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A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang Mar 2019

A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang

Virology Papers

HPV infections are common in healthy women and only rarely cause cervical cancer, suggesting that individual genetic susceptibility may play a critical role in the establishment of persistent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. Here, we provide convincing in vitro and in vivo evidence showing that differential expression and activation of YAP1 oncogene determine individual susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis. We found that hyperactivation of YAP1 in mouse cervical epithelium was sufficient to induce invasive cervical cancer. Cervical epithelial cell-specific HPV16 E6/E7 and YAP1 double-knockin mouse model demonstrated that high-risk HPV synergized with hyperactivated YAP1 ...


A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe Jan 2019

A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe

Virology Papers

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. After several passages of the ΔB1 virus we observed a robust increase in viral titer of the adapted virus. Interestingly, our characterization of the adapted viruses reveals that ...


Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann Jan 2019

Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann

Virology Papers

Although the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are one of the largest group of viruses that infect many eukaryotic hosts, the near-atomic resolution structures of these viruses have remained unknown. Here we describe a 3.5 Å resolution icosahedrally averaged capsid structure of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). This structure consists of 5040 copies of the major capsid protein, 60 copies of the penton protein and 1800 minor capsid proteins of which there are 13 different types. The minor capsid proteins form a hexagonal network below the outer capsid shell, stabilizing the capsid by binding neighboring capsomers together. The ...


Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti Jan 2019

Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade ...


Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling Jan 2019

Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling

Virology Papers

Understanding HIV latent reservoirs in tissues is essential for the development of new strategies targeting these sites for eradication. Here, we assessed the size of latent reservoirs and the source of residual viruses in multiple lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected and fully suppressed rhesus macaques of Chinese-origin (cRMs). Eight cRMs were infected with SIVmac251 and treated with tenofovir and emtricitabine daily for 24 weeks initiated 4 weeks post-infection. Four of the eight animals reached sustained full viral suppression with undetectable viremia. The levels of cell-associated SIV DNA varied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and multiple lymphoid tissues, but with higher ...


A Single-Cycle Adenovirus Type 7 Vaccine For Prevention Of Acute Respiratory Disease, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Eric A. Weaver Jan 2019

A Single-Cycle Adenovirus Type 7 Vaccine For Prevention Of Acute Respiratory Disease, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) infection is associated with acute respiratory disease (ARD), especially in military recruits living in close quarters. Recently, several outbreaks of Ad7 infections have occurred in civilian populations, with some cases leading to death. However, the current Ad7 vaccine is licensed for use only in military recruits because it utilizes an orally delivered wild type virus which is shed in the stool for 28 days after immunization. This poses a safety risk due to the possibility of virus spread to vulnerable populations. To address the need for a safer Ad7 vaccine for use in civilian populations, we ...


Efficacy Of A T Cell-Biased Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Matthew J. Gorman, Michael S. Diamond, Eric A. Weaver Dec 2018

Efficacy Of A T Cell-Biased Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, Matthew J. Gorman, Michael S. Diamond, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major public health concern due to the risk of congenital Zika syndrome in developing fetuses and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Currently, there are no approved vaccines available to protect against infection. Adenoviruses are safe and highly immunogenic vaccine vectors capable of inducing lasting humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, we developed two Adenovirus (Ad) vectored Zika virus vaccines by inserting a ZIKV prM-E gene expression cassette into human Ad types 4 (Ad4-prM-E) and 5 (Ad5-prM-E). Immune correlates indicate that Ad5-prM-E vaccination induces both an anti-ZIKV antibody and T-cell responses whereas Ad4-prM-E vaccination only induces a ...


Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Seropositivity Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study In Xinjiang, China, Meng Cui, Qiwen Fang, Jun Zheng, Zhanjun Shu, Yin Chen, Yage Fan, Juan Zhao, Charles Wood, Tiejun Zhang, Yan Zeng Oct 2018

Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Seropositivity Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study In Xinjiang, China, Meng Cui, Qiwen Fang, Jun Zheng, Zhanjun Shu, Yin Chen, Yage Fan, Juan Zhao, Charles Wood, Tiejun Zhang, Yan Zeng

Virology Papers

Objective: To assess the potential relationship between Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) in Xinjiang, China.

Methods: A case–control study of consecutively included DM-2 patients and normal controls was conducted among the Uygur and Han populations in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Blood samples were collected and KSHV seroprevalence, antibody titers, and viral load were investigated. Logistic regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to explore determinants of the main outcome measures.

Results: A total of 324 patients with DM-2 and 376 normal controls were included. The seroprevalence of KSHV was ...


Gene Gangs Of The Chloroviruses: Conserved Clusters Of Collinear Monocistronic Genes, Phillip Seitzer, Adrien Jeanniard, Fangrui Ma, James L. Van Etten, Marc T. Facciotti, David D. Dunigan Oct 2018

Gene Gangs Of The Chloroviruses: Conserved Clusters Of Collinear Monocistronic Genes, Phillip Seitzer, Adrien Jeanniard, Fangrui Ma, James L. Van Etten, Marc T. Facciotti, David D. Dunigan

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) are dsDNA viruses found throughout the world’s inland waters. The open reading frames in the genomes of 41 sequenced chloroviruses (330 + 40 kbp each) representing three virus types were analyzed for evidence of evolutionarily conserved local genomic “contexts”, the organization of biological information into units of a scale larger than a gene. Despite a general loss of synteny between virus types, we informatically detected a highly conserved genomic context defined by groups of three or more genes that we have termed “gene gangs”. Unlike previously described local genomic contexts, the definition of gene gangs requires only ...


Susceptibility Genes To Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz Sep 2018

Susceptibility Genes To Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Virology Papers

Plant viruses use cellular factors and resources to replicate and move. Plants respond to viral infection by several mechanisms, including innate immunity, autophagy, and gene silencing, that viruses must evade or suppress. Thus, the establishment of infection is genetically determined by the availability of host factors necessary for virus replication and movement and by the balance between plant defense and viral suppression of defense responses. Host factors may have antiviral or proviral activities. Proviral factors condition susceptibility to viruses by participating in processes essential to the virus. Here, we review current advances in the identification and characterization of host factors ...


Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li Jan 2018

Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The HIV-1 pandemic is a consequence of the cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild chimpanzees (SIVcpz) to humans. Our previous study demonstrated SIVcpz strains that are closely related to the ancestral viruses of HIV-1 groups M (SIVcpzMB897) and N (SIVcpzEK505) and two SIVcpz lineages that are not associated with any known HIV-1 infections in humans (SIVcpzMT145 and SIVcpzBF1167), all can readily infect and robustly replicate in the humanized-BLT mouse model of humans. However, the comparative pathogenicity of different SIVcpz strains remains unknown. Herein, we compared the pathogenicity of the above four SIVcpz strains with HIV-1 using humanized-BLT mice ...


Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Eun Hee Kwon, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood Jan 2018

Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Eun Hee Kwon, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Subtype C HIV-1 is responsible for the largest proportion of people living with HIV-1 infection. However, there is limited information about the roles of the brain and its cell types as a potential sanctuary for this subtype and how the sanctuary may be affected by the administration of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). To address this issue, we collected postmortem brain tissues from ART treated HIV-1 infected Zambian individuals who experienced complete viral suppression and those who did not. Tissues from various brain compartments were collected from each individual as frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded brain specimens, for detection and quantification of ...


Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood Jan 2018

Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Subtype C HIV-1 is responsible for the largest proportion of people living with HIV-1 infection. However, there is limited information about the roles of the brain and its cell types as a potential sanctuary for this subtype and how the sanctuary may be affected by the administration of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). To address this issue, we collected postmortem brain tissues from ART treated HIV-1 infected Zambian individuals who experienced complete viral suppression and those who did not. Tissues from various brain compartments were collected from each individual as frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded brain specimens, for detection and quantification of ...


Contribution Of The Gp120 V3 Loop To Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer Stability In Primate Immunodeficiency Viruses, Dane Bowder, Haley Hollingsead, Kate Durst, Duoyi Hu, Wenzhong Wei, Joshua Wiggins, Halima Medjahed, Andrés Finzi, Joseph Sodroski, Shi-Hua Xiang Jan 2018

Contribution Of The Gp120 V3 Loop To Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer Stability In Primate Immunodeficiency Viruses, Dane Bowder, Haley Hollingsead, Kate Durst, Duoyi Hu, Wenzhong Wei, Joshua Wiggins, Halima Medjahed, Andrés Finzi, Joseph Sodroski, Shi-Hua Xiang

Virology Papers

The V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein (Env) becomes exposed after CD4 binding and contacts the coreceptor to mediate viral entry. Prior to CD4 engagement, a hydrophobic patch located at the tip of the V3 loop stabilizes the non-covalent association of gp120 with the Env trimer of HIV-1 subtype B strains. Here, we show that this conserved hydrophobic patch (amino acid residues 307, 309 and 317) contributes to gp120-trimer association in HIV-1 subtype C, HIV-2 and SIV. Changes that reduced the hydrophobicity of these V3 residues resulted in increased gp120 shedding and ...


Non-Naturally Occurring Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) And Methods Of Using, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Fernando Osorio, William W. Laegreid, Asit K. Pattnaik, Fangrui Ma Jan 2018

Non-Naturally Occurring Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) And Methods Of Using, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Fernando Osorio, William W. Laegreid, Asit K. Pattnaik, Fangrui Ma

Virology Papers

A non-naturally occurring porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is provided herein, and methods of making and using the non-naturally occurring PRRSV also are provided.


Ultrastructure Of Meelsvirus: A Nuclear Virus Of Arrow Worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) Producing Giant "Tailed" Virions, George L. Shinn, Brianna L. Bullard Jan 2018

Ultrastructure Of Meelsvirus: A Nuclear Virus Of Arrow Worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) Producing Giant "Tailed" Virions, George L. Shinn, Brianna L. Bullard

Virology Papers

Most known giant viruses, i.e., viruses producing giant virions, parasitize amoebae and other unicellular eukaryotes. Although they vary in the level of dependence on host nuclear functions, their virions self-assemble in the host cell's cytoplasm. Here we report the discovery of a new prototype of giant virus infecting epidermal cells of the marine arrow worm Adhesisagitta hispida. Its 1.25 μm-long virions self-assemble and accumulate in the host cell's nucleus. Conventional transmission electron microscopy reveals that the virions have a unique bipartite structure. An ovoid nucleocapsid, situated in a broad "head" end of the virion is surrounded ...


Altered Ratio Of T Follicular Helper Cells To T Follicular Regulatory Cells Correlates With Autoreactive Antibody Response In Simian Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Rhesus Macaques, Wenjin Fan, Andrew James Demers, Yanmin Wan, Qingsheng Li Jan 2018

Altered Ratio Of T Follicular Helper Cells To T Follicular Regulatory Cells Correlates With Autoreactive Antibody Response In Simian Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Rhesus Macaques, Wenjin Fan, Andrew James Demers, Yanmin Wan, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

Individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection have an increased prevalence of autoreactive Abs. Many of the isolated HIV broadly neutralizing Abs from these individuals are also autoreactive. However, the underlying mechanism(s) that produce these autoreactive broadly neutralizing Abs remains largely unknown. The highly regulated coordination among B cells, T follicular helper (TFH) cells, and T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells in germinal centers (GCs) of peripheral lymphatic tissues (LTs) is essential for defense against pathogens while also restricting autoreactive responses. We hypothesized that an altered ratio of TFH/TFR cells in the GC contributes to the increased ...


Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu Jan 2018

Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu

Virology Papers

Characterizing the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses of multi-variant SIV infection may shed new light on the understanding of mucosal transmission.We intrarectally inoculated six Chinese rhesus macaques with a single high dose of SIVmac251 (3.1 × 104 TCID50) and obtained 985 full-length env sequences from multiple tissues at 6 and 10 days post-infection by single genome amplification (SGA). All 6 monkeys were infected with a range of 2 to 8 T/F viruses and the dominant variants from the inoculum were still dominant in different tissues from each monkey. Interestingly, our data showed that a cluster of ...


Mucosal Antibody Responses To Vaccines Targeting Siv Protease Cleavage Sites Or Fulllength Gag And Env Proteins In Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques, Hongzhao Li, Yan Hai, So-Yon Lim, Nikki Toledo, Jose Crecente-Campo, Dane Schalk, Lin Li, Robert W. Omange, Tamara G. Dacoba, Lewis R. Liu, Mohammad Abul Kashem, Yanmin Wan, Binhua Liang, Qingsheng Li, Eva Rakasz, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Maria J. Alonso, Francis A. Plummer, James B. Whitney, Ma Luo Jan 2018

Mucosal Antibody Responses To Vaccines Targeting Siv Protease Cleavage Sites Or Fulllength Gag And Env Proteins In Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques, Hongzhao Li, Yan Hai, So-Yon Lim, Nikki Toledo, Jose Crecente-Campo, Dane Schalk, Lin Li, Robert W. Omange, Tamara G. Dacoba, Lewis R. Liu, Mohammad Abul Kashem, Yanmin Wan, Binhua Liang, Qingsheng Li, Eva Rakasz, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Maria J. Alonso, Francis A. Plummer, James B. Whitney, Ma Luo

Virology Papers

HIV mutates rapidly and infects CD4+ T cells, especially when they are activated. A vaccine targeting conserved, essential viral elements while limiting CD4+ T cell activation could be effective. Learning from natural immunity observed in a group of highly HIV-1 exposed seronegative Kenyan female sex workers, we are testing a novel candidate HIV vaccine targeting the 12 viral protease cleavage sites (PCSs) (the PCS vaccine), in comparison with a vaccine targeting full-length Gag and Env (the Gag/Env vaccine) in a Mauritian cynomolgus macaque/SIV model. In this study we evaluated these vaccines for induction of mucosal antibodies to SIV ...


Efficacy Of An Adenoviral Vectored Multivalent Centralized Influenza Vaccine, Amy Lingel, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver Nov 2017

Efficacy Of An Adenoviral Vectored Multivalent Centralized Influenza Vaccine, Amy Lingel, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Mice were immunized with Adenovirus expressing the H1-con, H2-con, H3-con and H5-con HA consensus genes in combination (multivalent) and compared to mice immunized with the traditional 2010–2011 FluZone and FluMist seasonal vaccines. Immunized mice were challenged with 10–100 MLD50 of H1N1, H3N1, H3N2 and H5N1 influenza viruses. The traditional vaccines induced robust levels of HA inhibition (HI) titers, but failed to protect against five different heterologous lethal influenza challenges. Conversely, the multivalent consensus vaccine (1 × 1010 virus particles (vp)/mouse) induced protective HI titers of ≥40 against 8 of 10 influenza viruses that represent a wide degree of ...


Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi May 2017

Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi

Virology Papers

Background: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia.

Methods: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China. KSHV-specific antibodies against latent and lytic antigens were assessed using Sf9 and BC3 monoclonal immunofluorescence assay. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 ...


Lysine Residues Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Affect The Replication And Transcription Activatormediated Lytic Replication Of Kaposi’S Sarcomaassociated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8, Tianzheng Zhang, Ying Wang, Li Zhang, Bin Liu, Jinhui Xie, Charles Wood, Jinzhong Wang Apr 2017

Lysine Residues Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Affect The Replication And Transcription Activatormediated Lytic Replication Of Kaposi’S Sarcomaassociated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8, Tianzheng Zhang, Ying Wang, Li Zhang, Bin Liu, Jinhui Xie, Charles Wood, Jinzhong Wang

Virology Papers

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection goes through latent and lytic phases, which are controlled by the viral replication and transcription activator (RTA). Upon KSHV infection, the host responds by suppressing RTA-activated lytic gene expression through interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7), a key regulator of host innate immune response. Lysine residues are potential sites for post-translational modification of IRF-7, and were suggested to be critical for its activity. In this study, we analysed the 15 lysine residues for their effects on IRF-7 function by site-directed mutagenesis. We found that some mutations affect the ability of IRF-7 to activate interferon (IFN ...


Coccolithoviruses: A Review Of Cross-Kingdom Genomic Thievery And Metabolic Thuggery, Jozef I. Nissimov, António Pagarete, Fangrui Ma, Sean Cody, David D. Dunigan, Susan A. Kimmance, Michael J. Allen Mar 2017

Coccolithoviruses: A Review Of Cross-Kingdom Genomic Thievery And Metabolic Thuggery, Jozef I. Nissimov, António Pagarete, Fangrui Ma, Sean Cody, David D. Dunigan, Susan A. Kimmance, Michael J. Allen

Virology Papers

Coccolithoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) infect and lyse the most ubiquitous and successful coccolithophorid in modern oceans, Emiliania huxleyi. So far, the genomes of 13 of these giant lytic viruses (i.e., Emiliania huxleyi viruses—EhVs) have been sequenced, assembled, and annotated. Here, we performed an in-depth comparison of their genomes to try and contextualize the ecological and evolutionary traits of these viruses. The genomes of these EhVs have from 444 to 548 coding sequences (CDSs). Presence/absence analysis of CDSs identified putative genes with particular ecological significance, namely sialidase, phosphate permease, and sphingolipid biosynthesis. The viruses clustered into distinct clades, based on ...


Reactivation Of Hiv-1 Proviruses In Immune-Compromised Mice Engrafted With Human Voa-Negative Cd4+ T Cells, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Wuxun Lu, Qingsheng Li Jan 2017

Reactivation Of Hiv-1 Proviruses In Immune-Compromised Mice Engrafted With Human Voa-Negative Cd4+ T Cells, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Wuxun Lu, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

Background: HIV-1 infection remains incurable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) due to virus latency. To date, enhanced co-culture assays, including viral outgrowth assays (VOA), are commonly used to measure HIV-1 latent reservoirs and evaluate latency-reversing agents (LRAs). However, VOA can only reactivate a small fraction of intact proviruses.

Methods: To explore the utility of NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice as an in vivo model to reactivate HIV-1 proviruses from VOA-negative CD4+ T cells, resting CD4+ T cells from an HIV-1 latently infected individual were isolated and the human CD4+ T cells corresponding to VOA-positive and VOA-negative CD4+ T cells were engrafted ...


Characterization Of A New Chlorovirus Type With Permissive And Non-Permissive Features On Phylogenetically Related Algal Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Ahmed Esmael, Olivia Sonderman, Michelle Mcquinn, Irina Agarkova, Mohammed Battah, Garry A. Duncan, David D. Dunigan, Timothy P. L. Smith, Cristina Decastro, Immacolata Speciale, Fangrui Ma, James L. Van Etten Jan 2017

Characterization Of A New Chlorovirus Type With Permissive And Non-Permissive Features On Phylogenetically Related Algal Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Ahmed Esmael, Olivia Sonderman, Michelle Mcquinn, Irina Agarkova, Mohammed Battah, Garry A. Duncan, David D. Dunigan, Timothy P. L. Smith, Cristina Decastro, Immacolata Speciale, Fangrui Ma, James L. Van Etten

Virology Papers

A previous report indicated that prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 replicated in two Chlorella variabilis algal strains, NC64A and Syngen 2-3, that are ex-endosymbionts isolated from the protozoan Paramecium bursaria. Surprisingly, plaque-forming viruses on Syngen 2-3 lawns were often higher than on NC64A lawns from indigenous water samples. These differences led to the discovery of viruses that exclusively replicate in Syngen 2-3 cells, named Only Syngen (OSy) viruses. OSy-NE5, the prototype virus for the proposed new species, had a linear dsDNA genome of 327 kb with 44-nucleotide-long, incompletely base-paired, covalently closed hairpin ends. Each hairpin structure was followed by an identical 2 ...


Tryptophan 375 Stabilizes The Outer-Domain Core Of Gp120 For Hiv Vaccine Immunogen Design, Duoyi Hu, Dane Bowder, Wenzhong Wei, Jesse Thompson, Mark A. Wilson, Shi-Hua Xiang Jan 2017

Tryptophan 375 Stabilizes The Outer-Domain Core Of Gp120 For Hiv Vaccine Immunogen Design, Duoyi Hu, Dane Bowder, Wenzhong Wei, Jesse Thompson, Mark A. Wilson, Shi-Hua Xiang

Virology Papers

The outer-domain core of gp120 may serve as a better HIV vaccine immunogen than the full-length gp120 because of its greater stability and immunogenicity. In our previous report, we introduced two disulfide bonds to the outer-domain core of gp120 to fix its conformation into a CD4-bound state, which resulted in a significant increase in its immunogenicity when compared to the wild-type outer-domain core. In this report, to further improve the immunogenicity of the outer-domain core based immunogen, we have introduced a Tryptophan residue at gp120 amino acid sequence position 375 (375S/W). Our data from immunized guinea pigs indeed shows ...


Distinct Transcriptome Profiles Of Gag-Specific Cd8+ T Cells Temporally Correlated With The Protection Elicited By Sivδnef Live Attenuated Vaccine, Wuxun Lu, Yanmin Wu, Fangrui Ma, R. Paul Johnson, Qingsheng Li Jan 2017

Distinct Transcriptome Profiles Of Gag-Specific Cd8+ T Cells Temporally Correlated With The Protection Elicited By Sivδnef Live Attenuated Vaccine, Wuxun Lu, Yanmin Wu, Fangrui Ma, R. Paul Johnson, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The live attenuated vaccine (LAV) SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) confers the best protection among all the vaccine modalities tested in rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 infection. This vaccine has a unique feature of time-dependent protection: macaques are not protected at 3±5 weeks post vaccination (WPV), whereas immune protection emerges between 15 and 20 WPV. Although the exact mechanisms of the time-dependent protection remain incompletely understood, studies suggested that both cellular and humoral immunities contribute to this time-dependent protection. To further elucidate the mechanisms of protection induced by SIVΔnef, we longitudinally compared the global gene expression profiles of SIV Gag-CM9+ CD8+ (Gag-specific ...


Chloroviruses Have A Sweet Tooth, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, Michela Tonetti, Cristina De Castro, Garry A. Duncan Jan 2017

Chloroviruses Have A Sweet Tooth, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, Michela Tonetti, Cristina De Castro, Garry A. Duncan

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that infect certain isolates of chlorella-like green algae. They contain up to approximately 400 protein-encoding genes and 16 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. This review summarizes the unexpected finding that many of the chlorovirus genes encode proteins involved in manipulating carbohydrates. These include enzymes involved in making extracellular polysaccharides, such as hyaluronan and chitin, enzymes that make nucleotide sugars, such as GDP-L-fucose and GDP-D-rhamnose and enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycans attached to the virus major capsid proteins. This latter process differs from that of all other glycoprotein containing viruses that traditionally use ...


Lineage-Specific Differences In The Gp120 Inner Domain Layer 3 Of Human And Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses, Shilei Ding, Halima Medjahed, Jérémie Prévost, Mathieu Coutu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Andrés Finzi Jan 2016

Lineage-Specific Differences In The Gp120 Inner Domain Layer 3 Of Human And Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses, Shilei Ding, Halima Medjahed, Jérémie Prévost, Mathieu Coutu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Andrés Finzi

Virology Papers

Binding of HIV-1 and SIV gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to CD4 triggers conformational changes in gp120 that promote its interaction with one of the chemokine receptors, usually CCR5, ultimately leading to gp41-mediated virus-cell membrane fusion and entry. We previously described that topological Layers (Layer 1, Layer 2 and Layer 3) in the gp120 inner domain contribute to gp120-trimer association in the unliganded state but also help secure CD4 binding. Relative to Layer 1 of HIV-1 gp120, the SIVmac239 gp120 Layer 1 plays a more prominent role in maintaining gp120-trimer association but is minimally involved in promoting CD4 binding, which could ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Highly Virulent Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variants That Recently Emerged In The United States, Aspen M. Workman, Timothy P.L. Smith, Fernando A. Osorio, Hiep L.X. Vu Jan 2016

Complete Genome Sequence Of Highly Virulent Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variants That Recently Emerged In The United States, Aspen M. Workman, Timothy P.L. Smith, Fernando A. Osorio, Hiep L.X. Vu

Virology Papers

A recent outbreak of particularly virulent disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus has occurred in swine herds across the United States. We report here the complete genome sequence of eight viral isolates from four Nebraska herds experiencing an outbreak of severe disease in 2016.