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Kinesiology

Balance

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Articles 31 - 59 of 59

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Lower Extremity Proprioception And Physical Performance Testing: A Correlation Study, Danielle Aguilar, Erin Drozd, Clara Borja, Dr.Jason Winchester, Dr. Chad Jackson Feb 2015

Lower Extremity Proprioception And Physical Performance Testing: A Correlation Study, Danielle Aguilar, Erin Drozd, Clara Borja, Dr.Jason Winchester, Dr. Chad Jackson

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Proprioception is a function of the somatosensory system which has implications for activities of daily living, athletic endeavors, and risk of injury. It has been suggested that athletes who sustain injuries may have decreased proprioception and a corresponding increase in the risk of re-injury. Interventions for injury prevention and/or recovery may include, but are not limited to, emphasis on proprioceptive ability via joint position awareness. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a correlation exists between proprioceptive ability and other components of physical performance such as lower body muscular power and change of direction. It was hypothesized ...


The Effect Of Training Older Adults In Tai Chi And Compensatory Stepping On Balance Control, Hannah L. Moore Miss Jan 2015

The Effect Of Training Older Adults In Tai Chi And Compensatory Stepping On Balance Control, Hannah L. Moore Miss

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

Introduction: In Canadian society, there is a growing prevalence of older adults and one of the main problems facing this generation today is the risk of falling. Tai Chi (TC) is a martial art that has demonstrated improvements in balance control. It uses a series of fluid movements that engage head, neck and trunk rotation while simultaneously reducing base of support. In addition, it has been demonstrated that training older adults by administering unpredictable perturbations to challenge balance better equips them to react successfully in response to balance perturbations. This study aims to determine the potential balance specific benefits ...


Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns In Parkinson's Disease Patients., Amanda L. Penko, Joshua R. Hirsch, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Philip E. Martin, Gordon Blackburn, Jay L. Alberts Dec 2014

Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns In Parkinson's Disease Patients., Amanda L. Penko, Joshua R. Hirsch, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Philip E. Martin, Gordon Blackburn, Jay L. Alberts

Kinesiology Publications

Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease (Deponti et al., 2013) which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this ...


Complexity-Based Measures Inform Tai Chi's Impact On Standing Postural Control In Older Adults With Peripheral Neuropathy, Brad Manor, Lewis A. Lipsitz, Peter M. Wayne, C-K Peng, Li Li Oct 2014

Complexity-Based Measures Inform Tai Chi's Impact On Standing Postural Control In Older Adults With Peripheral Neuropathy, Brad Manor, Lewis A. Lipsitz, Peter M. Wayne, C-K Peng, Li Li

Li Li

Background: Tai Chi training enhances physical function and may reduce falls in older adults with and without balance disorders, yet its effect on postural control as quantified by the magnitude or speed of center-of-pressure (COP) excursions beneath the feet is less clear. We hypothesized that COP metrics derived from complex systems theory may better capture the multi-component stimulus that Tai Chi has on the postural control system, as compared with traditional COP measures. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a pilot, non-controlled intervention study that examined the effects of Tai Chi on standing COP dynamics, plantar sensation, and physical ...


Balance And Power In Older Adults With And Without A History Of Falls, Stephanie Michelle Gray Aug 2014

Balance And Power In Older Adults With And Without A History Of Falls, Stephanie Michelle Gray

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe the differences between power and balance in older adults over the age of 65 with and without falls. A total of 62 community dwelling older adults between the ages of 65 and 92 participated in the study. Two groups consisted of 25 fallers and 37 non-fallers. No statistical differences were found between groups on age, height, weight, or BMI. Testing included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) to test balance, the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer (TWA) during a sit-to-stand to test lower body power, and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) to ...


Improving Balance And Mobility In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Richard Van Emmerik May 2014

Improving Balance And Mobility In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Richard Van Emmerik

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Impaired balance and gait function are highly prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life in those with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicates the somatosensory system as a major contributor to balance dysfunction in this population. As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Advanced Computational and Technological Approaches to Mitigating Mobility Dysfunction in People with Multiple Sclerosis," this presentation will review current intervention and rehabilitation methods aimed at improving balance and mobility in people with MS. Particular focus will be on the effects of Tai Chi training, which integrates coordination, strength and flexibility in enhancing adaptive postural control and physical ...


Correlational Analysis Of Bmi And Balance In Adults 50 And Over, Rachel D. Latimer, Casi Helbig Feb 2014

Correlational Analysis Of Bmi And Balance In Adults 50 And Over, Rachel D. Latimer, Casi Helbig

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Benefits Of Resistance Training For Balance In Elderly Populations, Trevor J. Fields, Malinda A. Riggins, Jeffrey B. Casebolt Feb 2014

Benefits Of Resistance Training For Balance In Elderly Populations, Trevor J. Fields, Malinda A. Riggins, Jeffrey B. Casebolt

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Evaluation Of Static And Dynamic Postural Control In Athletes With Concussions During Recovery, Nicholas Murray Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Static And Dynamic Postural Control In Athletes With Concussions During Recovery, Nicholas Murray

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Approximately seventy-six percent of individuals with a sport-related concussion present with reduced balance. Current Return-to-Play (RTP) protocols rely heavily on measures of static balance that are not environmentally relevant. However, due to the variable nature of symptom presentation, research has not clearly defined a requisite time for balance recovery following a sport-related concussion. The use of novel procedures such as monitoring postural control during an environmentally relevant dynamic balance tasks could refine the timeline for recovery of postural control and aid in mitigating the potential severe consequences of Second Impact Syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate ...


Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis Sep 2013

Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis

Open Access Dissertations

As adults age, skeletal muscles become smaller and weaker, which can ultimately lead to declines in physical function and disability. In general, older adults produce less isometric force and dynamic power than younger adults. The effects of this weakness are amplified following a series of muscle contractions that result in muscle fatigue. Since daily routines consist of repeated series of activity followed by rest, it is important to understand how muscle recovers from fatigue. In particular, muscle power has been shown to be related to physical function and balance. Thus, understanding the process of recovery from muscle fatigue will help ...


The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney Aug 2013

The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research study was to identify significant relationships among measures of ankle strength, ankle range of motion, body composition, and functional capacity to balance ability in geriatric populations which may potentially assist in identifying older individuals with increased risk of falling. A battery of five test (ankle strength assessments, ankle range of motion , DXA, functional fitness, and balance) were administered to 20 participants (6 males, 14 females, mean age 69.78 ± 3.98) that had indicated to be at least 65 years of age or older and no history of falls within the previous 12 months ...


Effect Of Dehydration On Concomitant Measures Of Cognitive Function And Balance, Stephanie Marie Watson May 2013

Effect Of Dehydration On Concomitant Measures Of Cognitive Function And Balance, Stephanie Marie Watson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

During activities of daily living, there are demands placed on the body both cognitively and physically. These demands are multiplied when performing an athletic endeavor. Many studies have demonstrated the negative impact dehydration has on cognitive and muscle functions, independently. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of dehydration on central nervous system and peripheral nervous system fatigue as expressed through concomitant factors of cognitive function and balance. Subjects were to consist of 20 participates aged 18-35 years old who reported running a minimum of 45 minutes per exercise bout at least 3 times per week. The ...


Complexity-Based Measures Inform Tai Chi's Impact On Standing Postural Control In Older Adults With Peripheral Neuropathy, Brad Manor, Lewis A. Lipsitz, Peter M. Wayne, C-K Peng, Li Li Apr 2013

Complexity-Based Measures Inform Tai Chi's Impact On Standing Postural Control In Older Adults With Peripheral Neuropathy, Brad Manor, Lewis A. Lipsitz, Peter M. Wayne, C-K Peng, Li Li

Health and Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Background: Tai Chi training enhances physical function and may reduce falls in older adults with and without balance disorders, yet its effect on postural control as quantified by the magnitude or speed of center-of-pressure (COP) excursions beneath the feet is less clear. We hypothesized that COP metrics derived from complex systems theory may better capture the multi-component stimulus that Tai Chi has on the postural control system, as compared with traditional COP measures.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a pilot, non-controlled intervention study that examined the effects of Tai Chi on standing COP dynamics, plantar sensation, and physical ...


Biomechanical Effects Of Obesity On Balance, Hannah Del Porto, Celia Pechak, Darla Smith, Rebecca Reed-Jones Oct 2012

Biomechanical Effects Of Obesity On Balance, Hannah Del Porto, Celia Pechak, Darla Smith, Rebecca Reed-Jones

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 5(4) : 301-320, 2012. The objective of this review was to analyze the current literature related to the effects of obesity on balance. These effects were observed during conditions of static balance, perturbed balance and dynamic balance during gait. The literature review included studies focused on the biomechanical effects of obesity, the relationship between weight loss and balance, and the relative efficacy of weight loss as a balance intervention. The older adult population, which faces increased risk of falls and related injuries, was highlighted where targeted research was available. The existing literature provides evidence for ...


Postural Control Strategy During Standing Is Altered In Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Jessie M. Huisinga, Jenna M. Yentes, Mary Filipi, Nicholas Stergiou Aug 2012

Postural Control Strategy During Standing Is Altered In Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Jessie M. Huisinga, Jenna M. Yentes, Mary Filipi, Nicholas Stergiou

Journal Articles

Disturbances in balance are one of the first reported symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), yet limited research has been performed to classify the postural control deficits in this population. This study investigated the variability present in the sway patterns during quiet standing in patients with MS (PwMS) and healthy controls. Subjects were assessed (eyes open, closed) standing on a force platform. Variability of the sway patterns was quantified using a measure of amount of variability (root mean square; RMS) and two measures of temporal structure of variability (Lyapunov Exponent – LyE; Approximate Entropy – ApEn). RMS results revealed significantly higher amount of ...


Taking Balance Measurement Out Of The Laboratory And Into The Home: Discriminatory Capability Of Novel Centre Of Pressure Measurement In Fallers And Non-Fallers, Denise Mcgrath, Emer P. Doheny, Lorcan Walsh, David Mckeown, Clodagh Cunningham, Lisa Crosby, Rose Anne Kenny, Nicholas Stergiou, Brian Caulfield, Barry R. Greene Aug 2012

Taking Balance Measurement Out Of The Laboratory And Into The Home: Discriminatory Capability Of Novel Centre Of Pressure Measurement In Fallers And Non-Fallers, Denise Mcgrath, Emer P. Doheny, Lorcan Walsh, David Mckeown, Clodagh Cunningham, Lisa Crosby, Rose Anne Kenny, Nicholas Stergiou, Brian Caulfield, Barry R. Greene

Journal Articles

We investigated three methods for estimating centre of pressure excursions, as measured using a portable pressure sensor matrix, in order to deploy similar technology into the homes of older adults for longitudinal monitoring of postural control and falls risk. We explored the utility of these three methods as markers of falls risk in a cohort of 120 community dwelling older adults with and without a history of falls (65 fallers, 55 non-fallers). A number of standard quantitative balance parameters were derived using each centre of pressure estimation method. Rank sum tests were used to test for significant differences between fallers ...


Influence Of A Short-Term, Multicomponent Intervention On Balance And Strength Among The Elderly, Pamela C. Webert Jun 2012

Influence Of A Short-Term, Multicomponent Intervention On Balance And Strength Among The Elderly, Pamela C. Webert

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Background: Few studies have combined strength and balance training to assess improvement of activities of daily living among subjects over the age of 65. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how an eight-week balance and strength training program can lead to improvements in activities of daily living among elderly individuals.

Methods: The subjects consisted of 14 elderly women and 3 elderly men who were all residents of an independent living community. There were 10 subjects in the intervention group and 7 subjects in the control group. The intervention group participated in a supervised balance and strength training program ...


Correlation Between Cognitive Functions, Balance And Risk Of Fall In Elderly With Alzheimer’S Dementia, Salma S. Soleman Hernandez, Flavia Gomes De Melo Coelho, Sebastião Gobbi, Florindo Stella Mar 2012

Correlation Between Cognitive Functions, Balance And Risk Of Fall In Elderly With Alzheimer’S Dementia, Salma S. Soleman Hernandez, Flavia Gomes De Melo Coelho, Sebastião Gobbi, Florindo Stella

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

The Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) represents a clinical condition inherent to many chronic and neurodegenerative diseases that are usually related to a decline in the cognitive and physical functions. The objective of this research was to verify the correlation between cognitive functions, balance and risk of fall in elderly with AD when submitted to a systemized physical activity program. The sample consisted of 16 elderly divided in two groups: the Intervention Group (IG) n=9 77.7±7.5 years and the Control Group (CG) n=7 84.4 ± 6.1 years. Both groups were submitted to the tests: Mini ...


Use Of A Video Game Based Balance Training Intervention On The Balance And Function Of Children With Developmental Disabilities, Gina C. Siconolfi-Morris Jan 2012

Use Of A Video Game Based Balance Training Intervention On The Balance And Function Of Children With Developmental Disabilities, Gina C. Siconolfi-Morris

Theses and Dissertations--Rehabilitation Sciences

Many children with developmental disabilities (DD) have physical impairments and limitations in their participation. Rehabilitation research often focuses on either physical impairments or participation restrictions, when both need to be investigated. The purposes of these two studies were to evaluate an at home therapist directed video game balance training intervention on balance, gait velocity (GV), hip strength and activities of children with DD. The pilot study was a single-subject non-concurrent multiple baseline design. Balance measures included: weight bearing symmetry; center of pressure area and velocity; time to boundary mean minima and standard deviation; and timed up and go. The participant ...


Impacts On Balance When Walking In Occupational Footwear, Harish Chander Jan 2012

Impacts On Balance When Walking In Occupational Footwear, Harish Chander

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hazards and challenges present in the workplace pose a number of potential risks for injuries and illness. Nearly 3.1 million nonfatal workplace injuries and illness were reported in 2010 (BLS, 2010). The probability of falls has been related to balance decrements. Further, an important point of distinction is 45% of all falls have been attributed to inappropriate footwear (Menant et al. 2008) Previous studies have shown decrements in balance as a result of different footwear (Menant et al. 2008) and after an increased workload over a specific period of time (Yaggie & McGregor, 2002; Gribble & Hertel, 2004). Occupational footwear is often designed for safety and may fail to provide appropriate foot biomechanics. As such the functionality of occupational footwear may impact balance characteristics over time. The purpose of the study is to examine the differences in balance in while wearing different types of occupational footwear for extended durations. Fourteen healthy male adults (aged 23.6±1.2 years; height of 181±5.3 cm; weight ...


Discriminating Between Copers And Those With Chronic Ankle Instability With Clinical Outcomes, Erik A. Wikstrom, Jessica Plante Nov 2011

Discriminating Between Copers And Those With Chronic Ankle Instability With Clinical Outcomes, Erik A. Wikstrom, Jessica Plante

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Introduction: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common consequence of lateral ankle sprains and a leading cause of post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis. Despite a history of a lateral ankle sprain, there are some individuals (copers) who appear to have a mechanism that allows them to avoid recurrent lateral ankle sprains and giving way episodes. To date, research has identified differences in perceptual (e.g. self-assessed disability), mechanical (e.g. ligament laxity), and sensorimotor (e.g. balance) outcomes between copers and those with CAI. However, the vast majority of these outcomes are considered research and/or laboratory based and thus impractical for ...


The Acute Effects Of Static Stretching Of The Gastrocnemius On Limits Of Stability In Young Adults Versus Elderly Adults, Matt Bugnet, Kirk Player May 2011

The Acute Effects Of Static Stretching Of The Gastrocnemius On Limits Of Stability In Young Adults Versus Elderly Adults, Matt Bugnet, Kirk Player

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background and Purpose: Balance is an important part of everyday life for all individuals with many body systems interacting to achieve optimal balance. Proprioceptive organs aid in this interaction, while also acting as stretch receptors. Therefore, it is possible that stretching may influence the overall balance of the individual. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of stretching on dynamic balance of healthy young and elderly adults. The two groups were used to determine if stretching may discriminately affect balance at different ages.

Subjects: Thirty healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 35 (mean=25 ...


Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee Jan 2010

Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Gait control is a clinical problem in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Gait variability leading to instability is commonly measured using spatio-temporal variables like step length, step time, step width and cadence. Another measurement that provides information about directional instability is harmonic ratios (HRs). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between step width and mediolateral stability using HRs in people with Parkinson's disease (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). The participants walked at their preferred pace and then with a wider step width and narrower step width. The results showed that the ...


Dynamic Stabilization During The Landing Phase Of Plyometric Exercises, Erich Petushek, Luke Garceau, Tyler Vanderzanden, Brad Wurm, Christina Feldmann, William Ebben Jan 2010

Dynamic Stabilization During The Landing Phase Of Plyometric Exercises, Erich Petushek, Luke Garceau, Tyler Vanderzanden, Brad Wurm, Christina Feldmann, William Ebben

Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications

This study examined the differences in and the reliability of time to stabilization (TTS) of several plyometric exercises. Twenty six men performed a variety of plyometric exercises representing a continuum of intensities of landing instability, including line hops, cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps, dumbbell countermovement jumps, and single leg countermovement jumps on a force platform. A repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc corrections was used to evaluate the differences in TTS between plyometric exercises. Practitioners who use plyometrics to train dynamic stability and balance should create programs that progress the intensity of the exercises based on ...


The Effects Of Abdominal Training On Postural Control, Lower Extremity Kinematics, Kinetics, And Muscle Activation, Matthew J. Gage Aug 2009

The Effects Of Abdominal Training On Postural Control, Lower Extremity Kinematics, Kinetics, And Muscle Activation, Matthew J. Gage

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Abdominal training may decrease the risk of lower extremity injuries through improved balance and postural control. Objective: To determine the effect of an eight-week abdominal-training program on center of pressure, lower extremity joint angles, and abdominal muscle activation during a single-leg drop landing. The effects of abdominal training on abdominal muscle thickness was assessed. Design: A cohort research design. Setting: Research laboratory. Other Participants: Sixty healthy physically active college-aged students participated. They were divided into three groups: Control, Chronic ankle instability (CAI), and Healthy. Nineteen Control (age = 22.0 ± 2.72 yrs, mass = 74.1 ± 13.8 kg, height ...


Reliability Of Sixteen Balance Tests In Individuals With Down Syndrome, Romina Villamonte Jul 2009

Reliability Of Sixteen Balance Tests In Individuals With Down Syndrome, Romina Villamonte

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of sixteen balance tests in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The following tests were performed on 21 participants with DS, aged 5-31 years of age; standing test on firm and soft surfaces with the eyes opened and closed, a balance subset of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test, full turn, timed-up-and-go test, forward reach, and sit-to-stand. Each participant completed all 16 assessments twice on one day and then again on a subsequent day for a total of four trials. Seven tests had reliability coefficients greater than 0.55; one-leg stand on floor (0 ...


Does Practice Of Multi-Directional Stepping With Auditory Stimulation Improve Movement Performance In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, Zahra Kadivar Jan 2009

Does Practice Of Multi-Directional Stepping With Auditory Stimulation Improve Movement Performance In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, Zahra Kadivar

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder causing many physical limitations. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) influences motor complications not alleviated by medicine and has been used to modify straight line walking in this population. However, motor complications are exacerbated during more complex movements including those involving direction changes. Thus immediate RAS effects on direction switch duration (DSD) and other kinematic measures during a multi-directional step task were investigated in PD patients. Long term RAS application was also explored by evaluating functional gait and balance and kinematic step measures before and after 6 weeks of multi-directional stepping either with ...


Identification Of Falls Risk Factors In Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Validation Of The Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Jennifer Marie Fabre Jan 2009

Identification Of Falls Risk Factors In Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Validation Of The Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Jennifer Marie Fabre

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Identifying risk factors and those at risk for falls is necessary. The first purpose of the dissertation was to validate the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument (CFRSI) that weights falls risk factors and includes the subscale scores of history, physical, vision, medication, and environment, and a total falls risk score. The CFRSI total falls risk score was compared to subscale scores, physical activity, physical function, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and history of falls (Study 1). The second purpose of the dissertation was to determine associations between the CFRSI total falls risk score, race, education, and income (Study 2). Data ...


Comparison Of Black And White Elderly Women On Muscle Mass Bone Mineral Density And Balance., Tyanez Jones Dec 2001

Comparison Of Black And White Elderly Women On Muscle Mass Bone Mineral Density And Balance., Tyanez Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Few studies have compared balance between aging black (BW) and white women (WW) and examined its relationship to muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD). Nineteen BW and 56 WW between 60-91 years participated. Upper and lower body strength, body composition, BMD, volitional and non-volitional control of dynamic balance, and physical activity ratings were assessed. There were no differences in strength between the groups. A trend was reported for total body BMD (p=0.07). WW exhibited better control of rapid volitional movements, in the limits of stability and rhythmic weight shift tests. The relationships of strength and muscle mass ...