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Complexity-Based Measures Inform Tai Chi's Impact On Standing Postural Control In Older Adults With Peripheral Neuropathy, Brad Manor, Lewis A. Lipsitz, Peter M. Wayne, C-K Peng, Li Li Oct 2014

Complexity-Based Measures Inform Tai Chi's Impact On Standing Postural Control In Older Adults With Peripheral Neuropathy, Brad Manor, Lewis A. Lipsitz, Peter M. Wayne, C-K Peng, Li Li

Li Li

Background: Tai Chi training enhances physical function and may reduce falls in older adults with and without balance disorders, yet its effect on postural control as quantified by the magnitude or speed of center-of-pressure (COP) excursions beneath the feet is less clear. We hypothesized that COP metrics derived from complex systems theory may better capture the multi-component stimulus that Tai Chi has on the postural control system, as compared with traditional COP measures. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a pilot, non-controlled intervention study that examined the effects of Tai Chi on standing COP dynamics, plantar sensation, and physical ...


Practical Applications Of Biomechanical Principles In Resistance Training: Neuromuscular Factors And Relationships, Jason Lake, Paul A. Swinton, Justin Keogh Oct 2014

Practical Applications Of Biomechanical Principles In Resistance Training: Neuromuscular Factors And Relationships, Jason Lake, Paul A. Swinton, Justin Keogh

Justin Keogh

This paper is the second in our three part series examining how a variety of biomechanical principles and concepts have direct relevance to the prescription of resistance training for the general and athletic populations as well as for musculoskeletal injury rehabilitation. In this paper, we considered different neuromuscular characteristics of resistance exercise. We started by defining the causes of motion, discussing force and Newton’s second law of linear motion. This led to discussion of impulse, and how its relationship with momentum can be used to study force-time curves recorded from different ground-based resistance exercises. This enables the sports biomechanist ...


The Effects Of Functional Fatigue On Ground Reaction Forces Of A Jump, Land, And Cut Task, Mikaela Boham, Mark Debeliso, Chad Harris, Ronald Pfeiffer, John Mcchesney, Joseph M. Berning Oct 2014

The Effects Of Functional Fatigue On Ground Reaction Forces Of A Jump, Land, And Cut Task, Mikaela Boham, Mark Debeliso, Chad Harris, Ronald Pfeiffer, John Mcchesney, Joseph M. Berning

John W. McChesney Ph.,D.

Rapid acceleration, deceleration, landing and change of direction have been implicated as mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. PURPOSE: To examine the ground reaction forces occurring to the knee during non-fatigued and fatigued jump, land and cut maneuvers in three unplanned cutting directions. METHODS: Eleven healthy, adult female collegiate soccer athletes participated in this study (age= 20.3±0.9 years; height= 167.4±4.8 cm; mass= 63.7±7.7 kg). Each subject was instructed to perform 9 jump, land, and cut maneuvers in a pre-fatigued state and fatigued state. The protocols were randomly assigned to ...


Fun Versus Practical: Physiological Responses And Preference Of Exercise Equipment, Shana Strunk, Courtney Perkins, Brandon Musarra, Megan O’Keefe, Katie Webb, Kenneth E. Sparks, Emily Kullman, Eddie T.C. Lam Sep 2014

Fun Versus Practical: Physiological Responses And Preference Of Exercise Equipment, Shana Strunk, Courtney Perkins, Brandon Musarra, Megan O’Keefe, Katie Webb, Kenneth E. Sparks, Emily Kullman, Eddie T.C. Lam

Eddie T. C. Lam, Ph.D.

The elliptical cross trainer has become a popular a mode of exercise, but can only be used indoors. The StreetStrider was designed as an outdoor elliptical-bike. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the elliptical or the StreetStrider was more enjoyable, and to compare the physiological variables for energy expenditure, heart rate (HR), VO2, and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE). METHODS: Thirty participants (15 male, 15 female, mean age=22±2) from Cleveland State University exercised for 20 minutes at 75% of their age predicted maximal heart rate on the StreetStrider and elliptical. Energy expenditure was measured ...


Capstone Experiences: Effects Of Adapted Physical Activity Design Projects On Attitudes And Learning, David W. Hey, Bridie Jean Mccarey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, J. Kevin Taylor, Brian Self, James Widmann Sep 2014

Capstone Experiences: Effects Of Adapted Physical Activity Design Projects On Attitudes And Learning, David W. Hey, Bridie Jean Mccarey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, J. Kevin Taylor, Brian Self, James Widmann

Brian P. Self

Eight innovative senior level capstone engineering projects were completed at California Polytechnic State University (2008-present) involving (n=28) students (23 male/5 female). All projects involved the design of equipment to facilitate physical activity for people with disabilities. The effects on: i) learning design, ii) attitude towards people with disabilities, and iii) motivation to complete team design projects were analyzed through eight one-hour focus groups. This paper presents focus group findings using a constructivist approach and grounded theory to explore the overall student “learn by doing” experience. Results: (1) Approximately 19 (70%) of the students claimed the adapted physical activity ...


African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble Jun 2014

African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble

Robert H. I. Dale

Abstract from the International Elephant and Rhino Conservation and Research Symposium, Rotterdam, NL, October 10-14, 2011.


Ampk Activation: A Therapeutic Target For Type 2 Diabetes?, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Rudy Valentine, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha Jun 2014

Ampk Activation: A Therapeutic Target For Type 2 Diabetes?, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Rudy Valentine, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha

Rudy Valentine

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and elevated hepatic glucose output. Over 350 million people worldwide have T2D, and the International Diabetes Federation projects that this number will increase to nearly 600 million by 2035. There is a great need for more effective treatments for maintaining glucose homeostasis and improving insulin sensitivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activation elicits insulin-sensitizing
effects, making it an ideal therapeutic target for T2D. AMPK is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated when cellular energy levels are low, and it ...


The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram Jun 2014

The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram

Robert H. I. Dale

For centuries, elephant locomotion has been a contentious and confusing challenge for locomotion scientists to understand, not only because of technical difficulties but also because elephant locomotion is in some ways atypical of more familiar quadrupedal gaits. We analyzed the locomotor kinematics of over 2400 strides from 14 African and 48 Asian elephant individuals (body mass 116-4632 kg) freely moving over ground at a 17-fold range of speeds, from slow walking at 0.40 m s-1 to the fastest reliably recorded speed for elephants, 6.8 m s-1. These data reveal that African and Asian elephants have some subtle differences ...


Impact Shock Frequency Components And Attenuation In Rearfoot And Forefoot Running, Allison H. Gruber, Katherine A. Boyer, Timothy R. Derrick, Joseph Hamill May 2014

Impact Shock Frequency Components And Attenuation In Rearfoot And Forefoot Running, Allison H. Gruber, Katherine A. Boyer, Timothy R. Derrick, Joseph Hamill

Katherine A. Boyer

Background The forefoot running footfall pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing running related overuse injuries due to a reduction of impact related variables compared with the rearfoot running footfall pattern. However, only time-domain impact variables have been compared between footfall patterns. The frequency content of the impact shock and the degree to which it is attenuated may be of greater importance for injury risk and prevention than time-domain variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the differences in head and tibial acceleration signal power and shock attenuation between rearfoot and forefoot running. Methods ...


Exercise Science Students Get First-Hand Experience, Valerie Wherley Apr 2014

Exercise Science Students Get First-Hand Experience, Valerie Wherley

Valerie Wherley

Sacred Heart University’s exercise science students have been busy this semester participating in various service-learning initiatives and clinics. During the semester, students are asked to complete 20 hours of service learning work so they get first-hand experience working with children and adolescents, engaging them in physical activity and sports and seeing classroom and textbook concepts come to life.


Severe Multidirectional Instability Of The Gleno-Humeral Joint, L. J. Ziaks, T. Freeman, K. A. Wise, Suanne Maurer-Starks Mar 2014

Severe Multidirectional Instability Of The Gleno-Humeral Joint, L. J. Ziaks, T. Freeman, K. A. Wise, Suanne Maurer-Starks

Suanne Maurer-Starks

The article presents a case study of a 22 year-old female college athlete with multidirectional instability (MDI) of the glen-humeral (GH) joint. The athlete participated in overhead sports activities such as softball, basketball and swimming, and her presenting symptoms included decreased function, crepitus and spontaneous subluxation. Clinical management and range of motion (ROM) measurement are also discussed.


Self Efficacy & Perceived Benefits And Risk In Prenatal Women, Elaine S. Marshall, Bridget F. Melton, Helen W. Bland Feb 2014

Self Efficacy & Perceived Benefits And Risk In Prenatal Women, Elaine S. Marshall, Bridget F. Melton, Helen W. Bland

Bridget F. Melton

This presentation was given during the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Annual Conference.


Impact Of Exercise Partner Attractiveness On Mood, Enjoyment, And Exertion, Thomas G. Plante, Sarah Gregg, Jaclyn Rubbo, Thomas Favero, Ashley Morisako, Jessica Cuadra Feb 2014

Impact Of Exercise Partner Attractiveness On Mood, Enjoyment, And Exertion, Thomas G. Plante, Sarah Gregg, Jaclyn Rubbo, Thomas Favero, Ashley Morisako, Jessica Cuadra

Thomas G Plante PhD, ABPP

Social comparison theory was used to examine if males exercising with a female research confederate posing as either attractive or unattractive would alter their exercise mood, exertion, and enjoyment. A total of 101 college students (51 males and 51 females) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: biking alone, biking with an attractive female confederate, or biking with the same female confederate appearing unattractive. All participants were instructed to complete 20 minutes of exercise at 60%-70% of their maximum target heart rate. Standard exercise mood measures (e.g., Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List) were administered immediately prior to and ...


An Informational Algorithm As The Basis For Perception-Action Control Of The Instantaneous Axes Of The Knee, Wangdo Kim, Margarida M. Espanha, António P. Veloso, Duarte Araújo, Filipa João, Luis Carrão, Sean S. Kohles Jan 2014

An Informational Algorithm As The Basis For Perception-Action Control Of The Instantaneous Axes Of The Knee, Wangdo Kim, Margarida M. Espanha, António P. Veloso, Duarte Araújo, Filipa João, Luis Carrão, Sean S. Kohles

Sean S. Kohles

Traditional locomotion studies emphasize an optimization of the desired movement trajectories while ignoring sensory feedback. We propose an information based theory that locomotion is neither triggered nor commanded but controlled. The basis for this control is the information derived from perceiving oneself in the world. Control therefore lies in the human-environment system. In order to test this hypothesis, we derived a mathematical foundation characterizing the energy that is required to perform a rotational twist, with small amplitude, of the instantaneous axes of the knee (IAK). We have found that the joint’s perception of the ground reaction force may be ...


Comprehensive Psychology-2014-Stadulis-07.13.Cp.3.12.Pdf, Robert E. Stadulis, Angela Neal-Barnett, Mary Jo Maccracken, Lisa Fender-Scarr Dec 2013

Comprehensive Psychology-2014-Stadulis-07.13.Cp.3.12.Pdf, Robert E. Stadulis, Angela Neal-Barnett, Mary Jo Maccracken, Lisa Fender-Scarr

Dr. Mary J. MacCracken

An adapted version of the 9-item Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) was administered
to Black females ( N = 179) ages 11 to 14 years. Comparison between
body composition (BMI) and social physique anxiety (SPA) indicated greatest
SPA in overweight/obese participants. No change over age was observed. In
comparison to previous data for a White sample, these Black early adolescent
females evidenced somewhat lower social physique anxiety than the White females.
The lower SPA supports the hypothesis that Black females are more accepting
of a larger physique in early adolescence. Factor analysis supported a
substantitive/non-substantitive two-factor model for the SPAS-C.


Skeletal Muscle Myofilament Adaptations To Aging, Disease And Disuse And Their Effects On Whole Muscle Performance In Older Adult Humans, Mark S. Miller, Damien M. Callahan, Michael J. Toth Dec 2013

Skeletal Muscle Myofilament Adaptations To Aging, Disease And Disuse And Their Effects On Whole Muscle Performance In Older Adult Humans, Mark S. Miller, Damien M. Callahan, Michael J. Toth

Mark S. Miller

Skeletal muscle contractile function declines with aging, disease, and disuse. In vivo muscle contractile function depends on a variety of factors, but force, contractile velocity and power generating capacity ultimately derive from the summed contribution of single muscle fibers. The contractile performance of these fibers are, in turn, dependent upon the isoform and function of myofilament proteins they express, with myosin protein expression and its mechanical and kinetic characteristics playing a predominant role. Alterations in myofilament protein biology, therefore, may contribute to the development of functional limitations and disability in these conditions. Recent studies suggest that these conditions are associated ...


Elite Female Tae Kwon Do Athletes Have Faster Reaction Time And Longer Movement Time Than Males During A Striking Kick, Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha, Valmar Fernandes Da Silva, Rubens Correa Araújo, Luis Mochizuki, Joseph Hamill Dec 2013

Elite Female Tae Kwon Do Athletes Have Faster Reaction Time And Longer Movement Time Than Males During A Striking Kick, Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha, Valmar Fernandes Da Silva, Rubens Correa Araújo, Luis Mochizuki, Joseph Hamill

Joseph Hamill

Background & Study Aim: An important aspect of ap bal ap dolio tchagui kick in tae kwon do is that it is usually performed in reaction to a signal or event. That is, given a specific stimulus (i.e. the movement of the opponent), the tae kwon do athlete must react as quickly and accurately as possible to the stimulus. Reacting to a stimulus requires preparation and it is essential to determine this preparation of an elite athlete to perform a task. Therefore, to investigate this movement a reaction time paradigm is appropriate wherein the athlete accomplishes the kick in response to a stimulus. The study investigates the processing, reaction and motor response of male and female athletes in an ecological task. The purpose of this study was to verify the authenticity of the two hypotheses: (1) that the pre-motor time, response time and motor time would the same for males and females; (2) that the magnitudes of the muscle activation would be different between males and females. Materials & Method: The main method is an analysis and comparative study of empirical data. We collected data on 13 Brazilian national calibre tae kwon do athletes (6 male and 7 female) when performing a simple reaction time kicking manoeuvre. The experimental equipment included EMG electrodes placed on six muscles and an electrogoniometer placed on the knee of the kicking limb. Results: We found that pre-motor and response times were faster for females than males for several muscles but the faster movement time for males ...


Acute Effect Of Different Minimalist Shoes On Foot Strike Pattern And Kinematics In Rearfoot Strikers During Running, Roberto Squadrone, Renato Rodano, Joseph Hamill, Ezio Preatoni Dec 2013

Acute Effect Of Different Minimalist Shoes On Foot Strike Pattern And Kinematics In Rearfoot Strikers During Running, Roberto Squadrone, Renato Rodano, Joseph Hamill, Ezio Preatoni

Joseph Hamill

Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as “minimalist” by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot–/shoe–ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were ...


Validation Of A Previous Day Recall For Measuring The Location And Purpose Of Active And Sedentary Behaviors Compared To Direct Observation, Sarah Kozey Keadle, Kate Lyden, Amanda Hickey, Evan L. Ray, Jay H. Fowke, Patty S. Freedson, Charles E. Matthews Dec 2013

Validation Of A Previous Day Recall For Measuring The Location And Purpose Of Active And Sedentary Behaviors Compared To Direct Observation, Sarah Kozey Keadle, Kate Lyden, Amanda Hickey, Evan L. Ray, Jay H. Fowke, Patty S. Freedson, Charles E. Matthews

Patty S. Freedson

Purpose Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR’s for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO). Methods Fifteen adult (18–75 y) and 15 adolescent (12–17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location ...


A Descriptive Study Of Exercise Science Students’ Knowledge Of, And Attitudes Toward, Older Adults, K. Jason Crandall, Mckinze R. Vowles Dec 2013

A Descriptive Study Of Exercise Science Students’ Knowledge Of, And Attitudes Toward, Older Adults, K. Jason Crandall, Mckinze R. Vowles

K. Jason Crandall

Today, there is greater need for health professionals to help older adults maintain function and
remain independent. Negative attitudes towards older adults have been found in undergraduate
students, with men having more negative attitudes compared to women (Allan & Johnson, 2008;
Callahan, 2011). To our knowledge, the attitudes of Exercise Science students have not been
examined. The aim of this study was to describe Exercise Science students’ knowledge of aging
and attitudes towards older adults. Participants (N=76) completed Fabroni's Scale of Ageism
and Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz. The participants scored an average of 15.4 (SD= 2 ...