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The Effects Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Macrophage Phagocytosis Of Malignant Cells, Tahirah M. Madkhali Jan 2019

The Effects Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Macrophage Phagocytosis Of Malignant Cells, Tahirah M. Madkhali

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Macrophages are essential phagocytic cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune systems and play vital roles in the host defense and inflammation. Macrophages have a remarkably high capacity to clear unnecessary cellular materials in interstitial environment through a process called “phagocytosis”, which is affected by many factors including suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS). SOCSs are a group of intracellular proteins that downregulate the cytokine signals involved in various JAK/STAT pathways through a negative feedback loop. This study focuses on investigating the effects of SOCS1 and SOCS3 on the phagocytic ability of RAW 264.7 macrophages polarized into M2a ...


Enhanced Expression Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Mer (Mertk) On Socs3-Treated Polarized Raw 264.7 Anti-Inflammatory M2c Macrophages, Sankhadip Bhadra Jan 2019

Enhanced Expression Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Mer (Mertk) On Socs3-Treated Polarized Raw 264.7 Anti-Inflammatory M2c Macrophages, Sankhadip Bhadra

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Macrophages are phagocytic cells located in tissues, organs and even circulated within our body as white blood cells. They are critical in detecting tissue damage and infection. Resident tissue macrophages initiate the signals for inflammation recruiting neutrophils and blood monocytes which mature into macrophages at sites of infection and in the resolution of inflammation. Based on the local cytokine milieu in tissue sites, macrophages may be polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Receptor tyrosine kinase Mer (MERTK) helps in clearing dead neutrophils and other apoptotic cells from damaged tissue sites preventing chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders. MERTK aids ...


The Response Of M0, M1, And M2 Raw246.7 Macrophage Cell Line To Hsv-1 Infection In Vitro, Amani Mohammed Alhazmi Jan 2019

The Response Of M0, M1, And M2 Raw246.7 Macrophage Cell Line To Hsv-1 Infection In Vitro, Amani Mohammed Alhazmi

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Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) infection occurs through the epithelial cells of the skin or mucous membranes. The beginning of the primary infection is rapid and is characterized by pain in the mouth, salivation, and submandibular lymphadenitis. The infected mucosa produces numerous, small and red lesions known as cold sores, however, many cases are asymptomatic. After the primary infection HSV-1 moves through the nerve to stay in trigeminal ganglia and to cause a recurrent infection from time to time. In the early hours of the HSV-1 infection, the cytokines produced by infected cells are critical in the stimulation of ...


Six-Nine Months Long Term Culture Of Mouse Bone Marrow Cells Differentiated To Macrophages And Eosinophils, Olena B. Svitlova Jan 2019

Six-Nine Months Long Term Culture Of Mouse Bone Marrow Cells Differentiated To Macrophages And Eosinophils, Olena B. Svitlova

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Mouse models of eosinophil-associated diseases have been used to study the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. In this study, mouse-derived bone marrow cells were used in long-term (6 and 9 months) cell cultures of differentiated eosinophils and macrophages. IL-5 was used to differentiate the stem cells to eosinophils and GM-CSF was used to propagate macrophages from the bone marrow stem cells. The maximum time period for observing the eosinophil cultures was 252 days which is censurably longer than the 18 days culture period observed by others. The results were assessed by describing the microscopic cell morphology by Wright staining, modified Giemsa ...


Microbiological Safety Assessment Of Fresh Fruits And Vegetables Collected From Main Markets Of Multan, Pakistan, Bina Rida, Farah Deeba May 2018

Microbiological Safety Assessment Of Fresh Fruits And Vegetables Collected From Main Markets Of Multan, Pakistan, Bina Rida, Farah Deeba

Journal of Bioresource Management

Most of the research related to food-borne human pathogens is conducted on the transmission of pathogens from foods of animal origin. However, recent studies showed that fruits and vegetables are the sources of many disease outbreaks. This study was carried out to assess the current knowledge and future developments for the microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. The eight different fruits and vegetables, Grape (Vitis vinifera), Banana (Musa acuminate), Orange (Citrus sinensis), Apple (Malus domestica Borkh), Carrott (Daucus carota), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Green chili (Capsicum annuum), Onion (Allium fistulosum), were bought from two localities. To determine the frequency of ...


Virus Production And Cell Viability Of Hsv-1-Infected Murine Keratinocytes (Hel-30) Co-Cultured With Murine Macrophages (Raw 264.7), Barry Graffagna Jan 2018

Virus Production And Cell Viability Of Hsv-1-Infected Murine Keratinocytes (Hel-30) Co-Cultured With Murine Macrophages (Raw 264.7), Barry Graffagna

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Keratinocytes are the most abundant type of cell in the outer layer of skin, the epidermis, and provide barrier against pathogens from invading. However, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) targets these keratinocytes for infection, and later infects neurons to establish lifelong latency. The keratinocytes stimulate the innate immune system to engage and to destroy the virus. Among the cells of the innate immune system to respond to the viral invasion is the macrophage. In this study, RAW 264.7 macrophage and HEL-30 keratinocyte monolayers were challenged in vitro with HSV-1 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 ...


Effects Of Voluntary Physical Rehabilitation On Neurogenesis In Svz And Functional Recovery After Ischemic Stroke, Anuranjani Balakrishnan Jan 2018

Effects Of Voluntary Physical Rehabilitation On Neurogenesis In Svz And Functional Recovery After Ischemic Stroke, Anuranjani Balakrishnan

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Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability and 87% of all strokes are due to ischemic strokes. In this current study, we examined whether voluntary physical rehabilitation can influence neurogenesis (measured by Doublecortin) in the subventricular zone and show improved motor functional recovery in 10-12 month female rats after ischemia. We saw a significant increase in the neurogenesis (measured by doublecortin) of all three regions (anterior, middle and posterior) of SVZ in the rehab animals compared to control group when using a two-way variance ANOVA test, although we were unable to see significant differences in paired t-tests of similar ...


Hsv-1 Replication In Different Raw 264.7 And J774.1 Macrophage Phenotypes And Macrophage Viability Following Hsv-1 Infection, Yousef Nifaj Alanazi Jan 2018

Hsv-1 Replication In Different Raw 264.7 And J774.1 Macrophage Phenotypes And Macrophage Viability Following Hsv-1 Infection, Yousef Nifaj Alanazi

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HSV-1 is a ubiquitous virus capable of causing lifelong latent infection. The virus contains a large double strand DNA genome covered by an icosahedral capsid. HSV-1 is a cytolytic virus which can cause a lethal infection. The virus possesses critical protein ICP0 which is capable of interfering with host cell signaling and eventually prevent cell apoptosis. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in defense against HSV-1 infection and macrophage plays a significant role in the innate immune system. Macrophage cells can alter their behavior depending upon certain stimuli and tissue environments. Naive macrophage (M0) cells can be polarized to a ...


The Response Of Unpolarized Macrophages (Raw 264.7)/Keratinocytes (Pam-212) Monolayer And Co-Culture System To Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (Hsv-1) Replication During The Infection., Fahad Mohammed Alradi Jan 2018

The Response Of Unpolarized Macrophages (Raw 264.7)/Keratinocytes (Pam-212) Monolayer And Co-Culture System To Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (Hsv-1) Replication During The Infection., Fahad Mohammed Alradi

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Keratinocytes and neurons cells are the main target for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) invasion. Moreover, keratinocytes are the most abundant cell types in the epidermis layer in the skin. Therefore, they are the first cells to encounter HSV-1 in the primary infection. Next, the virus reaches the nerve endings and is transferred to neuronal cells as a result from the primary infection. In between these two events, innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages response is activated and recruited to the infection site. In this study, keratinocytes (PAM-212) and murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell lines were utilized ...


The Impact Of Cytokines And Hsv-1 On Rab5 Protein Expression, F-Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement, And Cell Viability Of Uninfected And Virus-Infected M0, M1, And M2 Raw264.7 Murine Macrophages, Muhannad Falah Alruwaili Jan 2018

The Impact Of Cytokines And Hsv-1 On Rab5 Protein Expression, F-Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement, And Cell Viability Of Uninfected And Virus-Infected M0, M1, And M2 Raw264.7 Murine Macrophages, Muhannad Falah Alruwaili

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The endocytic pathway in all eukaryotic cells is necessary to maintain cellular functions, such as initiating transport of intracellular cargos and ingesting pathogens. The main regulator of this process is a member of small GTPase family, Rab5 protein. Rab5 protein plays a key role in the endocytic dynamic delivery of molecules, receptors, and pathogens from the cell membrane to cytoplasmic vesicles.as well as in the exocytic delivery of cellular products to the cell's exterior (Bonifacino & Glick, 2004). Many pathogens have exploited this protein to enter cells. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) enters most cells by fusion or utilizes the endocytic pathway using Rab5 protein (Spearman, 2017). Also, HSV-1 depends on Rab5 in the enveloping process to produce mature viral particles (Hollinshead, 2012). F-actin is a major microfilament of the cell's cytoskeleton, aiding migration to the site of infection, muscles contraction, and cell division (Khadijeh, Amir, & Maryam, 2015). As a barrier, F-actin also protects the cellular organelles within the cytoplasm (Vitale, Seward, & Trifaro, 1995). The goals of this study were to determine the effect of the HSV-1 infection on Rab5 expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and on F-actin distribution at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours or late time at 24 hours after polarization of the macrophages to M1, M2a, and M2c phenotypes. M1 macrophages were polarized by interferon gamma (IFN-¿) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Unpolarized cells (M0) were converted to M2a phenotype by treating them with interleukin 4 (IL-4). M2c phenotype was polarized with interleukin 10 (IL-10). HSV-1 infection upregulated Rab5 protein expression at 2-6 hours in both M2a and M2c phenotypes but not in M1 polarized macrophages. The Impact of Cytokine Treatments and HSV-1 on Rab5 Protein Expression, F-actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement, and Cell Viability of Uninfected and Virus- Infected M0, M1, and M2 RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophages. increase in Rab5 expression was seen at 24 hours after virus infection in any of the polarized macrophages but was seen in HSV-1 infected unpolarized M0 cells. Both M1 and M2 polarizing agents caused an upregulation in Rab5 expression from 2 to 6 hours after polarization. HSV-1 infection caused a decrease F-actin distribution (staining intensity) levels among test groups at most time points. Polarization caused a decrease in cell viability of M1 macrophage; HSV-1 infection did not enhance this decrease in cell viability after 24 hours. M2 phenotypes, uninfected or HSV-1-infected, did not exhibit any decrease ...


The Effects Of Socs1, Socs3 And Hsv-1 Infection On Morphology, Cell Viability And Rab7 Expression In Polarized M1 And M2 Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Jessica Renee Hey Jan 2018

The Effects Of Socs1, Socs3 And Hsv-1 Infection On Morphology, Cell Viability And Rab7 Expression In Polarized M1 And M2 Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Jessica Renee Hey

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HSV-1 causes a life-long infection in its host and has evolved multiple strategies to facilitate infection and evade the immune response. This virus has been found to enter cells by both endocytosis and fusion. The way the virus exploits endocytosis is not fully understood. Recent studies have uncovered roles of Rab GTPases, key regulators in intracellular membrane trafficking pathways, in distinct steps of the HSV-1 life cycle (Raza et al., 2018). This study will focus on analyzing the levels of the late endosomal regulator Rab7 expression in macrophages infected with HSV-1. Revealing the effect of virus on the levels of ...


Phytochemical Screening And Determination Of Antibacterial, Anti-Tumorigenic And Dna Protection Ability Of Root Extracts Of Saussurea Lappa, Sughra Arif Minhas, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz Sep 2017

Phytochemical Screening And Determination Of Antibacterial, Anti-Tumorigenic And Dna Protection Ability Of Root Extracts Of Saussurea Lappa, Sughra Arif Minhas, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz

Journal of Bioresource Management

Saussurea lappa is a traditionally well-known plant for its medicinal uses in different indigenous systems of medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of asthma, ulcer, stomach problems and inflammatory diseases. In current study the phytochemical screening of S. lappa showed the presence of sesquiterpenes, anthraquinones, lignans, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids. Antimicrobial potential of subject plant was also investigated against three bacterial strains and maximum antibacterial activity was observed by CEE against S. aureus, CAE against P. aeruginosa, while CME, CEE, EAE and PEE showed almost same significant activity against E. coli. The CME (1000 ppm) was found ...


Characterization Of Different Molecular Markers For Identification Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistani Population, Faizan Muttiullah, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Sabiha Shamim Sep 2017

Characterization Of Different Molecular Markers For Identification Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistani Population, Faizan Muttiullah, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Sabiha Shamim

Journal of Bioresource Management

Typhoid is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi that is usually diagnosed by using serologic and immuno-chromatographic techniques in developing counties including Pakistan, which is thought to be an unreliable diagnostic method. For accurate diagnosis we used molecular techniques to amplify 204 bp StyR-36 and 498 bp flagellin gene for the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. This study was done on 58 individuals diagnosed positive of typhoid via serologic tests and 50 healthy individuals as a control group. Success rate of amplification for flagellin gene was 77.58% while that for StyR-36 gene was 68.97% showing that flagellin ...


The Effect Of Gram-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Cell Wall Components Lipoteichoic Acid And Peptidoglycan On Cytokine Production, Cytoskeletal Arrangement, And Cell Viability On Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Gabrielle String Jan 2017

The Effect Of Gram-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Cell Wall Components Lipoteichoic Acid And Peptidoglycan On Cytokine Production, Cytoskeletal Arrangement, And Cell Viability On Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Gabrielle String

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In this study, gram positive Staphylococcus aureus cell wall components such as lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) were used to study the potential inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine response, cytoskeletal arrangement and cell viability on RAW264.7 murine macrophages over 24 hours. The effect of S.aureus LTA and PGN (5 [mu]g/mL) on RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated every six hours for twenty-four hours. Inflammatory cytokine (TNF-a) production peaked at 6 hours before decreasing over time. Anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) production peaked between 12 and 18 hours. During the first twenty-four hours, cytotoxicity of treated macrophages, as defined ...


Genomic Vs. Non-Genomic Role Of The Ahr In Human Immunoglobulin Expression, Nasser Alhamdan Jan 2017

Genomic Vs. Non-Genomic Role Of The Ahr In Human Immunoglobulin Expression, Nasser Alhamdan

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The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (Igh) in various animal models is regulated by numerous regulatory elements including the 3’Igh regulatory region (3’IghRR). Several transcription factors are involved in modulating the 3’IghRR including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of environmental toxicants such as TCDD. TCDD binds AhR and regulates immunoglobulin (Ig) expression in B cells. This modulation appears to be directly mediated by binding of the AhR to dioxin response elements (DRE) within the 3’IghRR. In human B cells, IgG ...


Vitamin D3 And Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling Proteins Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines In An Alzheimer’S Disease Like-Model Consisting Of Microglial And Neuronal Co-Cultures, Alexander Evdokiou Jan 2017

Vitamin D3 And Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling Proteins Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines In An Alzheimer’S Disease Like-Model Consisting Of Microglial And Neuronal Co-Cultures, Alexander Evdokiou

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This study examined the inflammatory effects of amyloid-ß (Aß42) in a microglial-neuronal co-culture system and determined whether 1a, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) along with suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS 3 mimetics would attenuate the inflammatory response to Aß42. This culture system, when seeded with Aß42, serves as an in vitro model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In a neuronal-microglia co-culture, Aß42 stimulated microglia to secrete TNF-a, but with the addition of 1,25-(OH)2D3, TNF-a levels dropped by nearly eight-fold and to near zero values in the presence of both 1,25-(OH)2D3 ...


Effects Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Macrophage Phagocytosis Of Malignant Cells, Colt Dylan Capan Jan 2017

Effects Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Macrophage Phagocytosis Of Malignant Cells, Colt Dylan Capan

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Macrophages play a key role in both the innate and adaptive immune system responses to foreign materials. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are known as regulators of the immune response through various JAK/STAT pathways. This study examined the roles of SOCS1 and SOCS3 peptide mimetics on the phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled malignant target cell by RAW264.7 murine macrophages. The malignant cells used were Neuro-2a cells, a murine neuroblastoma cell line. A prominent “eat me” signal found in neuroblastoma cells is calreticulin (CRT), which permits macrophages to recognize and then phagocytize the malignant cells. When M1 (pro-inflammatory) polarized ...


The Effect Of Gram-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Cell Wall Components Lipoteichoic Acid And Peptidoglycan On Cytokine Production, Cytoskeletal Arrangement, And Cell Viability On Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Gabrielle String Jan 2017

The Effect Of Gram-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Cell Wall Components Lipoteichoic Acid And Peptidoglycan On Cytokine Production, Cytoskeletal Arrangement, And Cell Viability On Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Gabrielle String

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In this study, gram positive Staphylococcus aureus cell wall components such as lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) were used to study the potential inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine response, cytoskeletal arrangement and cell viability on RAW264.7 murine macrophages over 24 hours. The effect of S.aureus LTA and PGN (5 µg/mL) on RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated every six hours for twenty-four hours. Inflammatory cytokine (TNF-a) production peaked at 6 hours before decreasing over time. Anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) production peaked between 12 and 18 hours. During the first twenty-four hours, cytotoxicity of treated macrophages, as defined as ...


Genomic Vs. Non-Genomic Role Of The Ahr In Human Immunoglobulin Expression, Nasser Alhamdan Jan 2017

Genomic Vs. Non-Genomic Role Of The Ahr In Human Immunoglobulin Expression, Nasser Alhamdan

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The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (Igh) in various animal models is regulated by numerous regulatory elements including the 3'Igh regulatory region (3'IghRR). Several transcription factors are involved in modulating the 3'R including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of environmental toxicants such as TCDD. TCDD binds AhR and regulates immunoglobulin (Ig) expression in B cells. This modulation appears to be directly mediated by binding of the AhR to dioxin response elements (DRE) within the 3'IghRR. In human B cells, IgG ...


Vitamin D3 And Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling Proteins Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines In An Alzheimer's Disease Like-Model Consisting Of Microglial And Neuronal Co-Cultures, Alexander Evdokiou Jan 2017

Vitamin D3 And Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling Proteins Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines In An Alzheimer's Disease Like-Model Consisting Of Microglial And Neuronal Co-Cultures, Alexander Evdokiou

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This study examined the inflammatory effects of amyloid-beta (A[beta]42) in a microglial-neuronal co-culture system and determined whether 1a, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) along with suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS 3 mimetics would attenuate the inflammatory response to A[beta]42. This culture system, when seeded with A[beta]42, serves as an in vitro model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In a neuronal-microglia co-culture, A[beta]42 stimulated microglia to secrete TNF-a, but with the addition of 1,25-(OH)2D3, TNF-a levels dropped by nearly eight-fold and to near zero values in ...


Effects Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Macrophage Phagocytosis Of Malignant Cells, Colt Dylan Capan Jan 2017

Effects Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Macrophage Phagocytosis Of Malignant Cells, Colt Dylan Capan

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Macrophages play a key role in both the innate and adaptive immune system responses to foreign materials. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are known as regulators of the immune response through various JAK/STAT pathways. This study examined the roles of SOCS1 and SOCS3 peptide mimetics on the phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled malignant target cell by RAW264.7 murine macrophages. The malignant cells used were Neuro-2a cells, a murine neuroblastoma cell line. A prominent "eat me" signal found in neuroblastoma cells is calreticulin (CRT), which permits macrophages to recognize and then phagocytize the malignant cells. When M1 (pro-inflammatory) polarized ...


The Impact Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Rho And Cdc42 Proteins Expression, F-Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangements, And Cytokines Production Of Uninfected And Hsv-1 Infected M1 And M2 Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Maha A. Elwardany Jan 2017

The Impact Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Rho And Cdc42 Proteins Expression, F-Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangements, And Cytokines Production Of Uninfected And Hsv-1 Infected M1 And M2 Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Maha A. Elwardany

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The immune system plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of HSV-1 during the lytic phase of the disease, orchestrating the inflammatory response, retaining the virus in its latent phase and preventing the recurrence of HSV-1 infection. Macrophages display a vital role in the innate and adaptive immune responses during multiple phases of HSV-1 infection. Polarized macrophages are categorized into two distinct classes with diverse functions. The classically activated M1 can engulf and destroy the microbial agents, produce proinflammatory cytokines, and participate in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. The alternatively activated M2 induces anti-inflammatory mediators and stimulates tissue remodeling ...


Cytokine Expression, Cytoskeleton Organization, And Viability Of Sim-A9 Microglia Exposed To Staphylococcus Aureus-Derived Lipoteichoic Acid And Peptidoglycan, Erin Roberts Jan 2017

Cytokine Expression, Cytoskeleton Organization, And Viability Of Sim-A9 Microglia Exposed To Staphylococcus Aureus-Derived Lipoteichoic Acid And Peptidoglycan, Erin Roberts

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In these experiments, SIM-A9 microglia were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus cell wall components lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) at a concentration of 5 ug/mL for six, twelve, eighteen, and twenty-four hours and the cytokine expression, cytoskeleton organization, and cell viability of the cells were observed. Following LTA and PGN exposure, TNF-a; secretion increased at each time interval and was highest observed at 24 hours. No significant IL-10 secretion was detected. Over the 24 hour period, cell viability and cytotoxicity of LTA and PGN treatment groups were not significantly different from the control, indicating the observed inflammatory cytokine response ...


Effect Of Exposure Of Raw264.7 Macrophages To Salmonella Typhimurium Components On Cell Viability, Cytoskeleton Re-Arrangement And Cytokine Secretion, Khalid Abdullah Alyahya Jan 2017

Effect Of Exposure Of Raw264.7 Macrophages To Salmonella Typhimurium Components On Cell Viability, Cytoskeleton Re-Arrangement And Cytokine Secretion, Khalid Abdullah Alyahya

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Innate immune system plays an important role in individual's protection against pathogens and in activation of adaptive immune system. Utilizing RAW 264.7 murine macrophages as an innate immune response representative in this study, we analyzed the effect of invasive pathogen's components (e.g. flagellin) on the arrangement of macrophage's cytoskeleton, on viability of immune cells and on secretion of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and on fluorescence intensity of cytoskeleton after rearrangement. Additionally, we studied the similarity and differences between bacterial (Salmonella typhimurium) and synthetic TLR4 agonist (synthetic lipid-A) on viability, fluorescence intensity, cytokine secretion, and cytoskeleton ...


Effects Of Myrrh On Hsv-1 Using Plaque Assay, Badrieah Mohammad Alamri Jan 2017

Effects Of Myrrh On Hsv-1 Using Plaque Assay, Badrieah Mohammad Alamri

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Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly infective human pathogen which infects a wide range of population in North America and worldwide. HSV-1 infection has two phases, lytic and latent. Recurrence of HSV-1 is a major challenge to clinicians to control the infection especially in immune depleted individuals. Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug used to treat HSV-1 infection. Low solubility of ACV in water, mutation of viral thymidine kinase, and mutation of viral DNA polymerase are major problems that cause usage limitations of ACV. Myrrh has been used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory natural product in middle ...


A Novel Molecular Relationship Between Parn And Pld That, When Deregulated, Contributes To The Aggressive Phenotype Of Breast Cancer Cell Lines., Taylor Elaine Miller Jan 2017

A Novel Molecular Relationship Between Parn And Pld That, When Deregulated, Contributes To The Aggressive Phenotype Of Breast Cancer Cell Lines., Taylor Elaine Miller

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The removal of mRNA transcript poly(A) tails by 3'-5' exonucleases is the rate-limiting step for controlled mRNA decay in eukaryotes. Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) is one such exonuclease that degrades poly(A) tails, and although its in vitro activity is well-characterized, PARN’s patho-physiological roles in the cell are not well understood. Prior studies have found a possible role for PARN in cancer, in that PARN expression levels in human breast cancer tissues are often decreased compared to normal control tissues. Indeed, data mined from the ONCOMINE cancer array database showed that PARN is downregulated in patient ...


Dnp63a Suppresses Cell Invasion By Targeting Rac1 Through Mir-320a, Amjad Ahmed Aljagthmi Jan 2017

Dnp63a Suppresses Cell Invasion By Targeting Rac1 Through Mir-320a, Amjad Ahmed Aljagthmi

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DNp63a, a member of the p53 family of transcription factors, is overexpressed in a number of cancers and known to play a role in proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. DNp63a has been shown to regulate several microRNAs that play a role in both development and cancer, but to date there has not been a global analysis of p63- regulated miRNA. Using next-generation sequencing of small RNA from wild type and sip63 transfected HaCaT cells, our laboratory recently identified a number of DNp63a- regulated miRNAs by RNA-Seq studies which may serve as biomarkers of cancer progression. We identified a novel miRNA ...


Poster: Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Emillie Partridge Apr 2016

Poster: Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Emillie Partridge

Best Integrated Writing

This poster presentation by Partridge provides information about stem cell research and the controversy surrounding it.


Cell Viability, Cytoskeleton Organization And Cytokines Secretion Of Raw 264.7 Macrophages Exposed To Gram-Negative Bacterial Components, Ali Awadh Alshehri Jan 2016

Cell Viability, Cytoskeleton Organization And Cytokines Secretion Of Raw 264.7 Macrophages Exposed To Gram-Negative Bacterial Components, Ali Awadh Alshehri

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Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity by controlling cellular responses. In this study, the effects of gram-negative bacterial components (Flagellin, lipoprotein, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), outer membrane proteins-A (OMP-A) and peptidoglycan) were determined on cell viability, morphology, cytoskeletal filament and cytokines secretion of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages at 24 hours. The effect of LPS, flagellin and peptidoglycan from gram negative bacteria on viability murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were evaluated using different concentrations (1, 5 and 10 µg/ml). Cells stimulated with LPS displayed ~ 2-fold decrease (P=0.001) in cell viability compared to control cells at 24 hours ...


Development And Validation Of Virus And Ebola Misconceptions Assessment (Viremia): Ebola Virus Misconceptions In College Students, Michele Miller Jan 2016

Development And Validation Of Virus And Ebola Misconceptions Assessment (Viremia): Ebola Virus Misconceptions In College Students, Michele Miller

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In this study an assessment (VirEMiA) on college students' knowledge and misconceptions of the Ebola virus was created and validated. VirEMiA was then used to determine what misconceptions college students have about Ebola, if there is a difference in misconceptions between students with and without a strong science background, and if Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) increases students' knowledge of Ebola and decreases their misconceptions. VirEMiA was shown to be a valid and reliable assessment whether confidence was integrated (seprel=0.97) or not (seprel=0.98), and for measuring misconceptions (seprel=0.97). If psychology and nursing majors were considered to ...