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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

An Informational Algorithm As The Basis For Perception-Action Control Of The Instantaneous Axes Of The Knee, Wangdo Kim, Margarida M. Espanha, António P. Veloso, Duarte Araújo, Filipa João, Luis Carrão, Sean S. Kohles Jan 2014

An Informational Algorithm As The Basis For Perception-Action Control Of The Instantaneous Axes Of The Knee, Wangdo Kim, Margarida M. Espanha, António P. Veloso, Duarte Araújo, Filipa João, Luis Carrão, Sean S. Kohles

Sean S. Kohles

Traditional locomotion studies emphasize an optimization of the desired movement trajectories while ignoring sensory feedback. We propose an information based theory that locomotion is neither triggered nor commanded but controlled. The basis for this control is the information derived from perceiving oneself in the world. Control therefore lies in the human-environment system. In order to test this hypothesis, we derived a mathematical foundation characterizing the energy that is required to perform a rotational twist, with small amplitude, of the instantaneous axes of the knee (IAK). We have found that the joint’s perception of the ground reaction force may be ...


Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation And Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, And Weight Loss, Jim Annesi, Ping H. Johnson, Kandice J. Porter Dec 2013

Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation And Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, And Weight Loss, Jim Annesi, Ping H. Johnson, Kandice J. Porter

Jim Annesi

Severely obese men and women (body mass index ≥ 35 ≤ 55 kg/m2; Mage = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3 ...


One Step At A Time: A Journey Of Hope, Inspiration, And Determination, Melinda Hermanns, Barbara K. Haas Dec 2013

One Step At A Time: A Journey Of Hope, Inspiration, And Determination, Melinda Hermanns, Barbara K. Haas

Melinda Hermanns

Approximately three million persons in the United States face the challenge of living with Parkinson's Disease (PD). In spite of medical and surgical interventions, the disease progresses, resulting in bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability that impair functional ability and quality of life. The purpose of this case study is to illuminate the impact an exercise program may have on an individual with PD. A single case study design was used to explore the effect of exercise on the quality of life of a 73-year old gentleman with advanced PD. Interviews and field observations of the client, wife, and staff ...


Ua Scholar Poster Final.Ppt, Mary Jo Maccracken Dec 2013

Ua Scholar Poster Final.Ppt, Mary Jo Maccracken

Dr. Mary J. MacCracken

P.A.C.E. (Physical Activity/Tennis and Character/Health/Nutrition Education) is a service-learning project funded by Tennis Serves.  This poster details how PACE has excelled at “growing the game of tennis” since 2009 by teaching over 3,409 minority, disadvantaged youth in Akron, Ohio. Quantitative and qualitative evidence gives support to the view that PACE is one of the best of its kind in the nation. 


Comprehensive Psychology-2014-Stadulis-07.13.Cp.3.12.Pdf, Robert E. Stadulis, Angela Neal-Barnett, Mary Jo Maccracken, Lisa Fender-Scarr Dec 2013

Comprehensive Psychology-2014-Stadulis-07.13.Cp.3.12.Pdf, Robert E. Stadulis, Angela Neal-Barnett, Mary Jo Maccracken, Lisa Fender-Scarr

Dr. Mary J. MacCracken

An adapted version of the 9-item Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) was administered
to Black females ( N = 179) ages 11 to 14 years. Comparison between
body composition (BMI) and social physique anxiety (SPA) indicated greatest
SPA in overweight/obese participants. No change over age was observed. In
comparison to previous data for a White sample, these Black early adolescent
females evidenced somewhat lower social physique anxiety than the White females.
The lower SPA supports the hypothesis that Black females are more accepting
of a larger physique in early adolescence. Factor analysis supported a
substantitive/non-substantitive two-factor model for the SPAS-C.


Ankle Plantarflexion Strength In Rearfoot And Forefoot Runners: A Novel Clusteranalytic Approach, Dominik Liebl, Steffen Willwacher, Joseph Hamill, Gert-Peter Brüggemann Dec 2013

Ankle Plantarflexion Strength In Rearfoot And Forefoot Runners: A Novel Clusteranalytic Approach, Dominik Liebl, Steffen Willwacher, Joseph Hamill, Gert-Peter Brüggemann

Joseph Hamill

The purpose of the present study was to test for differences in ankle plantarflexion strengths of habitually rearfoot and forefoot runners. In order to approach this issue, we revisit the problem of classifying different footfall patterns in human runners. A dataset of 119 subjects running shod and barefoot (speed 3.5 m/s) was analyzed. The footfall patterns were clustered by a novel statistical approach, which is motivated by advances in the statistical literature on functional data analysis. We explain the novel statistical approach in detail and compare it to the classically used strike index of Cavanagh and Lafortune (1980 ...


Skeletal Muscle Myofilament Adaptations To Aging, Disease And Disuse And Their Effects On Whole Muscle Performance In Older Adult Humans, Mark S. Miller, Damien M. Callahan, Michael J. Toth Dec 2013

Skeletal Muscle Myofilament Adaptations To Aging, Disease And Disuse And Their Effects On Whole Muscle Performance In Older Adult Humans, Mark S. Miller, Damien M. Callahan, Michael J. Toth

Mark S. Miller

Skeletal muscle contractile function declines with aging, disease, and disuse. In vivo muscle contractile function depends on a variety of factors, but force, contractile velocity and power generating capacity ultimately derive from the summed contribution of single muscle fibers. The contractile performance of these fibers are, in turn, dependent upon the isoform and function of myofilament proteins they express, with myosin protein expression and its mechanical and kinetic characteristics playing a predominant role. Alterations in myofilament protein biology, therefore, may contribute to the development of functional limitations and disability in these conditions. Recent studies suggest that these conditions are associated ...


Elite Female Tae Kwon Do Athletes Have Faster Reaction Time And Longer Movement Time Than Males During A Striking Kick, Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha, Valmar Fernandes Da Silva, Rubens Correa Araújo, Luis Mochizuki, Joseph Hamill Dec 2013

Elite Female Tae Kwon Do Athletes Have Faster Reaction Time And Longer Movement Time Than Males During A Striking Kick, Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha, Valmar Fernandes Da Silva, Rubens Correa Araújo, Luis Mochizuki, Joseph Hamill

Joseph Hamill

Background & Study Aim: An important aspect of ap bal ap dolio tchagui kick in tae kwon do is that it is usually performed in reaction to a signal or event. That is, given a specific stimulus (i.e. the movement of the opponent), the tae kwon do athlete must react as quickly and accurately as possible to the stimulus. Reacting to a stimulus requires preparation and it is essential to determine this preparation of an elite athlete to perform a task. Therefore, to investigate this movement a reaction time paradigm is appropriate wherein the athlete accomplishes the kick in response to a stimulus. The study investigates the processing, reaction and motor response of male and female athletes in an ecological task. The purpose of this study was to verify the authenticity of the two hypotheses: (1) that the pre-motor time, response time and motor time would the same for males and females; (2) that the magnitudes of the muscle activation would be different between males and females. Materials & Method: The main method is an analysis and comparative study of empirical data. We collected data on 13 Brazilian national calibre tae kwon do athletes (6 male and 7 female) when performing a simple reaction time kicking manoeuvre. The experimental equipment included EMG electrodes placed on six muscles and an electrogoniometer placed on the knee of the kicking limb. Results: We found that pre-motor and response times were faster for females than males for several muscles but the faster movement time for males ...


Acute Effect Of Different Minimalist Shoes On Foot Strike Pattern And Kinematics In Rearfoot Strikers During Running, Roberto Squadrone, Renato Rodano, Joseph Hamill, Ezio Preatoni Dec 2013

Acute Effect Of Different Minimalist Shoes On Foot Strike Pattern And Kinematics In Rearfoot Strikers During Running, Roberto Squadrone, Renato Rodano, Joseph Hamill, Ezio Preatoni

Joseph Hamill

Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as “minimalist” by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot–/shoe–ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were ...


Validation Of A Previous Day Recall For Measuring The Location And Purpose Of Active And Sedentary Behaviors Compared To Direct Observation, Sarah Kozey Keadle, Kate Lyden, Amanda Hickey, Evan L. Ray, Jay H. Fowke, Patty S. Freedson, Charles E. Matthews Dec 2013

Validation Of A Previous Day Recall For Measuring The Location And Purpose Of Active And Sedentary Behaviors Compared To Direct Observation, Sarah Kozey Keadle, Kate Lyden, Amanda Hickey, Evan L. Ray, Jay H. Fowke, Patty S. Freedson, Charles E. Matthews

Patty S. Freedson

Purpose Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR’s for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO). Methods Fifteen adult (18–75 y) and 15 adolescent (12–17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location ...


A Descriptive Study Of Exercise Science Students’ Knowledge Of, And Attitudes Toward, Older Adults, K. Jason Crandall, Mckinze R. Vowles Dec 2013

A Descriptive Study Of Exercise Science Students’ Knowledge Of, And Attitudes Toward, Older Adults, K. Jason Crandall, Mckinze R. Vowles

K. Jason Crandall

Today, there is greater need for health professionals to help older adults maintain function and
remain independent. Negative attitudes towards older adults have been found in undergraduate
students, with men having more negative attitudes compared to women (Allan & Johnson, 2008;
Callahan, 2011). To our knowledge, the attitudes of Exercise Science students have not been
examined. The aim of this study was to describe Exercise Science students’ knowledge of aging
and attitudes towards older adults. Participants (N=76) completed Fabroni's Scale of Ageism
and Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz. The participants scored an average of 15.4 (SD= 2 ...