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Exploring The Relationship Between Stress-Related Growth And Basic Psychological Needs Following Athletic Injuries, Samantha L. Macdonald Jan 2019

Exploring The Relationship Between Stress-Related Growth And Basic Psychological Needs Following Athletic Injuries, Samantha L. Macdonald

WWU Graduate School Collection

Approximately 8.6 million sport-related injuries occur yearly in the United States that cause a variety of physical and psychological outcomes. One positive psychological consequence after injury is stress-related growth (SRG), which is positive change experienced after undergoing something stressful. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the full model of basic psychological needs was related to SRG and explore sources of need satisfaction while injured. SRG and basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration was measured in 93 competitive adult athletes who suffered lower limb sport injuries within the past 5 years. Multiple regression analyses did not ...


The Effects Of Hallux Valgus And Walking Speed On Dynamic Balance In Older Adults, Carolyn E. Barbee Jan 2019

The Effects Of Hallux Valgus And Walking Speed On Dynamic Balance In Older Adults, Carolyn E. Barbee

WWU Graduate School Collection

Hallux valgus (HV) contributes to deficits in static balance and increased fall risk in older adults. Very limited research has examined dynamic balance deficits in walking in this population. These individuals generally walk slowly, as balance challenge is lesser at slow speeds. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic balance in older adults with HV compared to healthy controls at controlled slow and fast speeds. Nineteen older adults with HV and 13 healthy controls completed 5 continuous walking trials at 1.0 and 1.3 m·s-1 as whole body marker position and ground reaction force data ...


Effect Of Pedal Stance Width Manipulation Via Pedal Spacers On Lower Limb Frontal Plane Kinematics During Cycling, Andrew Fife Jan 2019

Effect Of Pedal Stance Width Manipulation Via Pedal Spacers On Lower Limb Frontal Plane Kinematics During Cycling, Andrew Fife

WWU Graduate School Collection

Anecdotal evidence suggests that frontal plane kinematics of the lower extremity may be an important aspect of bicycle fit, however, frontal plane adjustments are often overlooked during common fit procedures. The purpose of this study was to manipulate pedal stance width through the use of pedal spacers to determine their influence on frontal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, and ankle during cycling. Twenty-four young healthy subjects (12 female) recreational cyclists completed five minutes of pedaling at their preferred cadence and power output under three stance widths conditions: no spacer, 20 mm spacer, and 30 mm spacer. The pedaling cadence ...


The Effect Of A Brief Mindfulness Intervention On Free-Throw Shooting Performance Under Pressure, Nathan J. Wolch Jan 2019

The Effect Of A Brief Mindfulness Intervention On Free-Throw Shooting Performance Under Pressure, Nathan J. Wolch

WWU Graduate School Collection

Pressure situations in sport can be a source of anxiety for athletes (Craft, Magyar, Becker, & Feltz, 2003). Research indicates that a brief mindfulness training can improve math performance under pressure (Brunye et al., 2013); however, no known studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on an athletic performance under pressure. Therefore, this experiment investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness training on basketball free-throw shooting under pressure. Participants were 32 college-aged (Mage = 21.29), male competitive basketball players. Participants shot 20 free-throws in a low-pressure phase, then were pair-matched by free-throws made and randomly assigned to mindfulness (n = 16) or control (n = 16) conditions. Pressure was induced before participants listened to a 15-minute mindfulness or history of ...


Effects Of Deep Slow Breath Training On Performance And Recovery During High Intensity Interval Cycling, Andrew D. (Andrew David) Brown Jan 2019

Effects Of Deep Slow Breath Training On Performance And Recovery During High Intensity Interval Cycling, Andrew D. (Andrew David) Brown

WWU Graduate School Collection

The present investigation sought to delineate the effects of a six-week deep slow breathing (DSB) program on measures of cycling performance (mean power: MP), recovery (heart rate recovery: HRR, and expired carbon dioxide: VCO2), and pulmonary capacities (vital capacity: VC, forced expiratory volume: FEV1, and maximum voluntary ventilation: MVV). Twenty male cyclists were divided into training (n=10) and control (n=10) groups, where the training group completed a six-week DSB program in addition to their own training while the control group completed no breathe training. Participants completed two testing sessions, one before and one after the six-week ...


Fascia Thickness And Mechanical Demand At The Ankle Joint During Dance Jumps In Classically Trained Ballet Dancers, Sarah Perry Jan 2019

Fascia Thickness And Mechanical Demand At The Ankle Joint During Dance Jumps In Classically Trained Ballet Dancers, Sarah Perry

WWU Graduate School Collection

Ballet is an athletic activity that combines aesthetics and artistry with power and ­­­­­skill. One of the most athletic aspects of dance is observed during jumps. Many jumps in ballet involve takeoff from a single leg, but differ in propulsion direction. To assess differences in mechanical demand, two single leg jumps commonly trained in ballet were compared; a saut de chat (SDC) and a temp levé from a step (SLSJ). Fifteen female classically trained dancers with similar number of years of training (13.9 ± 5.0 years) were instrumented with lower body reflective markers and performed each jump three times ...


Trunk, Hip And Knee Motions During A Step-Down Test And Running In Patellofemoral Pain Individuals, Katie Olinger Jan 2019

Trunk, Hip And Knee Motions During A Step-Down Test And Running In Patellofemoral Pain Individuals, Katie Olinger

WWU Graduate School Collection

Context: A common knee injury in runners is patellofemoral femoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The step-down test (SDT) is used to analyze lower extremity motions in runners with PFPS because kinematics are similar for the SDT and running. Individuals with PFPS often experience altered kinematics when compared to healthy. However, there are no known studies that examine the relationship in kinematics between the SDT and running.

Objective: Examine the relationship between lower extremity kinematics of the knee, hip and trunk in runners with PFPS and healthy controls, during the midstance of running and during a SDT.

Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen ...


Joint Motions Of The Knee, Hip, And Trunk During A Single-Leg Step-Down Test And Running, Cody J. Brocato Jan 2018

Joint Motions Of The Knee, Hip, And Trunk During A Single-Leg Step-Down Test And Running, Cody J. Brocato

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematic variables at the knee, hip, and trunk during a single-leg step-down test (SDT) and running. Twenty-five healthy subjects (12 male, 13 female) participated in the study; mean ± SD age, 32.8 ± 5.9 years; height, 173.9 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 70.84 ± 11.3 kg; run volume, 59.5 ± 30.4 km/wk; cadence, 173.1 ± 11.5 steps/min). Dominant leg peak knee flexion was identified during the run (PKF-RUN) and used to find frontal plane knee and hip, and sagittal plane trunk angles. The ...


A Comparison Of The Effect Of Conditioning Activity Type On Post-Activation Potentiation, Alexander I. Grey Jan 2018

A Comparison Of The Effect Of Conditioning Activity Type On Post-Activation Potentiation, Alexander I. Grey

WWU Graduate School Collection

This study compared the effects of two conditioning exercise types on subsequent countermovement jump performance. Fifteen male collegiate rugby players (age 21.1 ± 2.3) completed two experimental protocols in a randomized order. The first protocol consisted of 3 sets of a 5 second maximal isometric half squat (ISO), with 1 minute rest intervals between sets. The second protocol consisted of 2 sets of 5 depth jumps (DJ) at a platform height which was determined by the athletes’ reactive strength index (RSI). These methods were each adapted from prior literature where post-activation potentiation (PAP) was achieved, in order to determine ...


Does Cycling Cadence Affect Interlimb Symmetry In Pedaling Power In Individuals With Parkinson's Disease?, Gary D. Wiley Jr. Jan 2018

Does Cycling Cadence Affect Interlimb Symmetry In Pedaling Power In Individuals With Parkinson's Disease?, Gary D. Wiley Jr.

WWU Graduate School Collection

Cycling at faster pedaling rates leads to symptomatic improvement in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, these patients show inter-limb asymmetry in pedaling power when cycling at their slow self-selected cadence. The effects of faster pedaling cadence on symmetry of effort between limbs is unknown. We compared the effect of pedaling cadence on symmetry of crank power output in individuals with PD versus healthy controls. In this case series, two participants with PD and two healthy controls performed 3-minute bouts of stationary cycling at three cadences (50, 65, 80 rpm) at 60W and self-selected workload. Power output contribution of ...


Occam's Razor Vol. 7 - Full (2017) Jan 2017

Occam's Razor Vol. 7 - Full (2017)

Occam's Razor

No abstract provided.


A Qualitative Investigation Of The Peer Mentor Experience In A Physical Activity Intervention For Mental Health, Taylor R. Leenstra Jan 2017

A Qualitative Investigation Of The Peer Mentor Experience In A Physical Activity Intervention For Mental Health, Taylor R. Leenstra

WWU Graduate School Collection

Interventions that utilize peer mentors to aid in altering the physical activity behaviors and attitudes of individuals have grown in popularity (Mellanby, Rees, & Tripp, 2000). While the mentees’ experiences in such programs have been studied extensively, there is little research that explores the experiences of the mentors. The Western Wellcat program is a peer-led physical activity intervention designed to improve the mental and physical well-being of students with clinical depression and anxiety (Keeler, 2015). In the Western Wellcat program peer mentors serve as supportive, reliable, and knowledgeable exercise partners for their peers (Keeler, 2015). The purpose of this study was ...


Effects Of A Single Diaphragmatic Breath On Anxiety, Gaze, And Performance, Mason B. (Mason Burk) Nichols Jan 2017

Effects Of A Single Diaphragmatic Breath On Anxiety, Gaze, And Performance, Mason B. (Mason Burk) Nichols

WWU Graduate School Collection

Anxiety is an emotion frequently experienced by athletes in competitive situations (Lazarus, 2000). Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) explains that anxiety affects performance by occupying limited attentional resources, which reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of athletes. Efficient gaze patterns are linked to high levels of performance (e.g., Vickers, 1992). As athletes become more anxious, their gaze patterns become less efficient; specifically, they have more fixations of shorter duration and shorter quiet eye fixation duration (e.g., Wilson, Vine & Wood, 2009). The purpose of the current study was to test if a common anxiety reduction intervention, the diaphragmatic ...


Effects Of Thoracic Spine Position During Cycle Sprint Recovery, Deanna Marlene Emnott Jan 2017

Effects Of Thoracic Spine Position During Cycle Sprint Recovery, Deanna Marlene Emnott

WWU Graduate School Collection

There is a paucity of research on how to recover during a race or practice immediately between cycling sprints. The subjects of this study included 13 competitive male cyclists recruited from local bicycle shops. This study utilized a pretest-posttest experimental design. Participants completed two 30-s maximal effort sprints on a cycle ergometer followed by two four-min active recovery intervals. They were randomly assigned to either a flexed thoracic spine position greater than 14° (FC) or a neutral thoracic spine position (NC) during cycling sprint recovery intervals on the first testing day and completed the other no less than 48 hours ...


The Impact Of Crossramp Angle And Elliptical Path Trajectory On Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Matthew M. Thorsen Jan 2017

The Impact Of Crossramp Angle And Elliptical Path Trajectory On Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Matthew M. Thorsen

WWU Graduate School Collection

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of linear path and converging path ellipticals at three varying crossramp angles (35°, 25°, and 15°) on mean muscle activation of the gluteus maximus (GMAX), semitendinosus (ST), vastus medialis (VM), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and vastus lateralis (VL). The study consisted of 25 young adults (15 males and 10 females. All subjects had previous experience with elliptical trainers and had no contraindications preventing them from taking part in the study. The main outcome measure was mean muscle activation, presented at %MVC, for GMAX, ST, VM, LG, and VL. A two-way ...


The Effects Of An Ankle Strengthening And Proprioception Exercise Protocol On Peak Torque And Joint Position Sense, Jayson Shepherd Jan 2017

The Effects Of An Ankle Strengthening And Proprioception Exercise Protocol On Peak Torque And Joint Position Sense, Jayson Shepherd

WWU Graduate School Collection

Abstract

Ankle sprains are the most common injury seen in athletics. Because of this, devices such as external ankle supports have been developed to protect the ankle joint and prevent injury. Exercise protocols have also been developed to increase strength and proprioception at the joint, which has been shown to reduce injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in joint position sense (JPS) and peak plantar flexion and dorsiflexion torque following a six week strength and proprioception exercise protocol, as well as compare these results to those of a control group wearing ankle braces. The study ...


Determining The Maximal Recoverable Volume Of Resistance Training In Tonnage During A Strength Phase, Patrick C. Castelli Jan 2017

Determining The Maximal Recoverable Volume Of Resistance Training In Tonnage During A Strength Phase, Patrick C. Castelli

WWU Graduate School Collection

Maximal recoverable volume (MRV) has been described as the maximal volume load an individual can accumulate, recover from, and respond to positively. There has been little research conducted in attempts to quantify this load. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative MRV of resistance training in total volume load, and employ a multiple regression model consisting of initial volume load (VL_initial) and maximum relative strength (RS) (1RM back squat divided by body weight) to define a method to accurately predict this upper tolerable limit. VL_initial for each exercise was calculated as the product of the number of ...


The Effect Of Fatigue On The Motor Evoked Potential Of The Infraspinatus, Joseph Howard Cordell Jan 2017

The Effect Of Fatigue On The Motor Evoked Potential Of The Infraspinatus, Joseph Howard Cordell

WWU Graduate School Collection

Shoulder muscle dysfunction can lead to glenohumeral incongruity and can negatively affect glenohumeral joint stability. Fatigue of the infraspinatus could affect joint stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on the muscle activation of the infraspinatus, specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, peak-to-peak duration, and activation latency of the MEP. Eighteen healthy college age students (eleven males, seven females) participated in this study. Subjects were screened for history of head trauma, shoulder pain, shoulder surgery, any neuromuscular disorders and potential conditions that might place them at a higher risk for adverse effects of ...


Six Weeks Of Creatine-Electrolyte Supplement Effects On Muscle Fatigability, Donnelly R. Miller Jan 2017

Six Weeks Of Creatine-Electrolyte Supplement Effects On Muscle Fatigability, Donnelly R. Miller

WWU Graduate School Collection

Creatine supplementation is an ergogenic aid that is often used to enhance resistance training. Electrolytes can help to increase the absorption of creatine. This study examined effects of two differently formulated creatine supplements, creatine monohydrate (CM) or creatine-magnesium chelate (CE), compared to placebo on fatigue, work, and power during knee extensions. Subjects (n=23; 21.9±1.8 years) maintained their regular resistance training program and had not supplemented with creatine in the previous 6 months. Supplementation was 4 g creatine daily for CM and CE, plus 400 mg magnesium in CE. Maximum torque and fatigue of knee extensions at ...


Comparing Aggressive And Impulsive Behavior In Concussed And Non-Concussed Athletes, Jason Haddix Jan 2017

Comparing Aggressive And Impulsive Behavior In Concussed And Non-Concussed Athletes, Jason Haddix

WWU Graduate School Collection

The high prevalence of concussions sustained through sport involvement, particularly in contact and team sports, are great in number, roughly 1.8 to 3.6 million annually within the United States (Thurman, Branche, & Sniezek 1998). The physical symptoms that follow a concussion are well noted, but the impairment of cognitive reasoning and emotional regulation needs further research efforts. Increases in aggression and impulsivity are common symptoms of traumatic brain injuries (TBI; Rochat et al., 2010) that can affect one’s standings socially and can increase the likelihood of deviant behavior that one may not normally engage in if cognitively and emotionally stable (Tateno, Jorge & Robinson, 2003). The purpose of the study is to identify levels of aggressiveness (sport and life aggression) and impulsiveness in an athletic population. The current study, was the first of its kind to assess aggressive and impulsive behavior in active athletes via an online survey. The sample consisted of 139 athletes currently involved in competition, regardless of competition season, at the recreational (n = 29), university club (n = 115), varsity (n = 20), or amateur/semi-professional/professional level (n = 11), with multiple athletes competing at multiple levels in multiple sports. Athletes were asked to complete the Bredemeier Athletic Aggression Inventory-Short Form (BAAGI-S; for sport aggression), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ; for life aggression), the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and a self-report criminal history survey through Qualtrics. Athletes were categorized into independent variables of concussion history (history ...


Acute Effects Of Two Hip Flexor Stretching Techniques On Knee Joint Position Sense And Balance, Hussain I. Aslan Jan 2017

Acute Effects Of Two Hip Flexor Stretching Techniques On Knee Joint Position Sense And Balance, Hussain I. Aslan

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of two hip flexor stretching techniques on hip extension ROM, knee joint position sense (JPS) and dynamic balance performance (DB). Thirty-six healthy college age students (25 males, 11 females; mean=22.39 years) who exhibited hip flexor tightness participated in this study. Hip extension ROM, knee JPS and DB were tested pre- and post-stretching using digital inclinometer, iPod touch and the Y-balance kit, respectively. Subjects were randomly divided into dynamic (DS), and hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (HR-PNF) groups. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to explore if ...


Effect Of Distance On Lumbar Flexion And Erector Spinae Electromyography On A Slide Versus Fixed Base Rowing Ergometer, Nicole Y. (Nicole Yvette) Kelp Jan 2017

Effect Of Distance On Lumbar Flexion And Erector Spinae Electromyography On A Slide Versus Fixed Base Rowing Ergometer, Nicole Y. (Nicole Yvette) Kelp

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant effect of distance on lumbar flexion and erector spinae (ES) muscle activity while rowing on a slide-based Row Perfect 3 (RP3) versus a fixed-based Concept 2 (C2) ergometer during a 1000-m time trial in competitive female rowers. Low back pain is a common complaint among rowers and certain variables such as increased lumbar flexion, timing of peak flexion and ES muscle activity have been associated with risk for low back injury. A better understanding of the effects of fatigue on the trunk and hip extensors may provide ...


The Effect Of Knee Extension Angle On Knee Joint Position Sense Between Genders, Samuel M. Lyons Jan 2017

The Effect Of Knee Extension Angle On Knee Joint Position Sense Between Genders, Samuel M. Lyons

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in knee JPS between males and females at both 30 and 60 degrees of knee extension in the dominant leg of healthy young adults. 46 subjects (22 males, 24 females) participated in the study; aged 19-25 years old, average height 172.7±8.4 cm, and average mass 71.2±12.9 kg. The data collection consisted of three position reproduction tasks with two different target angles for a total of six randomized trials. The difference in reproduction angle was recorded and analyzed as an absolute error between position and ...


An Exploration Of The Relationship Between Burnout And Depression In Intercollegiate Athletes, Arianna Martignetti Jan 2017

An Exploration Of The Relationship Between Burnout And Depression In Intercollegiate Athletes, Arianna Martignetti

WWU Graduate School Collection

Researchers in occupational settings have found similarities in the symptomatology of workplace burnout and depression (Bianchi, Schonfeld, & Laurent, 2015). However, sport psychology researchers have stated that sport burnout and depression are separate constructs (Cresswell & Eklund, 2006). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and depression to help determine if their symptoms are indeed distinct, or if they potentially overlap. An additional purpose was to assess gender differences. At present, there are no studies examining the relationship between burnout and depression in an intercollegiate athlete sample. Participants were 422 intercollegiate athletes from all divisions of the NCAA, NAIA and NJCAA. Athletes completed an anonymous online survey consisting of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS; Zung, 1965), and two symptom checklists designed for this study. Results revealed a strong, statistically significant positive correlation (r = .600) between total burnout and depression scores. Moreover, each subscale of the ABQ was statistically significantly correlated to total depression scores. The correlation between burnout and depression was stronger in female athletes compared to male athletes; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Sixty-six percent of the sample reported having experienced what they defined as burnout from sport. Of this subsample, forty-seven percent ...


Creatine And Electrolyte Supplementation Improves Repetitive Sprint Cycling Performance, Daniel L. Crisafulli Jan 2017

Creatine And Electrolyte Supplementation Improves Repetitive Sprint Cycling Performance, Daniel L. Crisafulli

WWU Graduate School Collection

Creatine supplementation is recommended to improve repetitive sprint cycling performance. Creatine absorption is increased in the presence of electrolytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of creatine-electrolyte (CE) supplementation on peak power and total work performed during repeated cycling sprints. Peak power and total work performed by 38 cyclists (CE group: n = 17; 23.4 ± 4.0 years; placebo (P) group: n = 18; 23.4 ± 4.0 years) were measured on a Velotron cycle ergometer as they completed five 15-s cycling sprints with two minutes of recovery between sprints. Participants’ body composition was estimated using three ...


Occam's Razor Vol. 6 - Full (2016) Jan 2016

Occam's Razor Vol. 6 - Full (2016)

Occam's Razor

No abstract provided.


Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Cause To Treatment, Tavleen Aulakh Jan 2016

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Cause To Treatment, Tavleen Aulakh

Occam's Razor

Imagine two individuals, both suffering from severe liver damage. With excess fat molecules concentrated in the hepatic cells, their livers are inflamed and scarred. These deteriorating livers are also supplementing the development of chronic obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hyperlipidemia. While one of these individuals is a middle-aged male with a long history of alcohol addiction and abuse, the other is only thirteen years old and has never consumed alcohol. This adolescent is suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).


Effects Of Hand Position During A Push-Up On Scapular Kinematics, Tylre M. Arens Jan 2016

Effects Of Hand Position During A Push-Up On Scapular Kinematics, Tylre M. Arens

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hand position and elbow flexion angle on scapular kinematics in a traditional push up exercise. Sixteen healthy subjects (11 males, 5 females, age 20.50 ± 5.25 yrs.) participated in the study. Following a standardized warm-up subjects were instrumented. Kinematic data was collected via the Polhemus Fastrak magnetic tracking system. Following digitization, subjects assumed a push-up position. A 10-cm wood block was positioned on the floor to control for push-up depth. Subjects performed push-ups with their hands in a standard position, wide, and narrow. Subjects performed three repetitions of ...


Velocity-Based Training As A Method Of Auto-Regulation In Collegiate Athletes, Damien L. (Damien Levon) Fisher Jan 2016

Velocity-Based Training As A Method Of Auto-Regulation In Collegiate Athletes, Damien L. (Damien Levon) Fisher

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Velocity-Based Training (VBT) as a form of auto-regulation on strength and power metrics in collegiate athletes. Seventeen NCAA Division II collegiate softball players participated in the study, and were randomly assigned to either a control group or a VBT group after being paired according to strength-bodyweight ratios. A six-week training period was completed, with the control group performing back squats and bench press with a conventional fixed-volume program, while the VBT group performed back squats and bench press with a variable volume program in which volume was determined by ...


Effects Of Creatine-Electrolyte Supplement On Power And Strength Performance, Erik Hummer Jan 2016

Effects Of Creatine-Electrolyte Supplement On Power And Strength Performance, Erik Hummer

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creatine and electrolyte formulated multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on strength and power performance. Maximal strength, total concentric work, mean rate of force development (mRFD), mean power, peak power, and peak force was determined at pre-test and post-test separated by six weeks of supplementation. Subject’s body density and body water were measured using a BodPod and Quantum X Bioelectrical Impedance unit respectively. Subjects performed three akimbo countermovement jumps (ACMJ) on a force platform. Subjects performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) for back squat and bench press consisting of a ...