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Microbiology

2018

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Articles 1 - 30 of 441

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe Dec 2018

Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Application of swine manure to agricultural land allows recycling of plant nutrients, but excess nitrate, phosphorus and fecal bacteria impact surface and drainage water quality. While agronomic and water quality impacts are well studied, little is known about the impact of swine manure slurry on soil microbial communities. We applied swine manure to intact soil columns collected from plots maintained under chisel plow or no-till with corn and soybean rotation. Targeted 16S-rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize and to identify shifts in bacterial communities in soil over 108 days after swine manure application. In addition, six simulated rainfalls were ...


Efficacy Of A T Cell-Biased Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Matthew J. Gorman, Michael S. Diamond, Eric A. Weaver Dec 2018

Efficacy Of A T Cell-Biased Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Matthew J. Gorman, Michael S. Diamond, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major public health concern due to the risk of congenital Zika syndrome in developing fetuses and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Currently, there are no approved vaccines available to protect against infection. Adenoviruses are safe and highly immunogenic vaccine vectors capable of inducing lasting humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, we developed two Adenovirus (Ad) vectored Zika virus vaccines by inserting a ZIKV prM-E gene expression cassette into human Ad types 4 (Ad4-prM-E) and 5 (Ad5-prM-E). Immune correlates indicate that Ad5-prM-E vaccination induces both an anti-ZIKV antibody and T-cell responses whereas Ad4-prM-E vaccination only induces a ...


Effects Of Urbanization On The Foraging Ecology And Microbiota Of The Generalist Seabird Larus Argentatus, Matthew Fuirst, Richard R. Veit, Megan Hahn, Nolwenn Dheilly, Lesley H. Thorne Dec 2018

Effects Of Urbanization On The Foraging Ecology And Microbiota Of The Generalist Seabird Larus Argentatus, Matthew Fuirst, Richard R. Veit, Megan Hahn, Nolwenn Dheilly, Lesley H. Thorne

Publications and Research

Larus gull species have proven adaptable to urbanization and due to their generalist feeding behaviors, they provide useful opportunities to study how urban environments impact foraging behavior and host-associated microbiota. We evaluated how urbanization influenced the foraging behavior and microbiome characteristics of breeding herring gulls (Larus argentatus) at three different colonies on the east coast of the United States. Study colonies represented high, medium and low degrees of urbanization, respectively. At all colonies, gulls frequently foraged at landfills and in other urban environments, but both the use of urban environments and gull foraging metrics differed with the degree of urbanization ...


Effect Of Dietary Magnesium Manipulation On The Gastrointestinal Microbiome Of A Mouse Model Of Ulcerative Colitis, Christopher Carlson Dec 2018

Effect Of Dietary Magnesium Manipulation On The Gastrointestinal Microbiome Of A Mouse Model Of Ulcerative Colitis, Christopher Carlson

Senior Honors Theses

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the GI tract, which disturbs the mucosal lining and hinders magnesium (Mg2+) absorption. Research has shown that increasing the dietary intake of Mg2+ decreases the severity of the colitis symptoms, but there is no data on the effect this has on the microbiota of the GI tract or the blood. We found that, in DSS-treated mice, the amount of bacteria in the colon increases with a decrease in dietary Mg2+, and that the concentration of bacteria in the spleen does not correlate to symptom severity or to colonic bacterial amounts ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee Dec 2018

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee

ELAIA

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Adaptation Mechanism And Tolerance Of Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Psb-S Under Pyrazosulfuron-Ethyl Stress, Xiang-Wen Luo, De-Yang Zhang, Teng-Hui Zhu, Xuguo Zhou, Jing Peng, Song-Bai Zhang, Yong Liu Dec 2018

Adaptation Mechanism And Tolerance Of Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Psb-S Under Pyrazosulfuron-Ethyl Stress, Xiang-Wen Luo, De-Yang Zhang, Teng-Hui Zhu, Xuguo Zhou, Jing Peng, Song-Bai Zhang, Yong Liu

Entomology Faculty Publications

Background: Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl is a long lasting herbicide in the agro-ecosystem and its residue is toxic to crops and other non-target organisms. A better understanding of molecular basis in pyrazosulfuron-ethyl tolerant organisms will shed light on the adaptive mechanisms to this herbicide.

Results: Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl inhibited biomass production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S, altered cell morphology, suppressed flagella formation, and reduced pigment biosynthesis through significant suppression of carotenoids biosynthesis. A total of 1127 protein spots were detected in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among them, 72 spots representing 56 different proteins were found to be differently expressed using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, including 26 up- and ...


Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone Dec 2018

Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

The phenomena of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased worldwide and can frequently be found on everyday surfaces. Here, we characterize a bacterial isolate from a woman’s restroom door handle at Marian. Preliminary results comprised of morphological and biochemical tests, including growth characteristics on blood agar medium, as well as usage of the Kirby Bauer agar diffusion test to determine antibiotic susceptibility, identifies this isolate to be a multidrug resistant Neisseria species. However, additional detailed analysis is needed to confirm its identity.


Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson Dec 2018

Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson

Publications and Research

Sirtuins are a family of enzymes that fulfill various important biological functions. Investigators have looked for the implication of Sirtuin genes in cell signaling mechanisms, in the formation and silencing of heterochromatin, in the regulation of ion channels, and in the modulation of the cellular redox reactions[2]. Different model organisms have been previously used to conduct these studies; among them, there are yeasts, nematodes, and fruit flies. Each one has made some valuable contribution into the vast body of knowledge related to this field.

However, gaps in the understanding of Sirtuins functions still remain to be filled. In this ...


Potent Cas9 Inhibition In Bacterial And Human Cells By Acriic4 And Acriic5 Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Aamir Mir, Alireza Edraki, Bianca Garcia, Nadia Amrani, Hannah E. Lou, Ildar Gainetdinov, April Pawluk, Raed Ibraheim, Xin D. Gao, Pengpeng Liu, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell, Erik J. Sontheimer Dec 2018

Potent Cas9 Inhibition In Bacterial And Human Cells By Acriic4 And Acriic5 Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Aamir Mir, Alireza Edraki, Bianca Garcia, Nadia Amrani, Hannah E. Lou, Ildar Gainetdinov, April Pawluk, Raed Ibraheim, Xin D. Gao, Pengpeng Liu, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell, Erik J. Sontheimer

Open Access Articles

In their natural settings, CRISPR-Cas systems play crucial roles in bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity to protect against phages and other mobile genetic elements, and they are also widely used as genome engineering technologies. Previously we discovered bacteriophage-encoded Cas9-specific anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that serve as countermeasures against host bacterial immunity by inactivating their CRISPR-Cas systems (A. Pawluk, N. Amrani, Y. Zhang, B. Garcia, et al., Cell 167:1829-1838.e9, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.017). We hypothesized that the evolutionary advantages conferred by anti-CRISPRs would drive the widespread occurrence of these proteins in nature (K ...


Investigating The Single Cell Heterogeneity And Physiological Impact Of Mistranslation, Christopher Evans Dec 2018

Investigating The Single Cell Heterogeneity And Physiological Impact Of Mistranslation, Christopher Evans

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Bacterial populations grow clonal populations; however, individual cells have a variety of phenotypes. The physiological heterogeneity observed in populations has been attributed to variations in the processes of gene expression. For example, promoter expression has been shown to be heterogeneous within a population and contribute to increased stress tolerance in a subpopulation of cells. In comparison to transcription, the influence of translation on single cells is unclear. In this study, my collaborators and I have developed a dual-fluorescence reporter that allows us to measure the mistranslation rate in single cells in vivo. Using this reporter, we found that mistranslation rates ...


Floxed-Cassette Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Enables Markerless Gene Deletion In Chlamydia Trachomatis And Can Reverse Cassette-Induced Polar Effects, Gabrielle Keb, Robert Hayman, Kenneth A. Fields Dec 2018

Floxed-Cassette Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Enables Markerless Gene Deletion In Chlamydia Trachomatis And Can Reverse Cassette-Induced Polar Effects, Gabrielle Keb, Robert Hayman, Kenneth A. Fields

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

As obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia spp. have evolved numerous, likely intricate, mechanisms to create and maintain a privileged intracellular niche. Recent progress in elucidating and characterizing these processes has been bolstered by the development of techniques enabling basic genetic tractability. Florescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM) couples chromosomal gene deletion with the insertion of a selection cassette encoding antibiotic resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Similar to other bacteria, many chlamydial genes exist within polycistronic operons, raising the possibility of polar effects mediated by insertion cassettes. Indeed, FRAEM-mediated deletion of Chlamydia trachomatis tmeA negatively impacts the expression of tmeB. We have ...


Dna Methylation By Restriction Modification Systems Affects The Global Transcriptome Profile In Borrelia Burgdorferi, Timothey Casselli, Yvonne Tourand, Adam Scheidegger, William K. Arnold, Anna Proulx, Brian Stevenson, Catherine A. Brissette Dec 2018

Dna Methylation By Restriction Modification Systems Affects The Global Transcriptome Profile In Borrelia Burgdorferi, Timothey Casselli, Yvonne Tourand, Adam Scheidegger, William K. Arnold, Anna Proulx, Brian Stevenson, Catherine A. Brissette

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Prokaryote restriction modification (RM) systems serve to protect bacteria from potentially detrimental foreign DNA. Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation by the methyltransferase (MTase) components of RM systems can also have effects on transcriptome profiles. The type strain of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi B31, possesses two RM systems with N6-methyladenosine (m6A) MTase activity, which are encoded by the bbe02 gene located on linear plasmid lp25 and bbq67 on lp56. The specific recognition and/or methylation sequences had not been identified for either of these B. burgdorferi MTases, and it was not previously known whether these ...


Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, Cailin Dawley Dec 2018

Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, Cailin Dawley

Theses and Dissertations

Produce is susceptible to contamination by foodborne pathogens. Food service establishments utilize sanitizing agents to reduce microbes on produce surfaces. The research objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous ozone 1) on the inactivation of viruses and bacteria on produce; 2) on the inactivation of viruses on stainless steel; and 3) against viruses in association with bacteria on produce surfaces. For objective 1, Boston bibb lettuce and cherry tomatoes were spot inoculated with a cocktail of viruses (murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage) or bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus cereus) and washed for 40 min with samples taken every ...


Metagenomic Insights Into The Degradation Of Resistant Starch By Human Gut Microbiota, Marius Vital, Adina Howe, Nathalie Bergeron, Ronald M. Krauss, Janet K. Jansson, James M. Tiedje Dec 2018

Metagenomic Insights Into The Degradation Of Resistant Starch By Human Gut Microbiota, Marius Vital, Adina Howe, Nathalie Bergeron, Ronald M. Krauss, Janet K. Jansson, James M. Tiedje

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Several studies monitoring alterations in the community structure upon resistant starch (RS) interventions are available, although comprehensive function-based analyses are lacking. Recently, a multiomics approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metaproteomics, and metabolomics on fecal samples from individuals subjected to high and low doses of type 2 RS (RS2; 48 g and 3 g/2,500 kcal, respectively, daily for 2 weeks) in a crossover intervention experiment was performed. In the present study, we did pathway-based metagenomic analyses on samples from a subset of individuals (n = 12) from that study to obtain additional detailed insights into the functional structure ...


Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi Dec 2018

Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms associated by a matrix of extracellular polymers. In this state, microorganisms occupy an ecological niche distinct from their free-floating, planktonic counterparts. Also, biofilm bacteria become biologically unique as they form communities and lose motility. The acquisition of these physiological attributes enables the biofilm to persist through harsh environmental conditions, including antimicrobial induced stress and to resist sanitization efforts. Because of these features, biofilms can rapidly disseminate across numerous surfaces and as they establish, become challenging to remove. This is a particular issue for the food industry as processing plants offer favorable conditions for biofilm formation ...


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey Dec 2018

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern Dec 2018

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


Distribution Of Dengue And Zika Virus Igg Immunoglobulin, Madison Smith, Awadalkareem Adam, Anuja Mathew Dec 2018

Distribution Of Dengue And Zika Virus Igg Immunoglobulin, Madison Smith, Awadalkareem Adam, Anuja Mathew

Senior Honors Projects

Introduction. Dengue Virus (DENV) and Zika Virus (ZIKV) are viruses that belong to the Flavivirus family. They are transmitted by the Aedes aegypti species of mosquitoes. Infection with DENV can result in no symptoms, mild symptoms which include fever, rash, and headache (dengue fever) or more severe symptoms which include hemorrhage, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and shock, dengue shock syndrome (DSS). ZIKV, until recently caused mild disease but an outbreak in Brazil was associated with fetal complications such as microcephaly or Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Due to the similarity between ZIKV and DENV, antibodies (Abs) generated in humans to these ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Targeted Bar Encapsulated Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Ranjith Radha Krishnan Dec 2018

Synthesis And Characterization Of Targeted Bar Encapsulated Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Ranjith Radha Krishnan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Between 30-50% of the global adult population suffers from periodontal disease. Some form of periodontitis is present in 46% of American adults, corresponding to annual expenditures in excess of 14 billion dollars for treatment and prevention. Current treatments for periodontal diseases involve mechanical removal of plaque, correction of risk factors, gingival surgery and/or antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge there is no effective therapeutic approach that aims to limit pathogen colonization of the oral biofilm or re-colonization after treatment. Interaction of the pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis with oral streptococci is ...


Assembly And Display Of Surface Proteins In Actinomyces Oris, Sara Siegel Dec 2018

Assembly And Display Of Surface Proteins In Actinomyces Oris, Sara Siegel

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Bacteria are an integral part of human health and disease. In the human host, dental plaques form as a result of up to 700 individual bacterial species colonizing oral surfaces and forming a multispecies biofilm. These biofilms are the cause of prevalent human diseases such as dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. The microbes present in the oral biofilm are highly spatially and temporally structured and require a primary colonizing species to adhere to host tissue. As an important primary colonizer of the oral biofilm, the actinobacterium Actinomyces oris utilizes cell wall anchored proteins and glycoconjugates to initiate adherence to host ...


Galleria Mellonella As An Alternate Infection Model For Burkholderia Species And A Comparison Of Suspension And Surface Test Methods For Evaluating Sporicidal Efficacy, Joseph D. Thiriot Dec 2018

Galleria Mellonella As An Alternate Infection Model For Burkholderia Species And A Comparison Of Suspension And Surface Test Methods For Evaluating Sporicidal Efficacy, Joseph D. Thiriot

Theses and Dissertations

Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease that continues unabated in many countries, particularly in Southeast Asia. There is no vaccine and antimicrobial treatment is expensive and complicated. Virulence models are important tools used to investigate genes involved in pathogenesis. Galleria mellonella is the larvae of the wax worm moth that has been used to model various infections. Based on previous studies, we attempted to establish an infection model using Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis, a related species which is avirulent in humans. Injections of various forms of these species (fresh and frozen) were used to develop Kaplan-Meier plots. We also ...


The Antimicrobial Properties Of Honey And Their Effect On Pathogenic Bacteria, Shreena Himanshu Mody Dec 2018

The Antimicrobial Properties Of Honey And Their Effect On Pathogenic Bacteria, Shreena Himanshu Mody

Theses and Dissertations

Honey has been used to heal wounds since ancient times. There are many references in ancient literature that cite honey for its medicinal uses. It is used as an alternative agent to cure infections of wounds, burns, ulcers etc. Researchers have shown some of the antimicrobial properties of honey when used as an ointment. When applied to an affected area, it helps to promote the growth of healthy tissue. One of the factors on which the quality of the honey depends, is its geographical origin. Based on the location, honey types can vary as much as 100-fold from each other ...


Semen Exosomes: Intrinsic Inhibitors Of Hiv-1 Infection, Jennifer Lynn Welch Dec 2018

Semen Exosomes: Intrinsic Inhibitors Of Hiv-1 Infection, Jennifer Lynn Welch

Theses and Dissertations

Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that circulate in bio-fluids and enclose cell-associated cargo, producing various consequences in intercellular communication and may contribute to microbial pathogenesis. Exosomes are similar in composition to enveloped viruses, making differentiation between exosomes and enveloped viruses difficult. Yet, exosomes and enveloped viruses may vary considerably in function. Exosomes produced from infected cells may incorporate viral material as they are simultaneously produced with viruses and depending upon the cargo, contribute to disease pathogenesis. Conversely, exosomes from uninfected cells may contribute to protection from infection. Exosomes from breast milk, vaginal fluid, and semen of healthy donors protect against HIV-1 ...


Biofilm Producing Clinical Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Augmented Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Cases In Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Nepal, Sarita Manandhar, Anjana Singh, Ajit Varma, Shanti Pandey, Neeraj Shrivastava Nov 2018

Biofilm Producing Clinical Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Augmented Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Cases In Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Nepal, Sarita Manandhar, Anjana Singh, Ajit Varma, Shanti Pandey, Neeraj Shrivastava

Student Publications

Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious human pathogen, is a major cause of the community as well as healthcare associated infections. It can cause a diversity of recalcitrant infections mainly due to the acquisition of resistance to multiple drugs, its diverse range of virulence factors, and the ability to produce biofilm in indwelling medical devices. Such biofilm associated chronic infections often lead to increase in morbidity and mortality posing a high socio-economic burden, especially in developing countries. Since biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance function dependent on each other, detection of biofilm expression in clinical isolates would be advantageous in treatment decision. In ...


Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer Nov 2018

Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer

PURE Insights

Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...


Minimal Information For Studies Of Extracellular Vesicles 2018 (Misev2018): A Position Statement Of The International Society For Extracellular Vesicles And Update Of The Misev2014 Guidelines, Clotilde Théry, Kenneth W. Witwer, Elena Aikawa, Maria Jose Alcaraz, Johnathon D. Anderson, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Anna Antoniou, Tanina Arab, Fabienne Archer, Georgia K. Atkin-Smith, D. Craig Ayre, Jean-Marie Bach, Daniel Bachurski, Hossein Baharvand, Leonora Balaj, Shawn Baldacchino, Natalie N. Bauer, Amy A. Baxter, Mary Bebawy, Carla Beckham, Apolonija Bedina Zavec, Adberrahim Benmoussa, Anna C. Berardi, Paolo Bergese, Ewa Bielska, Cherie Blenkiron, Sylwia Bobis-Wozowicz, Eric Boilard, Wilfred Boireau, Antonella Bongiovanni, Ivan Vechetti Nov 2018

Minimal Information For Studies Of Extracellular Vesicles 2018 (Misev2018): A Position Statement Of The International Society For Extracellular Vesicles And Update Of The Misev2014 Guidelines, Clotilde Théry, Kenneth W. Witwer, Elena Aikawa, Maria Jose Alcaraz, Johnathon D. Anderson, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Anna Antoniou, Tanina Arab, Fabienne Archer, Georgia K. Atkin-Smith, D. Craig Ayre, Jean-Marie Bach, Daniel Bachurski, Hossein Baharvand, Leonora Balaj, Shawn Baldacchino, Natalie N. Bauer, Amy A. Baxter, Mary Bebawy, Carla Beckham, Apolonija Bedina Zavec, Adberrahim Benmoussa, Anna C. Berardi, Paolo Bergese, Ewa Bielska, Cherie Blenkiron, Sylwia Bobis-Wozowicz, Eric Boilard, Wilfred Boireau, Antonella Bongiovanni, Ivan Vechetti

Physiology Faculty Publications

The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications describing physiological and pathological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a collective term covering various subtypes of cell-released, membranous structures, called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names. However, specific issues arise when working with these entities, whose size and amount often make them difficult to obtain as relatively pure preparations, and to characterize properly. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (“MISEV”) guidelines for the field in 2014. We now update these “MISEV2014” guidelines ...


Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, Rajendra Upadhya, Lorina G. Baker, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge Nov 2018

Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, Rajendra Upadhya, Lorina G. Baker, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

Open Access Articles

Chitin is an essential component of the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans conferring structural rigidity and integrity under diverse environmental conditions. Chitin deacetylase genes encode the enyzmes (chitin deacetylases [Cdas]) that deacetylate chitin, converting it to chitosan. The functional role of chitosan in the fungal cell wall is not well defined, but it is an important virulence determinant of C. neoformans Mutant strains deficient in chitosan are completely avirulent in a mouse pulmonary infection model. C. neoformans carries genes that encode three Cdas (Cda1, Cda2, and Cda3) that appear to be functionally redundant in cells grown under vegetative conditions. Here ...


Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester Phd, Alan Cohen Md Nov 2018

Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester Phd, Alan Cohen Md

Posters-at-the-Capitol

White Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a newly recognized disease responsible for the rapid mass destruction of the North American bat populations. This study addressed the novel inactivation of fungal spores from Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of WNS, using ultraviolet A (UVA) light at 365nm and methoxsalen, a photosensitizer from a family of compounds known as furanocoumarins. Penicillium crustosum, an environmental fungus, was studied as a comparator.

Spore suspensions were soaked in specific concentrations of methoxsalen and subsequently exposed to UVA light. The plates were examined for both spore inactivation and resultant inhibition of colony growth. The results demonstrated that ...


Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, Samir Patel Nov 2018

Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, Samir Patel

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that induces severe inflammation resulting in gastroenteritis. In the case of S. Typhimurium infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its primary virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response.

One such effector, SifA, is a bi-functional T3SS effector protein that plays an important role in Salmonella virulence. The N-terminal domain of SifA binds SifA-Kinesin-Interacting-Protein (SKIP), and via an interaction ...