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Microbiology

Old Dominion University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 166

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Acute Systemic Inflammatory Response To Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Haibo Liu, Kristina M. Feye, Yet T. Nguyen, Anoosh Rakhshandeh, Crystal L. Loving, Jack C. M. Sekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Christopher K. Tuggle Oct 2019

Acute Systemic Inflammatory Response To Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Haibo Liu, Kristina M. Feye, Yet T. Nguyen, Anoosh Rakhshandeh, Crystal L. Loving, Jack C. M. Sekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Christopher K. Tuggle

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

Background: It is unclear whether improving feed efficiency by selection for low residual feed intake (RFI) compromises pigs’ immunocompetence. Here, we aimed at investigating whether pig lines divergently selected for RFI had different inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, regarding to clinical presentations and transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood cells.

Results: LPS injection induced acute systemic inflammation in both the low-RFI and high-RFI line (n = 8 per line). At 4 h post injection (hpi), the low-RFI line had a significantly lower (p= 0.0075) mean rectal temperature compared to the high-RFI line. However, no significant differences in complete blood count ...


Electrostatically Localized Proton Bioenergetics: Better Understanding Membrane Potential, James Weifu Lee Jul 2019

Electrostatically Localized Proton Bioenergetics: Better Understanding Membrane Potential, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, membrane potential Δψ was given as the electric potential difference across the membrane. However, its physical origin for membrane potential Δψ was not well explained. Using the Lee proton electrostatic localization model with a newly formulated equation for protonic motive force (pmf) that takes electrostatically localized protons into account, membrane potential has now been better understood as the voltage difference contributed by the localized surface charge density ([H-+L] + nΣ i=1 [M(i+)L]) at the liquid-membrane interface as in an electrostatically localized protons/cations-membrane-anions capacitor. That is, the origin of membrane potential ...


Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides In Tick-Borne Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Kumar Taank Apr 2019

Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides In Tick-Borne Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Kumar Taank

Biomedical Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are human illness transmitted by an arthropod vector. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that VBD has a huge impact worldwide that is responsible for affecting a billion people and causes 700,000 deaths annually. In recent years, there has been a continuous increase in the incidences of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme diseases and human anaplasmosis as reported by Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Very few reliable VBD control strategies have emerged till now. Transmission-blocking vaccines can provide effective management of VBDs but requires identification and characterization of novel vector-pathogen conserved molecules that play a significant ...


Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn Jan 2019

Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

We examined metaproteome profiles from two Arctic microbiomes during 10-day shipboard incubations to directly track early functional and taxonomic responses to a simulated algal bloom and an oligotrophic control. Using a novel peptide-based enrichment analysis, significant changes (p-value < 0.01) in biological and molecular functions associated with carbon and nitrogen recycling were observed. Within the first day under both organic matter conditions, Bering Strait surface microbiomes increased protein synthesis, carbohydrate degradation, and cellular redox processes while decreasing C1 metabolism. Taxonomic assignments revealed that the core microbiome collectively responded to algal substrates by assimilating carbon before select taxa utilize and metabolize nitrogen intracellularly. Incubations of Chukchi Sea bottom water microbiomes showed similar, but delayed functional responses to identical treatments. Although 24 functional terms were shared between experimental treatments, the timing, and degree of the remaining responses were highly variable, showing that organic matter perturbation directs community functionality prior to alterations to the taxonomic distribution at the microbiome class level. The dynamic responses of these two oceanic microbial communities have important implications for timing and magnitude of responses to organic perturbations within the Arctic Ocean and how community-level functions may forecast biogeochemical gradients in oceans.


Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Nov 2018

Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) play important roles in tickrickettsial pathogen interactions. In this report, we characterized the role of these conserved molecules in ticks infected with either Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi or tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).

Results: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression upon infection with B. burgdorferi in unfed ticks. Synchronous infection of unfed nymphal ticks with LGTV in vitro revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression. However, expression of specific oatps was significantly downregulated upon ...


Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong Aug 2018

Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Antimicrobial lock solutions are important for prevention of microbial colonization and infection of long-term central venous catheters. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel antibiotic-free lock solution formed from gas plasma-activated disinfectant (PAD). Using a luminal biofilm model, viable cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in mature biofilms were reduced by 6 to 8 orders of magnitude with a PAD lock for 60 min. Subsequent 24-h incubation of PAD-treated samples resulted in no detectable regrowth of viable bacteria or fungi. As a comparison, the use of a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol lock solution for 60 ...


Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Jul 2018

Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit several pathogens to humans including rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Here, we report that A. phagocytophilum uses tick transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP-1) as a molecular switch in the regulation of arthropod antifreeze gene, iafgp. RNAi-mediated silencing of ap-1 expression significantly affected iafgp gene expression and A. phagocytophilum burden in ticks upon acquisition from the murine host. Gel shift assays provide evidence that both the bacterium and AP-1 influences iafgp promoter and expression. The luciferase assays revealed that a region of approximately 700 bp upstream of the antifreeze gene is sufficient for AP-1 binding to promote iafgp gene ...


Mechanism Of Virus Inactivation By Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma And Plasma-Activated Water, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong Jun 2018

Mechanism Of Virus Inactivation By Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma And Plasma-Activated Water, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

ABSTRACT Viruses cause serious pathogenic contamination that severely affects the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria; however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water was used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, ϕ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the antiviral activity of plasma-activated water. DNA and protein analysis revealed that the reactive species generated by plasma damaged both nucleic acids and proteins, consistent with the ...


Arthropod Evs Mediate Dengue Virus Transmission Through Interaction With A Tetraspanin Domain Containing Glycoprotein Tsp29fb, Ashish Vora, Wenshuo Zhou, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Tonya M. Collpitts, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana Jun 2018

Arthropod Evs Mediate Dengue Virus Transmission Through Interaction With A Tetraspanin Domain Containing Glycoprotein Tsp29fb, Ashish Vora, Wenshuo Zhou, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Tonya M. Collpitts, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes dengue fever in humans, worldwide. Using in vitro cell lines derived from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the primary vectors of DENV, we report that DENV2/DENV3-infected cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, containing infectious viral RNA and proteins. A full-length DENV2 genome, detected in arthropod EVs, was infectious to naïve mosquito and mammalian cells, including human-skin keratinocytes and blood endothelial cells. Cryo-electron microscopy showed mosquito EVs with a size range from 30 to 250 nm. Treatments with RNase A, Triton X-100, and 4G2 antibody-bead binding assays showed that infectious ...


Ms Analysis Of A Dilution Series Of Bacteria: Phytoplankton To Improve Detection Of Low Abundance Bacterial Peptides, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Ying Sonia Ting, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn Jun 2018

Ms Analysis Of A Dilution Series Of Bacteria: Phytoplankton To Improve Detection Of Low Abundance Bacterial Peptides, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Ying Sonia Ting, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

Assigning links between microbial activity and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean is a primary objective for ecologists and oceanographers. Bacteria represent a small ecosystem component by mass, but act as the nexus for both nutrient transformation and organic matter recycling. There are limited methods to explore the full suite of active bacterial proteins largely responsible for degradation. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics now has the potential to document bacterial physiology within these complex systems. Global proteome profiling using MS, known as data dependent acquisition (DDA), is limited by the stochastic nature of ion selection, decreasing the detection of low abundance ...


Prediction Of Lncrna-Disease Associations Based On Inductive Matrix Completion, Chengqian Lu, Mengyun Yang, Feng Luo, Fang-Xiang Wu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang Apr 2018

Prediction Of Lncrna-Disease Associations Based On Inductive Matrix Completion, Chengqian Lu, Mengyun Yang, Feng Luo, Fang-Xiang Wu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Motivation: Accumulating evidences indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in various biological processes. Mutations and dysregulations of lncRNAs are implicated in miscellaneous human diseases. Predicting lncRNA–disease associations is beneficial to disease diagnosis as well as treatment. Although many computational methods have been developed, precisely identifying lncRNA–disease associations, especially for novel lncRNAs, remains challenging.

Results: In this study, we propose a method (named SIMCLDA) for predicting potential lncRNA– disease associations based on inductive matrix completion. We compute Gaussian interaction profile kernel of lncRNAs from known lncRNA–disease interactions and functional similarity of diseases based on disease ...


Gas Plasma Pre-Treatment Increases Antibiotic Sensitivity And Persister Eradication In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong Mar 2018

Gas Plasma Pre-Treatment Increases Antibiotic Sensitivity And Persister Eradication In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. The short-lived ROS and RNS generated by plasma ...


Better Living Through Chemistry: Addressing Emerging Antibiotic Resistance, Nathan P. Coussens, Ashley L. Molinaro, Kayla J. Culbertson, Tyler Peryea, Gergely Zahoránszky-Köhalmi, Matthew D. Hall, Dayle A. Daines Jan 2018

Better Living Through Chemistry: Addressing Emerging Antibiotic Resistance, Nathan P. Coussens, Ashley L. Molinaro, Kayla J. Culbertson, Tyler Peryea, Gergely Zahoránszky-Köhalmi, Matthew D. Hall, Dayle A. Daines

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is recognized as a major threat to human health worldwide. While the use of small molecule antibiotics has enabled many modern medical advances, it has also facilitated the development of resistant organisms. This minireview provides an overview of current small molecule drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans, the unintended consequences of antibiotic use, and the mechanisms that underlie the development of drug resistance. Promising new approaches and strategies to counter antibiotic-resistant bacteria with small molecules are highlighted. However, continued public investment in this area is critical ...


Coordination Of Different Ligands To Copper(Ii) And Cobalt(Iii) Metal Centers Enhances Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Loads In Both Arthropod Cells And Human Keratinocytes, Shovan Dutta, Michael J. Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlam Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr Kraj, Michael Ledizet, John F. Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A. Holder, Hameeda Sultana Jan 2018

Coordination Of Different Ligands To Copper(Ii) And Cobalt(Iii) Metal Centers Enhances Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Loads In Both Arthropod Cells And Human Keratinocytes, Shovan Dutta, Michael J. Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlam Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr Kraj, Michael Ledizet, John F. Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A. Holder, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz., (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (acetylethTSC) (compound 1), a copper(II) complex with acetylethTSC as a ligand (compound 2), a thiosemicarbazone ...


Cell Fragmentation And Permeabilization By A 1 Ns Pulse Driven Triple-Point Electrode, Enbo Yang, Joy Li, Michael Cho, Shu Xiao Jan 2018

Cell Fragmentation And Permeabilization By A 1 Ns Pulse Driven Triple-Point Electrode, Enbo Yang, Joy Li, Michael Cho, Shu Xiao

Bioelectrics Publications

Ultrashort electric pulses (ns-ps) are useful in gaining understanding as to how pulsed electric fields act upon biological cells, but the electric field intensity to induce biological responses is typically higher than longer pulses and therefore a high voltage ultrashort pulse generator is required. To deliver 1 ns pulses with sufficient electric field but at a relatively low voltage, we used a glass-encapsulated tungsten wire triple-point electrode (TPE) at the interface among glass, tungsten wire, and water when it is immersed in water. A high electric field (2MV/cm) can be created when pulses are applied. However, such a high ...


Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2018

Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) and the low efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) possess a high surface-area-to-volume ratio and size-dependent plasmonic optical properties, enabling them to serve both as imaging probes to study sized-dependent MDR and as potential drug carriers to circumvent MDR and enhance therapeutic efficacy. To this end, in this study, we synthesized three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), 2.4 ± 0.7, 13.0 ± 3.1, and 92.6 ± 4.4 nm, functionalized their surface with a monolayer of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT), and covalently conjugated them with ...


Non-Canonicaly Recruited Tcrαβcd8Αα Iels Recognize Microbial Antigens, Lukasz Wojciech, Edyta Szurek, Michal Kuczma, Anna Cebula, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Maciej Pietrzak, Grzegorz Rempala, Leszek Ignatowicz Jan 2018

Non-Canonicaly Recruited Tcrαβcd8Αα Iels Recognize Microbial Antigens, Lukasz Wojciech, Edyta Szurek, Michal Kuczma, Anna Cebula, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Maciej Pietrzak, Grzegorz Rempala, Leszek Ignatowicz

Computer Science Faculty Publications

In the gut, various subsets of intraepithelial T cells (IELs) respond to self or non-self-antigens derived from the body, diet, commensal and pathogenic microbiota. Dominant subset of IELs in the small intestine are TCRαβCD8αα+ cells, which are derived from immature thymocytes that express self-reactive TCRs. Although most of TCRαβCD8αα+ IELs are thymus-derived, their repertoire adapts to microbial flora. Here, using high throughput TCR sequencing we examined how clonal diversity of TCRαβCD8αα+ IELs changes upon exposure to commensal-derived antigens. We found that fraction of CD8αα+ IELs and CD4+ T cells express identical αβTCRs and this overlap raised ...


Molecular Candidates For Blocking The Transmission Of Vector-Borne Diseases, Ashish Naresh Vora Jan 2018

Molecular Candidates For Blocking The Transmission Of Vector-Borne Diseases, Ashish Naresh Vora

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) require urgent attention as they have a high mortality rate, with 700,000 people dying in a year as of 2017. So far, extremely few reliable vaccination strategies and solutions have emerged. Transmission blocking vaccines are one among many solutions available to manage the control of VBDs. These require identification of both vector and pathogen molecules that play important roles in the transmission, dissemination and establishment of VBDs. Our strategy is to characterize these candidates that play important roles in vector-host-pathogen interactions. This manuscript presents two such studies identifying the participation of two arthropod molecules in vector-host-pathogen ...


High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao Nov 2017

High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

We have developed a novel method that enables global subtelomere and haplotype-resolved analysis of telomere lengths at the single-molecule level. An in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-directed nickase system directs the specific labeling of human (TTAGGG) n DNA tracts in genomes that have also been barcoded using a separate nickase enzyme that recognizes a 7bp motif genome-wide. High-throughput imaging and analysis of large DNA single molecules from genomes labeled in this fashion using a nanochannel array system permits mapping through subtelomere repeat element (SRE) regions to unique chromosomal DNA while simultaneously measuring the (TTAGGG) n tract length at the end of ...


Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Oct 2017

Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits the human anaplasmosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we show that A. phagocytophilum specifically up-regulates I. scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide, isoatp4056 and kynurenine amino transferase (kat), a gene involved in the production of tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid (XA), for its survival in ticks. RNAi analysis revealed that knockdown of isoatp4056 expression had no effect on A. phagocytophilum acquisition from the murine host but affected the bacterial survival in tick cells. Knockdown of the expression of kat mRNA alone or in combination with isoatp4056 mRNA significantly affected A. phagocytophilum survival and isoatp4056 expression ...


Microbial Invasion Vs. Tick Immune Regulation, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Kevin R. Macaluso Sep 2017

Microbial Invasion Vs. Tick Immune Regulation, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Kevin R. Macaluso

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013 ...


Advances In Developing Therapies To Combat Zika Virus: Current Knowledge And Future Perspectives, Ashok Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Kuldeep Dharma, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal S. Malik, Deepak Kumar, Raj K. Singh, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Sunil K. Joshi Aug 2017

Advances In Developing Therapies To Combat Zika Virus: Current Knowledge And Future Perspectives, Ashok Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Kuldeep Dharma, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal S. Malik, Deepak Kumar, Raj K. Singh, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Sunil K. Joshi

Bioelectrics Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) remained largely quiescent for nearly six decades after its first appearance in 1947. ZIKV reappeared after 2007, resulting in a declaration of an international “public health emergency” in 2016 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Until this time, ZIKV was considered to induce only mild illness, but it has now been established as the cause of severe clinical manifestations, including fetal anomalies, neurological problems, and autoimmune disorders. Infection during pregnancy can cause congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological degeneration, and in other cases, Guillain-Barré syndrome, making infections with ZIKV a substantial public health concern. Genomic and ...


Ebola Virus - Epidemiology, Diagnosis, And Control: Threat To Humans, Lessons Learnt, And Preparedness Plans - An Update On Its 40 Year's Journey, Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Perumal Arumugam, Sunil Kumar Joshi Apr 2017

Ebola Virus - Epidemiology, Diagnosis, And Control: Threat To Humans, Lessons Learnt, And Preparedness Plans - An Update On Its 40 Year's Journey, Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Perumal Arumugam, Sunil Kumar Joshi

Bioelectrics Publications

Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. For curbing the disease timely, we need effective therapeutics/prophylactics, however, in the absence of any approved vaccine, timely diagnosis and monitoring of EBOV remains of utmost importance. The technologically advanced vaccines like a viral-vectored vaccine, DNA vaccine and virus-like particles ...


Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Mar 2017

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


Neurotrophic Factors Ngf, Gdnf And Ntn Selectively Modulate Hsv1 And Hsv2 Lytic Infection And Reactivation In Primary Adult Sensory And Autonomic Neurons, Andy Y. Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J. Sriranganathan, Angela M. Ives, Andrea S. Bertke Mar 2017

Neurotrophic Factors Ngf, Gdnf And Ntn Selectively Modulate Hsv1 And Hsv2 Lytic Infection And Reactivation In Primary Adult Sensory And Autonomic Neurons, Andy Y. Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J. Sriranganathan, Angela M. Ives, Andrea S. Bertke

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Thus, NGF may not maintain latency in adult sensory neurons. To identify NTFs important for maintaining HSV1 ...


Physical Activity And Sedentary Behaviors In Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence And Academic Burden Associations, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Yan Tang, Xueping Wu Jan 2017

Physical Activity And Sedentary Behaviors In Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence And Academic Burden Associations, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Yan Tang, Xueping Wu

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

The objectives of this study were (a) to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b) to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118) reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th) and high school years. Academic burden ...


Comparing An Atomic Model Or Structure To A Corresponding Cryo-Electron Microscopy Image At The Central Axis Of A Helix, Stephanie Zeil, Julio Kovacs, Willy Wriggers, Jing He Jan 2017

Comparing An Atomic Model Or Structure To A Corresponding Cryo-Electron Microscopy Image At The Central Axis Of A Helix, Stephanie Zeil, Julio Kovacs, Willy Wriggers, Jing He

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Three-dimensional density maps of biological specimens from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can be interpreted in the form of atomic models that are modeled into the density, or they can be compared to known atomic structures. When the central axis of a helix is detectable in a cryo-EM density map, it is possible to quantify the agreement between this central axis and a central axis calculated from the atomic model or structure. We propose a novel arc-length association method to compare the two axes reliably. This method was applied to 79 helices in simulated density maps and six case studies using cryo-EM ...


A Nutrient-Regulated Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase Controls Clostridium Difficile Biofilm And Toxin Production During Stationary Phase, Erin B. Purcell, Robert W. Mckee, David S. Courson, Elizabeth M. Garrett, Shonna M. Mcbride, Richard E. Cheney, Rita Tamayo Jan 2017

A Nutrient-Regulated Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase Controls Clostridium Difficile Biofilm And Toxin Production During Stationary Phase, Erin B. Purcell, Robert W. Mckee, David S. Courson, Elizabeth M. Garrett, Shonna M. Mcbride, Richard E. Cheney, Rita Tamayo

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) mediates physiological adaptation to extracellular stimuli in a wide range of bacteria. The complex metabolic pathways governing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation are highly regulated, but the specific cues that impact c-di-GMP signaling are largely unknown. In the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, c-di-GMP inhibits flagellar motility and toxin production and promotes pilus-dependent biofilm formation, but no specific biological functions have been ascribed to any of the individual c-di-GMP synthases or phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP PDE, PdcA, 1 of 37 confirmed or putative c-di-GMP metabolism proteins in ...


Tissue Specific Microenvironments: A Key Tool For Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, Patrick C. Sachs, Peter A. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno Jan 2017

Tissue Specific Microenvironments: A Key Tool For Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, Patrick C. Sachs, Peter A. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

The accumulated evidence points to the microenvironment as the primary mediator of cellular fate determination. Comprised of parenchymal cells, stromal cells, structural extracellular matrix proteins, and signaling molecules, the microenvironment is a complex and synergistic edifice that varies tissue to tissue. Furthermore, it has become increasingly clear that the microenvironment plays crucial roles in the establishment and progression of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, cancer, and ageing. Here we review the historical perspectives on the microenvironment, and how it has directed current explorations in tissue engineering. By thoroughly understanding the role of the microenvironment, we can begin to correctly ...


Modeling Beta-Traces For Beta-Barrels From Cryo-Em Density Maps, Dong Si, Jing He Jan 2017

Modeling Beta-Traces For Beta-Barrels From Cryo-Em Density Maps, Dong Si, Jing He

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has produced density maps of various resolutions. Although ά-helices can be detected from density maps at 5-8 angstrom resolutions, β-strands are challenging to detect at such density maps due to close-spacing of β-strands. The variety of shapes of β-sheets adds the complexity of β-strands detection from density maps. We propose a new approach to model traces of β-strands for β-barrel density regions that are extracted from cryo-EM density maps. In the test containing eight β-barrels extracted from experimental cryo-EM density maps at 5.5 angstrom-8.25 angstrom resolution, StrandRoller detected about 74.26% of the amino acids ...