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Staying Upright By Shutting Down? Evidence For Global Suppression Of The Motor System When Recovering Balance, Caleigh Goode May 2019

Staying Upright By Shutting Down? Evidence For Global Suppression Of The Motor System When Recovering Balance, Caleigh Goode

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Background: When automatic, yet unwanted action is quickly inhibited, short-lived suppression throughout the motor system ensues. This type of response inhibition causing an all-over motor suppression effect is referred to as global suppression. Although response inhibition is essential for behavioral flexibility, widespread motor suppression may delay action reprogramming. In reactive balance control, even fleeting suppression of the motor system could interfere with our ability to adapt compensatory reactions quickly enough to avoid a fall.Whether this concept of global suppression is occurring in situations that pose a postural threat is undetermined.

Research Question: Is muscle activity in the hand suppressed ...


The Effects Of A Physical Activity Program Called "Minds-In-Motion-The Maze" On Balance And Motor Skills In Middle School Aged Students., Liliana Vargas May 2018

The Effects Of A Physical Activity Program Called "Minds-In-Motion-The Maze" On Balance And Motor Skills In Middle School Aged Students., Liliana Vargas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Competing time demands in the curriculum have left physical education as a low priority among schools. Consequently, school aged children are not meeting the recommended 150 mins/wk of physical activity. We studied the effects of Minds in Motion-MAZE on middle school aged (n=74) children’s balance and motor skills. Minds in Motion-MAZE is a low cost physical activity program designed to improve balance and motor control. Participants participated in Minds in Motion-MAZE for 15 minutes during the 7th period. A multivariate test did not show a statistical significance of participating in Minds in Motion-MAZE and improved balance ...


The Slippery Slope Between Falling And Recovering: An Examination Of Sensory And Somatic Factors Influencing Recovery After A Slip, Samuel J. Wilson Jan 2018

The Slippery Slope Between Falling And Recovering: An Examination Of Sensory And Somatic Factors Influencing Recovery After A Slip, Samuel J. Wilson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Slips and falls account for large rates of injury and mortality in multiple populations. During an unexpected slip, sensory mechanisms are responsible for signaling the slip to the central nervous system, and a series of corrective responses is generated to arrest the slip and prevent a fall. While previous research has examined the corrective responses elicited, the answer of how these systems break down during a fall remains elusive. Purpose: To examine differences in postural control (slip detection), lower extremity corrective responses (slip recovery), and cortical control of the slip recovery response between individuals who fall and those who ...


Physical Activity Interventions For Children With Down Syndrome: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Maleda Funk Dec 2017

Physical Activity Interventions For Children With Down Syndrome: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Maleda Funk

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

This synthesis highlights the available physical activity interventions/programs for children with Down syndrome. More specifically, the literature review examined evidence-based research in the areas of dance and movement, balance and stability, two-wheel bicycle, strength and agility and barriers and facilitators. The literature review used peer-reviewed and scholarly articles in order to examine the most effective physical activity intervention/programs for children with Down syndrome. Results showed that all physical activity interventions/programs can be effective for children with Down syndrome, especially when developmentally appropriate modifications and adaptations are incorporated. Dance and movement programs, balance and stability exercises using virtual ...


Influence Of Compression Socks On Unilateral Balance In Females, Alex E. Carlson May 2017

Influence Of Compression Socks On Unilateral Balance In Females, Alex E. Carlson

Honors Theses

The application of compression garments for various purposes has become popular in recent years. Research regarding the effectiveness of these garments has shown an increase in variables such as increased blood flow, decreased post-exercise soreness, and increased joint position awareness. However, little research is available concerning their possible use to increase joint stability. This research examined the efficacy of graduated compression stockings (GCS) to increase proprioceptive feedback from the ankle joint. It was hypothesized that continuous stimulation of sensory receptors in the ankle region by use of GCS would improve an individual’s static unilateral balance. Seventeen females (age: 20 ...


The Effects Of A 12-Week Custom Foot Orthotic Intervention On The Intrinsic Muscles Of The Foot, And Dynamic Stability During Unexpected Gait Termination In Healthy Young Adults, Katrina Protopapas Jan 2017

The Effects Of A 12-Week Custom Foot Orthotic Intervention On The Intrinsic Muscles Of The Foot, And Dynamic Stability During Unexpected Gait Termination In Healthy Young Adults, Katrina Protopapas

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: Custom-made foot orthotics (CFO’s) are a commonly prescribed intervention to help individuals that are suffering from foot pain and foot disorders. However, the mechanisms of CFO’s are still poorly understood and are not well known. With the plantar intrinsic muscles of the foot being in direct contact with the CFO, it puts these structures at risk for disuse muscle atrophy as a result of being offloaded. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of a 12-week custom-made foot orthotic intervention on the intrinsic muscles of the foot and dynamic stability during unexpected ...


The Effect Of Repetitive Head Impacts On Postural Control Over The Course Of A Single Season, Katelyn E. Grimes Jan 2017

The Effect Of Repetitive Head Impacts On Postural Control Over The Course Of A Single Season, Katelyn E. Grimes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Recently neurocognitive dysfunction has been linked to poor postural control in concussed athletes. While the detrimental effect of repetitive head impacts on cognitive function have been shown to mirror the effects of concussive injury, very little research has investigated the physical consequences of repetitive head impacts. PURPOSE: To observe the effects of RHI on postural control, both static and dynamic, in NCAA Division I athletes over the course of a single season. METHODS: 9 NCAA Division I football athletes (CON) were recruited from a single university as the experimental group, as well as 9 NCAA Division I baseball players ...


Assessing And Reporting Normative Data And Correlations In Adolescent Non-Professional Dancers, Alexandrea Holley Dec 2015

Assessing And Reporting Normative Data And Correlations In Adolescent Non-Professional Dancers, Alexandrea Holley

All NMU Master's Theses

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to gather normative data and determine if there was a correlation for multiple measures in adolescent dancers, specifically in relation to the hip joint including: balance, muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. Design: Descriptive Correlation. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one female volunteers (mean age 12.52 ± 2.26), were recruited to participate in the university IRB approved study. Interventions: During the testing, the participants filled out a qualitative questionnaire, had their anthropometric data measured, and were assessed on flexibility of the hamstring. Functional measurements of muscular strength and endurance of the hip flexor, sacrum ...


Comparison Of Muscle Latencies For Diabetic Neuropathy Patients Versus Healthy Controls During A Perturbed Balance Task, Kyle Mefferd May 2015

Comparison Of Muscle Latencies For Diabetic Neuropathy Patients Versus Healthy Controls During A Perturbed Balance Task, Kyle Mefferd

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to compare muscle latencies for patients diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy versus healthy controls during a perturbed balance task, with a secondary purpose to distinguish postural control strategies the groups used based on the muscle latencies. Five participants diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy (DN; 4 male, 99.7 ± 7.95 kg, 176 ± 9.58 cm, 46.6 ± 16.55 years) and 5 healthy control (HC; 4 male, 100.36 ± 12.61 kg, 173.76 ± 9.66 cm, 47 ± 13.42 years) participants were recruited. Participants granted institutionally approved written consent before participating. Delsys Trigino Wireless EMG ...


The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo May 2015

The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo

Theses and Dissertations

Exercise is a known intervention to prevent fall risk among older adults; however, adherence is poor. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if other interventions improve function and decrease fall risk among older adults. Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) is a non-exercise intervention that improves functional measures among adults with multiple sclerosis, yet the effectiveness of BBTW has not been assessed among older adults without progressive neurological disorders. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to analyze the effect of BBTW on functional measures and falls efficacy among community-dwelling, mobility limited older adults after 5 days of wearing BalanceWear® for 4 hours ...


The Effects Of 12 Weeks Of Instructor-Led Yoga Classes On Balance In Older Adults, Patricia C. Hart Apr 2015

The Effects Of 12 Weeks Of Instructor-Led Yoga Classes On Balance In Older Adults, Patricia C. Hart

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective way to reduce and/or prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging (Chodzko-Zajo et al., 2009). Older adults are advised to participate in regular aerobic activity and practice muscle strengthening activities and exercise that maintains or improves balance (U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, [USDHHS], 2012). Less than one third of older adults engage in 30 minutes of low to moderate intense physical activity at least five days a week as recommended in current guidelines (USDHHS, 2012), and these guidelines fail to address losses in strength and ...


The Effect Of Training Older Adults In Tai Chi And Compensatory Stepping On Balance Control, Hannah L. Moore Miss Jan 2015

The Effect Of Training Older Adults In Tai Chi And Compensatory Stepping On Balance Control, Hannah L. Moore Miss

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

Introduction: In Canadian society, there is a growing prevalence of older adults and one of the main problems facing this generation today is the risk of falling. Tai Chi (TC) is a martial art that has demonstrated improvements in balance control. It uses a series of fluid movements that engage head, neck and trunk rotation while simultaneously reducing base of support. In addition, it has been demonstrated that training older adults by administering unpredictable perturbations to challenge balance better equips them to react successfully in response to balance perturbations. This study aims to determine the potential balance specific benefits ...


Balance And Power In Older Adults With And Without A History Of Falls, Stephanie Michelle Gray Aug 2014

Balance And Power In Older Adults With And Without A History Of Falls, Stephanie Michelle Gray

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe the differences between power and balance in older adults over the age of 65 with and without falls. A total of 62 community dwelling older adults between the ages of 65 and 92 participated in the study. Two groups consisted of 25 fallers and 37 non-fallers. No statistical differences were found between groups on age, height, weight, or BMI. Testing included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) to test balance, the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer (TWA) during a sit-to-stand to test lower body power, and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) to ...


Evaluation Of Static And Dynamic Postural Control In Athletes With Concussions During Recovery, Nicholas Murray Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Static And Dynamic Postural Control In Athletes With Concussions During Recovery, Nicholas Murray

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Approximately seventy-six percent of individuals with a sport-related concussion present with reduced balance. Current Return-to-Play (RTP) protocols rely heavily on measures of static balance that are not environmentally relevant. However, due to the variable nature of symptom presentation, research has not clearly defined a requisite time for balance recovery following a sport-related concussion. The use of novel procedures such as monitoring postural control during an environmentally relevant dynamic balance tasks could refine the timeline for recovery of postural control and aid in mitigating the potential severe consequences of Second Impact Syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate ...


Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis Sep 2013

Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis

Open Access Dissertations

As adults age, skeletal muscles become smaller and weaker, which can ultimately lead to declines in physical function and disability. In general, older adults produce less isometric force and dynamic power than younger adults. The effects of this weakness are amplified following a series of muscle contractions that result in muscle fatigue. Since daily routines consist of repeated series of activity followed by rest, it is important to understand how muscle recovers from fatigue. In particular, muscle power has been shown to be related to physical function and balance. Thus, understanding the process of recovery from muscle fatigue will help ...


The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney Aug 2013

The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research study was to identify significant relationships among measures of ankle strength, ankle range of motion, body composition, and functional capacity to balance ability in geriatric populations which may potentially assist in identifying older individuals with increased risk of falling. A battery of five test (ankle strength assessments, ankle range of motion , DXA, functional fitness, and balance) were administered to 20 participants (6 males, 14 females, mean age 69.78 ± 3.98) that had indicated to be at least 65 years of age or older and no history of falls within the previous 12 months ...


Effect Of Dehydration On Concomitant Measures Of Cognitive Function And Balance, Stephanie Marie Watson May 2013

Effect Of Dehydration On Concomitant Measures Of Cognitive Function And Balance, Stephanie Marie Watson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

During activities of daily living, there are demands placed on the body both cognitively and physically. These demands are multiplied when performing an athletic endeavor. Many studies have demonstrated the negative impact dehydration has on cognitive and muscle functions, independently. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of dehydration on central nervous system and peripheral nervous system fatigue as expressed through concomitant factors of cognitive function and balance. Subjects were to consist of 20 participates aged 18-35 years old who reported running a minimum of 45 minutes per exercise bout at least 3 times per week. The ...


Influence Of A Short-Term, Multicomponent Intervention On Balance And Strength Among The Elderly, Pamela C. Webert Jun 2012

Influence Of A Short-Term, Multicomponent Intervention On Balance And Strength Among The Elderly, Pamela C. Webert

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Background: Few studies have combined strength and balance training to assess improvement of activities of daily living among subjects over the age of 65. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how an eight-week balance and strength training program can lead to improvements in activities of daily living among elderly individuals.

Methods: The subjects consisted of 14 elderly women and 3 elderly men who were all residents of an independent living community. There were 10 subjects in the intervention group and 7 subjects in the control group. The intervention group participated in a supervised balance and strength training program ...


Use Of A Video Game Based Balance Training Intervention On The Balance And Function Of Children With Developmental Disabilities, Gina C. Siconolfi-Morris Jan 2012

Use Of A Video Game Based Balance Training Intervention On The Balance And Function Of Children With Developmental Disabilities, Gina C. Siconolfi-Morris

Theses and Dissertations--Rehabilitation Sciences

Many children with developmental disabilities (DD) have physical impairments and limitations in their participation. Rehabilitation research often focuses on either physical impairments or participation restrictions, when both need to be investigated. The purposes of these two studies were to evaluate an at home therapist directed video game balance training intervention on balance, gait velocity (GV), hip strength and activities of children with DD. The pilot study was a single-subject non-concurrent multiple baseline design. Balance measures included: weight bearing symmetry; center of pressure area and velocity; time to boundary mean minima and standard deviation; and timed up and go. The participant ...


Impacts On Balance When Walking In Occupational Footwear, Harish Chander Jan 2012

Impacts On Balance When Walking In Occupational Footwear, Harish Chander

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hazards and challenges present in the workplace pose a number of potential risks for injuries and illness. Nearly 3.1 million nonfatal workplace injuries and illness were reported in 2010 (BLS, 2010). The probability of falls has been related to balance decrements. Further, an important point of distinction is 45% of all falls have been attributed to inappropriate footwear (Menant et al. 2008) Previous studies have shown decrements in balance as a result of different footwear (Menant et al. 2008) and after an increased workload over a specific period of time (Yaggie & McGregor, 2002; Gribble & Hertel, 2004). Occupational footwear is often designed for safety and may fail to provide appropriate foot biomechanics. As such the functionality of occupational footwear may impact balance characteristics over time. The purpose of the study is to examine the differences in balance in while wearing different types of occupational footwear for extended durations. Fourteen healthy male adults (aged 23.6±1.2 years; height of 181±5.3 cm; weight ...


The Acute Effects Of Static Stretching Of The Gastrocnemius On Limits Of Stability In Young Adults Versus Elderly Adults, Matt Bugnet, Kirk Player May 2011

The Acute Effects Of Static Stretching Of The Gastrocnemius On Limits Of Stability In Young Adults Versus Elderly Adults, Matt Bugnet, Kirk Player

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background and Purpose: Balance is an important part of everyday life for all individuals with many body systems interacting to achieve optimal balance. Proprioceptive organs aid in this interaction, while also acting as stretch receptors. Therefore, it is possible that stretching may influence the overall balance of the individual. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of stretching on dynamic balance of healthy young and elderly adults. The two groups were used to determine if stretching may discriminately affect balance at different ages.

Subjects: Thirty healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 35 (mean=25 ...


Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee Jan 2010

Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Gait control is a clinical problem in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Gait variability leading to instability is commonly measured using spatio-temporal variables like step length, step time, step width and cadence. Another measurement that provides information about directional instability is harmonic ratios (HRs). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between step width and mediolateral stability using HRs in people with Parkinson's disease (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). The participants walked at their preferred pace and then with a wider step width and narrower step width. The results showed that the ...


The Effects Of Abdominal Training On Postural Control, Lower Extremity Kinematics, Kinetics, And Muscle Activation, Matthew J. Gage Aug 2009

The Effects Of Abdominal Training On Postural Control, Lower Extremity Kinematics, Kinetics, And Muscle Activation, Matthew J. Gage

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Abdominal training may decrease the risk of lower extremity injuries through improved balance and postural control. Objective: To determine the effect of an eight-week abdominal-training program on center of pressure, lower extremity joint angles, and abdominal muscle activation during a single-leg drop landing. The effects of abdominal training on abdominal muscle thickness was assessed. Design: A cohort research design. Setting: Research laboratory. Other Participants: Sixty healthy physically active college-aged students participated. They were divided into three groups: Control, Chronic ankle instability (CAI), and Healthy. Nineteen Control (age = 22.0 ± 2.72 yrs, mass = 74.1 ± 13.8 kg, height ...


Reliability Of Sixteen Balance Tests In Individuals With Down Syndrome, Romina Villamonte Jul 2009

Reliability Of Sixteen Balance Tests In Individuals With Down Syndrome, Romina Villamonte

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of sixteen balance tests in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The following tests were performed on 21 participants with DS, aged 5-31 years of age; standing test on firm and soft surfaces with the eyes opened and closed, a balance subset of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test, full turn, timed-up-and-go test, forward reach, and sit-to-stand. Each participant completed all 16 assessments twice on one day and then again on a subsequent day for a total of four trials. Seven tests had reliability coefficients greater than 0.55; one-leg stand on floor (0 ...


Does Practice Of Multi-Directional Stepping With Auditory Stimulation Improve Movement Performance In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, Zahra Kadivar Jan 2009

Does Practice Of Multi-Directional Stepping With Auditory Stimulation Improve Movement Performance In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, Zahra Kadivar

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder causing many physical limitations. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) influences motor complications not alleviated by medicine and has been used to modify straight line walking in this population. However, motor complications are exacerbated during more complex movements including those involving direction changes. Thus immediate RAS effects on direction switch duration (DSD) and other kinematic measures during a multi-directional step task were investigated in PD patients. Long term RAS application was also explored by evaluating functional gait and balance and kinematic step measures before and after 6 weeks of multi-directional stepping either with ...


Identification Of Falls Risk Factors In Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Validation Of The Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Jennifer Marie Fabre Jan 2009

Identification Of Falls Risk Factors In Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Validation Of The Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Jennifer Marie Fabre

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Identifying risk factors and those at risk for falls is necessary. The first purpose of the dissertation was to validate the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument (CFRSI) that weights falls risk factors and includes the subscale scores of history, physical, vision, medication, and environment, and a total falls risk score. The CFRSI total falls risk score was compared to subscale scores, physical activity, physical function, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and history of falls (Study 1). The second purpose of the dissertation was to determine associations between the CFRSI total falls risk score, race, education, and income (Study 2). Data ...


Comparison Of Black And White Elderly Women On Muscle Mass Bone Mineral Density And Balance., Tyanez Jones Dec 2001

Comparison Of Black And White Elderly Women On Muscle Mass Bone Mineral Density And Balance., Tyanez Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Few studies have compared balance between aging black (BW) and white women (WW) and examined its relationship to muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD). Nineteen BW and 56 WW between 60-91 years participated. Upper and lower body strength, body composition, BMD, volitional and non-volitional control of dynamic balance, and physical activity ratings were assessed. There were no differences in strength between the groups. A trend was reported for total body BMD (p=0.07). WW exhibited better control of rapid volitional movements, in the limits of stability and rhythmic weight shift tests. The relationships of strength and muscle mass ...