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Kinesiology

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

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Walking Adaptations To An Ankle Foot Orthosis In Individuals With Peripheral Artery Disease, Todd Leutzinger, Iraklis Pipinos, Jason Johanning, Mahdi Hassan, Holly Despiegelaere, Mukul Mukherjee, Sara Myers Mar 2019

Walking Adaptations To An Ankle Foot Orthosis In Individuals With Peripheral Artery Disease, Todd Leutzinger, Iraklis Pipinos, Jason Johanning, Mahdi Hassan, Holly Despiegelaere, Mukul Mukherjee, Sara Myers

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Single Session Walking Adaptations to an Ankle Foot Orthosis in Patients with Claudication and Peripheral Artery Disease

Todd Leutzinger1, 2, Iraklis Pipinos2, 3, Jason Johanning2, 3, Mukul Mukherjee1, Sara Myers1, 2

1Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE USA

2Nebraska and Western Iowa Veterans Affairs’ Medical Center, Omaha, NE USA

3Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE USA

Email: tleutzinger@unomaha.edu

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease affecting the arteries of the lower extremities [1]. The primary symptom of PAD is intermittent claudication ...


The Effects Of Stiffness Of A Prosthetic Shock-Absorbing Pylon On Mechanical Work During Walking, Jenny Anne Maun Mar 2019

The Effects Of Stiffness Of A Prosthetic Shock-Absorbing Pylon On Mechanical Work During Walking, Jenny Anne Maun

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Name: Jenny Anne Maun

Title: The effects of stiffness of a prosthetic shock-absorbing pylon on mechanical work during walking

Degree: Masters

Faculty Advisor: Kota Z. Takahashi, PhD

Co-authors: Steven A. Gard, PhD; Matthew J. Major, PhD

A prosthetic shock-absorbing pylon (SAP) is intended to attenuate impact forces, provide comfort, and reduce residual limb pain for prosthesis users. However, the effect of an SAP and its spring stiffness on the mechanical work done by the prosthetic limb during walking remains unclear. The purpose of this study: to investigate the effects of SAP spring stiffness and walking speed on the mechanical work ...


How Prosthetic Ankle Stiffness & Load Carriage Affect Metabolic Energy Expenditure During Walking, Erica A. Hedrick, Philippe Malcolm, Jason M. Wilken, Kota Z. Takahashi Mar 2019

How Prosthetic Ankle Stiffness & Load Carriage Affect Metabolic Energy Expenditure During Walking, Erica A. Hedrick, Philippe Malcolm, Jason M. Wilken, Kota Z. Takahashi

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The ankle structures play a key role in body support, forward propulsion and leg swing. One important property of the human ankle is its ‘quasi-stiffness’, or resistance to angular motion. The ankle joint stiffness can play a role in aiding the lower leg as its rocks over the foot. Human biological ankle stiffness changes in response to changes in the mechanical demands of walking (e.g. added load or changes in speed), using active muscle contractions. However, the role of ankle stiffness in regulating metabolic energy across walking conditions is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine ...


Effect Of Dual-Task Walking On Long-Range Correlations In People With Parkinson's Disease, Shane Meltz Mar 2019

Effect Of Dual-Task Walking On Long-Range Correlations In People With Parkinson's Disease, Shane Meltz

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) causes gait to be more variable and more random. Gait variability is related to disease severity, and may be a marker of fall risks. Gait in PD is attention-dependent, meaning a distraction while walking could be detrimental. The effects of dual-task walking on gait variability in PD are unclear (in particular fractal fluctuations). This study will determine if dual-task walking impacts stride-to-stride variability compared to normal walking in people with Parkinson’s Disease. We predict that dual-tasking will lead to more random stride-to-stride variability in people with PD, compared to controls. Also, within the PD group ...


How The Foot Modulates Its Mechanics During Uphill And Downhill Walking, Jeffrey M. Patterson, Kota Z. Takahashi Mar 2019

How The Foot Modulates Its Mechanics During Uphill And Downhill Walking, Jeffrey M. Patterson, Kota Z. Takahashi

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The foot's biomechanical role in walking on sloped surfaces is currently unclear. While previous biomechanics studies have examined the hip, knee, and ankle, the foot is oversimplified as a rigid-body segment. This oversimplification overshadows its complex structure and function. In this project, we use an innovative multi-segment foot model to explore how the foot adapts its mechanics to incline and decline walking. Preliminary results have revealed that the foot is capable of adapting its mechanical work profile to both incline and decline walking. Specifically, the foot can increase its positive work output (i.e., increased energy generation) during inclined ...


Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis In Response To Exercise And Cold Exposure, Camille Larson Mar 2019

Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis In Response To Exercise And Cold Exposure, Camille Larson

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise triggers mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of new mitochondria, by ATP depletion and subsequent activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. This leads to enhanced expression of PGC-1α, a positive regulator of respiration, mitochondrial biogenesis, and adaptive thermogenesis. Previous research from our lab has shown that exercise followed by cold recovery enhances the transcription of genes associated with mitochondrial growth and division, however the recovery period was necessary for this response. Perhaps exercising in a colder external environment would induce a greater thermoregulatory response and gradient between ambient skin and core temperature that may lead to altered mitochondrial turnover ...


Effect Of Handrail Use During Stair Climbing In Oa Patients: A Pilot Study, Jenna Ackerman Mar 2019

Effect Of Handrail Use During Stair Climbing In Oa Patients: A Pilot Study, Jenna Ackerman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Introduction: For the patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, stairs are commonly a difficult task and may be the first thing affect by osteoarthritis.1 This population often employs altered strategies when they approach, ascend, and descend the stairs compared to a healthy population. Within 12 years, 80% of patients develop knee osteoarthritis in the contralateral limb.2 Handrails play an important role by assisting with balance, control, and confidence, but their use needs to be assessed even further to fully understand how handrails impact the contralateral limb in osteoarthritic patients and how they may be integrated optimally into gait ...


The Effects Of Swimming Training On Arterial Stiffness, Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Endurance In Postmenopausal Women With Stage 2 Hypertension, Steven Scott Mar 2019

The Effects Of Swimming Training On Arterial Stiffness, Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Endurance In Postmenopausal Women With Stage 2 Hypertension, Steven Scott

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Objective:

Aging is associated with progressive decreases in arterial health and function as well as overall fitness. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of aging on vasculature and fitness components by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We examined the effects of a swimming (SWM) regimen on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, PWV), blood pressure (BP), wave reflection (AIx), muscle strength and aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension.

Methods:

Using a parallel experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to either a SWM (n=52) or non-exercising control group (n=48) for ...


3d Prosthetics Effects On Standing Posture In Unilateral Upper Limb Deficient Children, Keaton Young Mar 2019

3d Prosthetics Effects On Standing Posture In Unilateral Upper Limb Deficient Children, Keaton Young

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

3D Prosthetics Effects on Standing Posture in Unilateral Upper Limb Deficient Children

Keaton Young

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Introduction

Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency (ULD) is a congenital disability that affects the upper limb, which the Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that nearly 1,500 babies are born with ULD in the United States yearly 1,2. Prior research has focused on functional treatment of the upper limbs but has lacked observance of the effects that prosthetics and limb loss incur to the trunk. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the acute ...


The Time Of Slip Onset During Stance Influences The Characteristics Of The Unconstrained Perturbation, Corbin Rasmussen, Nathaniel Hunt Mar 2019

The Time Of Slip Onset During Stance Influences The Characteristics Of The Unconstrained Perturbation, Corbin Rasmussen, Nathaniel Hunt

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Falls pose a significant health hazard, resulting in devastating injuries like broken wrists, fractured hips, and traumatic brain injuries that exceed $50 billion in U.S. medical costs. To address these risks, biomechanists have subjected individuals to simulated slips in order to study the factors that lead to falls. These studies have focused on slips that happen immediately after heel-strike and are unnaturally restricted by the methods used to cause the slip. Therefore, the effects of unconstrained slips that occur throughout stance phase are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between the timing of slip onset ...


Isolating Aspects Of Gait Through The Use Of Pacing Signals: A Pilot Study, Joel Sommerfeld Mar 2019

Isolating Aspects Of Gait Through The Use Of Pacing Signals: A Pilot Study, Joel Sommerfeld

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

A number of recent studies have shown that the temporal structure of pacing signals greatly influences the gait dynamics observed when coordinating with those signals. Typically, those studies have focused on autocorrelation structure (ACF). The current study builds on that work by addressing how the probability distribution (PDF) of pacing signals contributes to the process of synchronization. Results show that people use both of those sources of information when coordinating the timing of the lower limbs with an external pacing signal.


Subthreshold Vibration Influences The Posture And Gait Of Transtibial Amputees, Charles Sloan Mar 2019

Subthreshold Vibration Influences The Posture And Gait Of Transtibial Amputees, Charles Sloan

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Unilateral transtibial amputees lose the afferent pathways of the limb when amputation occurs. The addition of vibration has shown to increase sensation on the applied limb. This study looks into how the addition of subthreshold vibration affects amputee gait and posture. Vibration applied to the residual limb was shown to have worked in posture, but not in gait.


Influence Of Hip Abductor Fatigue On Acl Loading During Single-Leg Landing, Namwoong Kim Mar 2019

Influence Of Hip Abductor Fatigue On Acl Loading During Single-Leg Landing, Namwoong Kim

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

A musculoskeletal simulation study is necessary to identify the cause-effect relationship between hip abductor weakness and ACL loading during athletic events such as landing and jumping. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of weakness of hip abductors on lower extremity kinematics and ACL loading during single-leg landings. We hypothesized that hip abductor weakness would alter lower extremity joint kinematics. We also hypothesized that hip abductor weakness would increase ACL loading during single-leg landings. This study was a combination of a human experiment and a musculoskeletal modeling simulation. Ten healthy participants performed single-leg landing from a height ...


Relationship Between The Mullen Scales Of Early Learning And Posture Control Measures, Lauren Allegra Wehrle Mar 2018

Relationship Between The Mullen Scales Of Early Learning And Posture Control Measures, Lauren Allegra Wehrle

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Key Words: postural sway, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Mullen Scales of Early Learning, development


A Novel Task To Decrease Step Width Variability In Older Adults, Andreas Skiadopoulos, Katherine Allen, Nicholas Stergiou Mar 2018

A Novel Task To Decrease Step Width Variability In Older Adults, Andreas Skiadopoulos, Katherine Allen, Nicholas Stergiou

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Walking is the most common fall-related activity among older adults. Also, older adults experience greater step width variability when walking. Importantly, increased step width variability during walking has been found to be a strong predictor of fall risk and incidence. Therefore, an intervention for reducing increased step width variability may consequently reduce fall risk for older adults. In the present study, we proposed that lateral stepping training program improve walking in older adults by reducing the increased step width variability to normal values. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of a six-week lateral stepping ...


Effect Of The Usage Of Handrails On Gait Dynamics In People With Parkinson's Disease, Daniel Jaravata, Danish Bhatti, Vivien Marmelat Mar 2018

Effect Of The Usage Of Handrails On Gait Dynamics In People With Parkinson's Disease, Daniel Jaravata, Danish Bhatti, Vivien Marmelat

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The purpose of this project is to determine if increasing body stability during handrails-use walking on a treadmill will increase the complexity of gait variability in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). In young healthy participants, stride time-series of walking presents a pattern of complex variability, but this complexity critically decreases in patients with PD. Complexity is defined as an optimal state between too much regularity and too much irregularity, allowing the locomotor system to maintain robust performances while being able to adapt to perturbations. A possible explanation is that the decrease in complexity results from increased control mechanisms to avoid ...


The Relationship Between Linear And Nonlinear Analysis On Activity Data, Katlyn J. Nimtz Mar 2018

The Relationship Between Linear And Nonlinear Analysis On Activity Data, Katlyn J. Nimtz

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Activity monitoring in older adults is a great way to predict disability without interfering in their daily life. We can analyze that data using linear and nonlinear analysis. While linear analysis measures the variation of activity during a specific period of time (i.e., mean, standard deviation), nonlinear analysis focuses on the evolution of activity over a period of time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between linear and nonlinear analysis of activity data obtained by activity monitoring in older adults. Eight participants wore an activity monitor around their waist for seven days. Linear analysis ...


The Effects Of Vibrations On The Light Touch Perception Threshold Of Transtibial Amputees, Aaron Robinson Mar 2018

The Effects Of Vibrations On The Light Touch Perception Threshold Of Transtibial Amputees, Aaron Robinson

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Sensations from the residual limb and the prosthetic socket interface may be important for mobility/balance following an amputation. One potential way to improve sensation in the residual limb-socket interface is the use of sub-threshold vibrations. We hypothesized that the application of a subthreshold pink noise vibration will improve an amputee’s ability to perceive a light touch stimulus in the residual limb surrounding the area of the amputation. 20 unilateral transtibial amputees (ages 59.7±15 yrs) and seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 54.1±16 yrs) participated. For transtibial amputees light touch sensation threshold (LTST), baseline was tested ...


Circadian Rhythms And Stride-To-Stride Fluctuations: Is There A Connection ?, Joao R. Vaz Mar 2018

Circadian Rhythms And Stride-To-Stride Fluctuations: Is There A Connection ?, Joao R. Vaz

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Several physiological systems exhibit rhythmic changes over the course of 24h. A disruption in the CR is thought to represent a risk to the human’s health (e.g., cardiac risk, diabetes). Aging and neurological diseases are known to be characterized by an increased likelihood of circadian disruption. Recently, balance and gait have been shown to exhibit diurnal variations, suggesting a possible influence of CR. Gait is also characterized by a certain level of stride-to-stride fluctuations. In addition, a breakdown in the temporal structure of these fluctuations has recently been associated with aging and neurological diseases. Therefore, it is likely ...


Examining The Minute To Minute Predictability Of Walking Distance Across Multiple Terrains, Tyler Hamer Mar 2018

Examining The Minute To Minute Predictability Of Walking Distance Across Multiple Terrains, Tyler Hamer

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

EXAMINING THE MINUTE TO MINUTE PREDICTABILITY OF WALKING DISTANCE ACROSS MULTIPLE TERRAINS

Tyler Hamer, Abderrahman Ouattas, Katlyn Nimtz, & Brian A. Knarr

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182

With findings that the 6MWT is more efficient than the original 12-minute walk test (12MWT), perhaps it can be evident that even the 6MWT can be shortened to examine its effects in a shorter duration that can be more beneficial to the participant. The objective of this study is to examine the outcomes of each minute throughout the 6MWT trials and to see if functional measures can be ...


Standing Posture Is Reliable Across Days And Weeks In Healthy, Young Adults, Jordan Wickstrom Mar 2018

Standing Posture Is Reliable Across Days And Weeks In Healthy, Young Adults, Jordan Wickstrom

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

This paper tests how reliable (consistent) posture is across consecutive days and weeks.


An Investigation Into The Correlation Between Step Width Variability And Balance Deficits In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Jordan Freeman Mar 2017

An Investigation Into The Correlation Between Step Width Variability And Balance Deficits In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Jordan Freeman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience a higher incidence of falls. Further, gait variability has been shown to be a useful predictor of future falls. It is unknown if balance measures and gait variability are related. Our purpose was to investigate if step width (SW) variability is related to balance deficits in patients with COPD. We hypothesized that functional balance tests will closely correlate to the step width variability as compared to subjective balance questionnaires. Nine subjects with COPD and six controls performed a series of balance measures: sensory organization test (SOT), motor control test (MCT), Fullerton advanced ...


Quantifying Static And Dynamic Stability Using Mobile Sensors, Mason Schleu Mar 2017

Quantifying Static And Dynamic Stability Using Mobile Sensors, Mason Schleu

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Balance disorders impact millions of people causing substantial impact on quality of life due to psychological and physical hardships associated with poor balance. However, a clinically relevant, low cost, self-service system in detecting such disorders does not exist. Previous research has shown the built in accelerometer and gyroscope sensors of a smart phone to be valid tools in detecting standing balance performance using traditional linear analysis, however, such a system has yet to be proven useful in detecting dynamic postural variability. Indeed, more quantitative methods than are typically used in clinical settings are necessary for early detection of poor postural ...


Design Of An Instrumented Cane For Real-Time Force Feedback, Samantha Sack Mar 2017

Design Of An Instrumented Cane For Real-Time Force Feedback, Samantha Sack

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stroke is a major cause of adult disability in the United States, and many affected stroke survivors require the use of an assistive device post-stroke. Even so, the effects of these assistive devices on specific movement outcomes like propulsion in rehabilitation are not well studied. The goal of this study was to develop an instrumented cane capable of recording accurate force data and providing real-time feedback to the user. A standard, single-point cane was instrumented with a force cell that measures force applied to the cane and a motor that vibrates once a threshold value has been applied. The force ...


The Effect Of Bilateral Vestibular Stimulation On Locomotor Adaptation, Allison Hoover Mar 2017

The Effect Of Bilateral Vestibular Stimulation On Locomotor Adaptation, Allison Hoover

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Locomotor adaptation requires input from vision, somatosensory and vestibular systems. The contribution of the vestibular system is important for maintaining postural control during gait specifically orientation of the head on the trunk and acceleration (linear and angular) feedback. Disrupting this system causes instabilities during locomotion. However, it is not clear, how much the vestibular system contributes to gait adaptation. Eighteen healthy adults adapted to a split-belt treadmill task with or without additional vestibular perturbation using bilateral mastoid vibration. The symmetry index for step length and step time, as well as the change in standard deviation in stride time for both ...


Movement Variability And Sensorimotor Cortical Activation During Forward And Backward Walking, Boman Groff Mar 2017

Movement Variability And Sensorimotor Cortical Activation During Forward And Backward Walking, Boman Groff

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Previous research has used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to show that motor areas of the cortex are activated more while walking backward compared to walking forward. It is also known that head movement creates motion artifacts in fNIRS data. The aim of this study was to expand on previous findings by examining cortical activation during forward and backward walking, while also measuring head movement. We hypothesized that greater activation in motor areas while walking backward would be concurrent with increased head movement.

Participants (N=8) performed forward and backward walking on a treadmill. Participants wore motion capture markers on their ...


Augmenting Human Muscle Performance Through Added Foot Stiffness, Samuel F. Ray Mar 2017

Augmenting Human Muscle Performance Through Added Foot Stiffness, Samuel F. Ray

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

In human walking, the relationship between foot and ankle structure and function is not fully known. The foot and toe structures seem to dissipate energy while the ankle generates force through the plantarflexor muscles. Increasing foot stiffness through added carbon fiber insoles has been shown to increase force output and decrease contraction velocity of the ankle plantarflexor muscles. This shift in the muscular force-velocity operating range may be beneficial in fast walking. During fast walking, muscle fascicles contract at high velocities and low force output. We predict that added foot stiffness can reduce the metabolic cost of fast walking by ...


A Comparison Of Balance Between A Smoker And Never-Smoker, Robert J. Barber Mar 2017

A Comparison Of Balance Between A Smoker And Never-Smoker, Robert J. Barber

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the third leading cause of death in the United States.” “While COPD is defined in terms of fixed airflow limitation, it’s also characterized by the frequent association of complications outside the lung, including compromised balance.” Research has shown “medio-lateral (i.e., side-to-side) balance is altered in patients with COPD compared to controls and is further affected by challenging sensory systems (e.g., eyes closed or uneven surface).” “Smoking increases risk for onset of COPD”, therefore the objective of this study was to investigate balance in smokers. It’s hypothesized that smokers will demonstrate balance ...


Effects Of Serial Subtractions On Elderly Gait Speed In A Virtual Reality Setting, Taylor Leeder Mar 2017

Effects Of Serial Subtractions On Elderly Gait Speed In A Virtual Reality Setting, Taylor Leeder

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Falls are the leading cause of fatal injuries in older adults aged 65+ with one in three adults falling each year. Cognitive processes are involved in gait, and thus, as cognitive changes are normative with age, this may impact fall risk in the elderly. Sixteen older adults aged 70.8±5.3 years took part in a dual-task (DT) study where they walked on a split-belt self-paced treadmill with and without a virtual reality (VR) setting while simultaneously performing a serial subtraction (SS) task. For SS, individuals were given a random 3-digit starting number and told to subtract by three ...


Influence Of Neuromuscular Fatigue On The Reliability Of Gait Variability Measures, Nicholas Reynolds Mar 2017

Influence Of Neuromuscular Fatigue On The Reliability Of Gait Variability Measures, Nicholas Reynolds

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Walking in healthy young adults displays an optimal pattern of variability from one stride to the next. This level ensures that each step taken is not stereotyped but also not completely unpredictable. Previous studies have investigated differences in stride-to-stride characteristics comparing groups of young to groups of elderly. The consistency of gait variability measures on an individual level remains to be determined. The first aim of this study is to determine the between day and between trial consistency of gait variability measures in healthy young adults. We hypothesize that there will be a high level of consistency from day-to-day and ...