholerae BreR protein is a transcriptional repressor of the breAB efflux system operon, which encodes proteins involved in bile resistance. In a previous study (F. A. Cerda-Maira, C. S. Ringelberg, and R. K. Taylor, J. Bacteriol. 190:7441-7452, 2008), we used gel mobility shift assays to determine that BreR binds at two independent binding sites at the breAB promoter and a single site at its own promoter. Here it is shown, by DNase I footprinting and site-directed mutagenesis, that BreR is able to bind at a distal and a proximal site in the breAB promoter. However, only one ...


Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Salicylate-Associated Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance In Staphylococcus Aureus, Nada Salah Helal Jan 2012

Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Salicylate-Associated Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance In Staphylococcus Aureus, Nada Salah Helal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Growth of Staphylococcus aureus with the NSAID salicylate increases phenotypic resistance (SAPAR), and the frequency at which heritable resistance occurs to various antibiotics (SAGAR). This study describes the effect of salicylate on heritable and phenotypic resistance to a set of antibiotics for laboratory and multi-drug resistant strains of S. aureus and investigates the link between resistance and SAGAR. Drug gradient plates were used to determine phenotypic resistance to antibiotics targeting DNA replication, transcription, translation and the cell wall in the presence or absence of salicylate. To measure heritable resistance, mutation frequencies were determined for each antibiotic in the presence and ...


Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa Oct 2009

Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa

Faculty Publications

The flagellar cytoplasmic ring (C ring), which consists of three proteins, FliG, FliM, and FliN, is located on the cytoplasmic side of the flagellum. The C ring is a multifunctional structure necessary for flagellar protein secretion, torque generation, and switching of the rotational direction of the motor. The deletion of any one of the fliG, fliM, and fliN genes results in a Fla - phenotype. Here, we show that the overproduction of the flagellum-specific ATPase FliI overcomes the inability of basal bodies with partial C-ring structures to produce complete flagella. Flagella made upon FliI overproduction were paralyzed, indicating that an intact ...


Salicylic Acid Activates Sigma Factor B By Rsbu-Dependent And -Independent Mechanisms, Marco Palma, Arnold Bayer, Leon I. Kupferwasser, Tammy Joska, Michael R. Yeaman, Ambrose Cheung Aug 2006

Salicylic Acid Activates Sigma Factor B By Rsbu-Dependent And -Independent Mechanisms, Marco Palma, Arnold Bayer, Leon I. Kupferwasser, Tammy Joska, Michael R. Yeaman, Ambrose Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Salicylic acid (SAL) may impact Staphylococcus aureus virulence by activating the sigB operon (rsbU-V-W-sigB), thus leading to reductions in alpha-toxin production and decreased fibronectin binding (L. I. Kupferwasser et al., J. Clin. Investig. 112:222-233, 2003). As these prior studies were performed in strain RN6390 (an rsbU mutant) and its rsbU-repaired variant, SH1000, the current investigation was designed to determine if the SAL effect occurs via rsbU- and/or rsbV-dependent pathways in an rsbU-intact S. aureus strain (FDA486). We thus quantified the transcription from two sigB-dependent promoters (asp23 and sarA P3) in FDA486 in response to SAL exposure in vitro ...


Keeping Their Options Open: Acute Versus Persistent Infections, S. Furukawa, S. L. Kuchma, G. A. O'Toole Feb 2006

Keeping Their Options Open: Acute Versus Persistent Infections, S. Furukawa, S. L. Kuchma, G. A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Transposon Disruption Of The Complex I Nadh Oxidoreductase Gene (Snod) In Staphylococcus Aureus Is Associated With Reduced Susceptibility To The Microbicidal Activity Of Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1, Arnold S. Bayer, Peter Mcnamara, Michael R. Yeaman, Natalie Lucindo, Tiffanny Jones, Ambrose L. Cheung Jan 2006

Transposon Disruption Of The Complex I Nadh Oxidoreductase Gene (Snod) In Staphylococcus Aureus Is Associated With Reduced Susceptibility To The Microbicidal Activity Of Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1, Arnold S. Bayer, Peter Mcnamara, Michael R. Yeaman, Natalie Lucindo, Tiffanny Jones, Ambrose L. Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The cationic molecule thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1) exerts potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We previously reported that a Tn551 S. aureus transposon mutant, ISP479R, and two bacteriophage back-transductants, TxA and TxB, exhibit reduced in vitro susceptibility to tPMP-1 (tPMP-1(r)) compared to the parental strain, ISP479C (V. Dhawan, M. R. Yeaman, A. L. Cheung, E. Kim, P. M. Sullam, and A. S. Bayer, Infect. Immun. 65:3293-3299, 1997). In the current study, the genetic basis for tPMP-1(r) in these mutants was identified. GenBank homology searches using sequence corresponding to chromosomal DNA flanking Tn551 mutant strains showed that ...


Rhamnolipids Modulate Swarming Motility Patterns Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Nicky C. Caiazza, Robert M. Q. Shanks, G. A. O'Toole Nov 2005

Rhamnolipids Modulate Swarming Motility Patterns Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Nicky C. Caiazza, Robert M. Q. Shanks, G. A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of twitching, swimming, and swarming motility. The latter form of translocation occurs on semisolid surfaces, requires functional flagella and biosurfactant production, and results in complex motility patterns. From the point of inoculation, bacteria migrate as defined groups, referred to as tendrils, moving in a coordinated manner capable of sensing and responding to other groups of cells. We were able to show that P. aeruginosa produces extracellular factors capable of modulating tendril movement, and genetic analysis revealed that modulation of these movements was dependent on rhamnolipid biosynthesis. An rhlB mutant (deficient in mono- and dirhamnolipid production) and ...


Identification Of A Tcpc-Tcpq Outer Membrane Complex Involved In The Biogenesis Of The Toxin-Coregulated Pilus Of Vibrio Cholerae, Niranjan Bose, Ronald K. Taylor Apr 2005

Identification Of A Tcpc-Tcpq Outer Membrane Complex Involved In The Biogenesis Of The Toxin-Coregulated Pilus Of Vibrio Cholerae, Niranjan Bose, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) of Vibrio cholerae and the soluble TcpF protein that is secreted via the TCP biogenesis apparatus are essential for intestinal colonization. The TCP biogenesis apparatus is composed of at least nine proteins but is largely uncharacterized. TcpC is an outer membrane lipoprotein required for TCP biogenesis that is a member of the secretin protein superfamily. In the present study, analysis of TcpC in a series of strains deficient in each of the TCP biogenesis proteins revealed that TcpC was absent specifically in a tcpQ mutant. TcpQ is a predicted periplasmic protein required for TCP biogenesis. Fractionation ...


Isolation And Characterization Of A Generalized Transducing Phage For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Pao1 And Pa14, Jonathan M. Budzik, William A. Rosche, Arne Rietsch, George A. O'Toole May 2004

Isolation And Characterization Of A Generalized Transducing Phage For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Pao1 And Pa14, Jonathan M. Budzik, William A. Rosche, Arne Rietsch, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A temperate, type IV pilus-dependent, double-stranded DNA bacteriophage named DMS3 was isolated from a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A clear-plaque variant of this bacteriophage was isolated. DMS3 is capable of mediating generalized transduction within and between P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and PAO1, thus providing a useful tool for the genetic analysis of P. aeruginosa.


Cyanonews (Vol. 17, No. 1, 2002), Jeff Elhai Jan 2002

Cyanonews (Vol. 17, No. 1, 2002), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 16, No. 1, December 2001), Jeff Elhai Jan 2001

Cyanonews (Vol. 16, No. 1, December 2001), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 15, No. 1, July 2000), Jeff Elhai Jan 2000

Cyanonews (Vol. 15, No. 1, July 2000), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 14, No. 1, August 1998), Jeff Elhai Jan 1998

Cyanonews (Vol. 14, No. 1, August 1998), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 13, No. 1, July 1997), Jeff Elhai Jan 1997

Cyanonews (Vol. 13, No. 1, July 1997), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 2, July 1996), Jeff Elhai Jan 1996

Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 2, July 1996), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 1, January 1996), Jeff Elhai Jan 1996

Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 1, January 1996), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 2, July 1995), Jeff Elhai Jan 1995

Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 2, July 1995), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1995), Jeff Elhai Jan 1995

Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1995), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 10, No. 2, July 1994), Jeff Elhai Jan 1994

Cyanonews (Vol. 10, No. 2, July 1994), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 10, No. 1, February 1994), Jeff Elhai Jan 1994

Cyanonews (Vol. 10, No. 1, February 1994), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Reduced-Protein Subunit Vaccine For Swine Dysentery, Anthony G. Ostle, Michael J. Wannemuehler Aug 1993

Reduced-Protein Subunit Vaccine For Swine Dysentery, Anthony G. Ostle, Michael J. Wannemuehler

Iowa State University Patents

The effectiveness of parenteral vaccination of swine with Treponema hyodysenteriae preparations is increased by reducing the protein content of the Treponema hyodysenteriae cells and subcellular components in the vaccine.


Cyanonews (Vol. 9, No. 1, January 1993), Jeff Elhai Jan 1993

Cyanonews (Vol. 9, No. 1, January 1993), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 9, No. 2, July 1993), Jeff Elhai Jan 1993

Cyanonews (Vol. 9, No. 2, July 1993), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.