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The Forensic Characterization Of Bacterial And Fungal Organisms In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Julia Grzymkowski, Christopher J. Ehrhardt, Justin L. Poklis, Michelle R. Peace Jan 2018

The Forensic Characterization Of Bacterial And Fungal Organisms In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Julia Grzymkowski, Christopher J. Ehrhardt, Justin L. Poklis, Michelle R. Peace

Undergraduate Research Posters

There has been an increase in use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in the United States because they are less expensive and believed to be more effective with less adverse effects in comparison to traditional pharmaceutics. Therefore, sales have increased in the US, despite articles and case studies demonstrating the dangers, such as injury and death, related to TCM, stemming from improper labelling, toxic contaminants, and, in some cases, the presence of pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to perform a survival experiment to demonstrate the importance of proper herbal brewing technique and to conduct a molecular and ...


Proteomic Approach For Extracting Cytoplasmic Proteins From Streptococcus Sanguinis Using Mass Spectrometry, Fadi Elrami, Kristina Nelson, Ping Xu Jan 2017

Proteomic Approach For Extracting Cytoplasmic Proteins From Streptococcus Sanguinis Using Mass Spectrometry, Fadi Elrami, Kristina Nelson, Ping Xu

Philips Institute for Oral Health Research Publications

Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal and early colonizer of oral cavity as well as an opportunistic pathogen of infectious endocarditis. Extracting the soluble proteome of this bacterium provides deep insights about the physiological dynamic changes under different growth and stress conditions, thus defining “proteomic signatures” as targets for therapeutic intervention. In this protocol, we describe an experimentally verified approach to extract maximal cytoplasmic proteins from Streptococcus sanguinis SK36 strain. A combination of procedures was adopted that broke the thick cell wall barrier and minimized denaturation of the intracellular proteome, using optimized buffers and a sonication step. Extracted proteome was quantitated ...


Characterization Of A Putative Hemolysin Expressed By Sneathia Amnii, A Preterm Birth-Associated Pathogen, Lizette Carrasco, Kimberly Jefferson Jan 2017

Characterization Of A Putative Hemolysin Expressed By Sneathia Amnii, A Preterm Birth-Associated Pathogen, Lizette Carrasco, Kimberly Jefferson

Undergraduate Research Posters

The gram-negative bacteria Sneathia amnii is a poorly-characterized commensal of the female urogenital tract frequently associated with adverse clinical outcomes such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), amnionitis, and preterm labor. To investigate its potential role in virulence, we sought to identify and characterize virulence determinants produced by S. amnii in an effort to better understand the pathogenesis of infectious preterm birth. Through sequencing of the Sn35 genome (type strain of S. amnii), we identified two genes with amino acid sequence similarity and structural similarity to the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) protein of Bordetella pertussis and its Type Vb transporter. Because S. amnii ...


Amixicile Inhibits Anaerobic Bacteria Within An Oral Microbiome Derived From Patients With Chronic Periodontitis, Kane Ramsey Jan 2017

Amixicile Inhibits Anaerobic Bacteria Within An Oral Microbiome Derived From Patients With Chronic Periodontitis, Kane Ramsey

Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by pathogenic bacteria residing in a complex biofilm within a susceptible host. Amixicile is a non-toxic, readily bioavailable novel antimicrobial that targets strict anaerobes through inhibition of the activity of Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major enzyme mediating oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of amixicile, when compared to metronidazole, in inhibiting the growth of bacteria present in a microbiome harvested from patients with chronic periodontitis.

Plaque samples were harvested from patients with severe chronic periodontitis and cultured under anaerobic conditions. The microbiomes were grown in the presence ...


In Search Of A Function For An Uncharacterized Conserved Protein In Streptococcus Sanguinis Sk36, Ayana Scott-Elliston Jan 2017

In Search Of A Function For An Uncharacterized Conserved Protein In Streptococcus Sanguinis Sk36, Ayana Scott-Elliston

Theses and Dissertations

With the number of fully sequenced bacterial genomes increasing in the past 7 years, it has been discovered that a large percentage of the putative protein coding genes have no known function. This lack of knowledge leaves scientists with an incomplete understanding of bacteria. In this study, conserved hypothetical protein mutants from Streptococcus sanguinis SK36 were screened on solid media with various environmental conditions. From these screens, the candidate protein, SSA_2372, displayed a sensitivity to acidic conditions. Its homolog in Bacillus subtilis 168, BSU00030, also displayed a sensitivity to pH conditions at its acid tolerance extremes unlike its other homolog ...


Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Naegleria Fowleri And Their Role In Degradation Of The Extracellular Matrix, Charlton Lam Jan 2017

Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Naegleria Fowleri And Their Role In Degradation Of The Extracellular Matrix, Charlton Lam

Theses and Dissertations

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds that is the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been described in protozoa, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and Balamuthia mandrillaris, and have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability by degrading components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, MMPs are often upregulated in tumorigenic cells and have been attributed as responsible for the metastasis of certain cancers. In the present study, in vitro experiments indicated that MMPs are linked functionally to the ECM degradation process. Gelatin zymography demonstrated ...


The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, William D. Marks Jan 2017

The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, William D. Marks

Theses and Dissertations

HIV is capable of causing a set of neurological diseases collectively termed the HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Worsening pathology is observed in HIV+ individuals who use opioid drugs. Memory problems are often observed in HAND, implicating HIV pathology in the hippocampus, and are also known to be exacerbated by morphine use. HIV-1 Tat was demonstrated to reduce spatial memory performance in multiple tasks, and individual subsets of CA1 interneurons were found to be selectively vulnerable to the effects of Tat, notably nNOS+/NPY- interneurons of the pyramidal layer and stratum radiatum, PV+ neurons of the pyramidal layer, and SST ...


Discovery And Characterization Of Bile Acid And Steroid Metabolism Pathways In Gut-Associated Microbes, Spencer Harris Jan 2017

Discovery And Characterization Of Bile Acid And Steroid Metabolism Pathways In Gut-Associated Microbes, Spencer Harris

Theses and Dissertations

The human gut microbiome is a complex microbial ecosystem residing in the lumen of our gastrointestinal tract. The type and amounts of microbes present in this ecosystem varies based on numerous factors, including host genetics, diet, and environmental factors. The human gut microbiome plays an important role in normal host physiological functions, including providing energy to colonocytes in the form of short-chain fatty acids. However, gut microbial metabolites have also been associated with numerous disease states. Current tools for analyzing the gut microbiome, such as high-throughput sequencing techniques, are limited in their predictive ability. Additionally, “-omic” approaches of studying the ...


Mathematical Models Of Biofilm For Antimicrobial Persistence, Jia Zhao May 2016

Mathematical Models Of Biofilm For Antimicrobial Persistence, Jia Zhao

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen May 2016

Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Urbanization On Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Nikhita Puthuveetil Jan 2016

The Impact Of Urbanization On Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Nikhita Puthuveetil

Undergraduate Research Posters

Mosquito-borne diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile are rapidly emerging across the globe. Their emergence is often aided by the growth of their vector population, or the organisms that transmit the virus to the host. Urbanization and land use often destroys the habitat of the virus and its vector. However, the virus and its vector often survive despite the changes to its environment. The goal of this paper is to find out exactly how urbanization and changes in land use affect mosquito-borne viruses and how these viruses survive despite the destruction of their habitats. To understand how ...


Interactomics-Based Functional Analysis: Using Interaction Conservation To Probe Bacterial Protein Functions, J. Harry Caufield Jan 2016

Interactomics-Based Functional Analysis: Using Interaction Conservation To Probe Bacterial Protein Functions, J. Harry Caufield

Theses and Dissertations

The emergence of genomics as a discrete field of biology has changed humanity’s understanding of our relationship with bacteria. Sequencing the genome of each newly-discovered bacterial species can reveal novel gene sequences, though the genome may contain genes coding for hundreds or thousands of proteins of unknown function (PUFs). In some cases, these coding sequences appear to be conserved across nearly all bacteria. Exploring the functional roles of these cases ideally requires an integrative, cross-species approach involving not only gene sequences but knowledge of interactions among their products. Protein interactions, studied at genome scale, extend genomics into the field ...


Response Of Soil Microbial Communities To Saltwater Intrusion In Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, Chansotheary Dang Jan 2016

Response Of Soil Microbial Communities To Saltwater Intrusion In Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, Chansotheary Dang

Theses and Dissertations

Saltwater intrusion due to global change is expected to have a detrimental effect on the biogeochemistry of tidal freshwater wetlands. Of particular concern is that fact that salinization can alter the role of these ecosystems in the global carbon cycling by causing shifts in microbial metabolism that alter greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon mineralization rates. However, our understanding of how wetland microbial community dynamics will respond to saltwater intrusion is limited. To address this knowledge gap and increase our understanding of how microbial communities in tidal freshwater wetlands change over time (1, 3, 12, and 49 weeks) under elevated ...


Integrated Nanoscale Imaging And Spatial Recognition Of Biomolecules On Surfaces, Congzhou Wang Jan 2015

Integrated Nanoscale Imaging And Spatial Recognition Of Biomolecules On Surfaces, Congzhou Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Biomolecules on cell surfaces play critical roles in diverse biological and physiological processes. However, conventional bulk scale techniques are unable to clarify the density and distribution of specific biomolecules in situ on single, living cell surfaces at the micro or nanoscale. In this work, a single cell analysis technique based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is developed to spatially identify biomolecules and characterize nanomechanical properties on single cell surfaces. The unique advantage of these AFM-based techniques lies in the ability to operate in situ (in a non-destructive fashion) and in real time, under physiological conditions or controlled micro-environments.

First, AFM-based ...


A Novel Antimicrobial Drug Discovery Approach For The Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Victoria N. Stone Jan 2015

A Novel Antimicrobial Drug Discovery Approach For The Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Victoria N. Stone

Theses and Dissertations

The human body is colonized by more than 100 trillion microbes which make up an essential part of the body and plays a significant role in health. We now know the over use and misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics can disrupt this microbiome contributing to the onset of disease and runs the risk of promoting antibiotic resistance. With antibiotic research still on the decline, new strategies are greatly needed to combat emerging pathogens while maintaining a healthy microbiome. We therefore set out to present a novel species-selective antimicrobial drug discovery strategy.

Disruption of the homeostasis within the oral cavity can trigger ...


Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow Jan 2015

Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow

Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcal phage 80α can serve as a helper bacteriophage for a family of mobile genetic elements called Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). The prototype island, SaPI1, is able to hijack the 80α capsid assembly process and redirect capsid formation to yield smaller, phage-like transducing particles carrying SaPI DNA. Capsid size redirection is accomplished through two SaPI1-encoded gene products, CpmA and an alternate scaffold protein, CpmB. The normal 80α scaffold and the SaPI1 CpmB scaffold share a small block of conserved residues at their C-termini, several of which had been shown to be essential for CpmB function. This led to the ...


A Metagenomic Assessment Of The Bacteria Associated With Lucilia Sericata And Lucilia Cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Baneshwar Singh, Tawni L. Crippen, Longyu Zheng, Andrew T. Fields, Ziniu Yu, Qun Ma, Thomas K. Wood, Scot E. Dowd, Micah Flores, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Aaron M. Tarone Jan 2014

A Metagenomic Assessment Of The Bacteria Associated With Lucilia Sericata And Lucilia Cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Baneshwar Singh, Tawni L. Crippen, Longyu Zheng, Andrew T. Fields, Ziniu Yu, Qun Ma, Thomas K. Wood, Scot E. Dowd, Micah Flores, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Aaron M. Tarone

Forensic Science Publications

Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Although the genus is of considerable economic importance, our knowledge about microbes associated with these flies and how these bacteria are horizontally and trans-generationally transmitted is limited. In this study, we characterized bacteria associated with different life stages of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia cuprina(Wiedemann) and in the salivary gland of L. sericata by using 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. Bacteria associated with the salivary gland of L. sericata ...


Characterization Of The Effects Of Iron On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Surface Protein Modulation And Host Cell Interactions, Aminat Oki Jan 2014

Characterization Of The Effects Of Iron On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Surface Protein Modulation And Host Cell Interactions, Aminat Oki

Theses and Dissertations

Iron is an essential nutrient that is sequestered by iron-binding proteins in the human host resulting in a hostile environment for microbes. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, however, can utilize numerous iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin to acquire this nutrient. During initial infection, gonococci have access to transferrin and lactoferrin present in semen and vaginal fluids, as well as to hemoglobin present in blood during menses or disseminated infections. Consequently, the gonococcus likely encounters conditions of high iron at some stages in the course of natural infection. Potential contributions of iron to gonococcal invasion have however been largely over looked in ...


Cyanonews (Vol. 17, No. 1, 2002), Jeff Elhai Jan 2002

Cyanonews (Vol. 17, No. 1, 2002), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 16, No. 1, December 2001), Jeff Elhai Jan 2001

Cyanonews (Vol. 16, No. 1, December 2001), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 15, No. 1, July 2000), Jeff Elhai Jan 2000

Cyanonews (Vol. 15, No. 1, July 2000), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 14, No. 1, August 1998), Jeff Elhai Jan 1998

Cyanonews (Vol. 14, No. 1, August 1998), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 13, No. 1, July 1997), Jeff Elhai Jan 1997

Cyanonews (Vol. 13, No. 1, July 1997), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Stem Cell Factor And Kit Expression In Type I Neurofibromatosis, Kenneth Eugene Roth Jan 1997

Stem Cell Factor And Kit Expression In Type I Neurofibromatosis, Kenneth Eugene Roth

Theses and Dissertations

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited disease characterized by the appearance of multiple neurofibromas and an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas, both of which contain hyperproliferative Schwann cells. Our laboratory previously reported that Schwann cells produce stem cell factor (SCF), a multi potential growth factor known to be involved in mast cell migration and growth. Given the fact that mast cell numbers are increased in both neurofibromas and malignant schwannomas, we set out to evaluate a potential role for SCF in the development of NF1 lesions. First we studied the effects of high doses of recombinant SCF on mast ...


Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 2, July 1996), Jeff Elhai Jan 1996

Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 2, July 1996), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 1, January 1996), Jeff Elhai Jan 1996

Cyanonews (Vol. 12, No. 1, January 1996), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 2, July 1995), Jeff Elhai Jan 1995

Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 2, July 1995), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1995), Jeff Elhai Jan 1995

Cyanonews (Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1995), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.


The Role Of Follicular Dendritic Cells In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Pathogenesis, Sonya Lynn Heath Jan 1995

The Role Of Follicular Dendritic Cells In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Pathogenesis, Sonya Lynn Heath

Theses and Dissertations

Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1(HIV) results in a disease process characterized by three stages: an acute phase characterized by viremia, a clinically latent stage with little or no detection of virus in the blood, and the last stage, AIDS, which. is characterized. by marked immunodeficiency. During clinical latency, CD4+ T cells decline over a period lasting from a few to several years. Throughout this period, HIV is found trapped on the surface of follicular dendritic cells(FDC) in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid tissues and this is the primary site of active viral replication. We hypothesize that FDC ...


Cyanonews (Vol. 10, No. 2, July 1994), Jeff Elhai Jan 1994

Cyanonews (Vol. 10, No. 2, July 1994), Jeff Elhai

CyanoNews

CyanoNews was a newsletter that served the cyanobacteriological community from 1985 to 2003, with content provided by readers (sort of a blog before there were blogs). The newsletter reported new findings from the lab, summaries of recent meetings (often provided by graduate students and post-docs entering the field), positions sought or available, life transitions, a compendium of recent cyanobacteria-related articles, and other items of interest to those who study cyanobacteria.