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Crises In The Aquatic Profession, Robert Keig Stallman Oct 2019

Crises In The Aquatic Profession, Robert Keig Stallman

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

In this paper, I propose there are several crises in the aquatic profession and I explain what they are and how to address them using research and my own observations. I use an innovative questioning process to do this by asking you the reader a series of questions after which I explain each. The first crisis has to do with the quantity of trained swimming instructors relative to the population that they serve. In many western European and North American high income countries (HICs), the teacher:student ratios are declining and it is getting increasingly difficult to hire trained swim ...


Effects Of Anaerobic Fatigue On The Tuck Jump Assessment Performance In Female Collegiate Club Athletes, Madison M. Vomacka, Nicole Bascelli, Monica Lininger Oct 2019

Effects Of Anaerobic Fatigue On The Tuck Jump Assessment Performance In Female Collegiate Club Athletes, Madison M. Vomacka, Nicole Bascelli, Monica Lininger

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: To determine the impact of a fatigue trial on the scores and number of jumps in a Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA) in female collegiate club athletes. The TJA is a 10-second plyometric jumping assessment used to replicate sport and identify lower extremity landing patterns. Scores from the TJA are summed together and those who score a 6 or higher are suggested for intervention training. Methods: Sixteen female club athletes (age: 20.9+1.9 years, weight: 59.13+7.72kg, height: 64.56+2.63cm) completed the TJA twice, once before performing a Wingate protocol and then again after ...


Prediction Modeling For Board Of Certification Exam Success For A Professional Master’S Athletic Training Program, Scott L. Bruce, Elizabeth K. Crawford, Gary B. Wilkerson, R. Barry Dale, Martina Harris, David W. Rausch Oct 2019

Prediction Modeling For Board Of Certification Exam Success For A Professional Master’S Athletic Training Program, Scott L. Bruce, Elizabeth K. Crawford, Gary B. Wilkerson, R. Barry Dale, Martina Harris, David W. Rausch

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Introduction: The Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education mandates accredited athletic training programs have a minimum, three-year aggregate, first-attempt pass rate on the Board of Certification (BOC) examination of 70%. No studies have examined first-attempt BOC exam success for students enrolled in a professional master’s athletic training program (PMATP). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with first-attempt success on the BOC examination for PMATP students. Methods: This cohort designed study used common application data from subjects’ university and PMATP applications to create prediction models to identify those factors that predict first-attempt success on ...


Performance Motion Analysis Unable To Predict Running-Related Injury In Collegiate Distance Runners, Christopher P. Melgares, Andrew C. Fry, Zachary Sanchez Oct 2019

Performance Motion Analysis Unable To Predict Running-Related Injury In Collegiate Distance Runners, Christopher P. Melgares, Andrew C. Fry, Zachary Sanchez

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Running-related injury (RRI) is common among competitive collegiate distance runners who participate in the sport of cross country and long distance track and field. Many factors contribute to RRI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if a 3D motion capture system’s performance motion analysis (PMA) report is capable of identifying factors predictive of RRI among collegiate distance runners during a cross country season. Methods: Thirty-one collegiate cross country runners (17 male, 14 female, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.4 years) gave their consent to participate in the investigation. Subjects were screened in the motion ...


Comparison Of Pitching From Flat Ground Vs. 10-Inch Mound Regarding Elbow Varus Torque And Arm Speed, Stephen A. Cage, X. Neil Dong, Brandon J. Warner, Diana M. Gallegos Oct 2019

Comparison Of Pitching From Flat Ground Vs. 10-Inch Mound Regarding Elbow Varus Torque And Arm Speed, Stephen A. Cage, X. Neil Dong, Brandon J. Warner, Diana M. Gallegos

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of throwing surface and distance on varus elbow torque and arm speed. Methods: 11 male collegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.73 ± 1.56 years, height = 175.26 ± 9.03 cm, mass = 70.31 ± 9.03 kg) participated in this study. Varus elbow torque and distance were measured using a 3D motion sensor housed in a spandex sleeve at the medial joint line of the elbow. Participants were instructed to complete their normal warmup routine as if they were about to pitch in a bullpen session or a game. Participants ...


An Examination Of Step Frequency And The Running Readiness Scale As Predictors Of Running-Related Injury In Collegiate Cross-Country Athletes, Shelley S. Payne Dr., Jenna D'Errico, D. S. Blaise Williams Oct 2019

An Examination Of Step Frequency And The Running Readiness Scale As Predictors Of Running-Related Injury In Collegiate Cross-Country Athletes, Shelley S. Payne Dr., Jenna D'Errico, D. S. Blaise Williams

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between step frequency and the Running Readiness Scale and the occurrence of a Running-Related Injury (RRI) in a Division III cross-country team. Methods: Each athlete was screened prior to the season for their step frequency at a preferred and pre-determined pace. Additionally, each athlete performed 6 musculoskeletal tests known as the “Running Readiness Scale” to assess body alignment, weight distribution, and muscular endurance. Each subject logged their training and competition schedule and injury history throughout the season using the Otterbein Run Tracker app. Results: Sixteen subjects completed data collection ...


Health Behaviors Of Athletic Trainers, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Maura E. Shea, Kelcey C. Granger, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kenneth E. Games Oct 2019

Health Behaviors Of Athletic Trainers, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Maura E. Shea, Kelcey C. Granger, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kenneth E. Games

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: Health behaviors, such as diet, tobacco, and physical activity, may serve to prevent disease and promote wellness throughout the population including athletic trainers (AT). Good health behaviors act as disease prevention measures to decrease prevalence of pathologies. Hours of sleep, substance use, nutritional intake, and physical activity are behaviors that may impact the health of athletic trainers (AT). The objective of the study was to describe health behaviors of ATs in comparison to the general population and recommended behaviors. Methods: We used a cross-sectional, web-based survey of clinically practicing ATs recruited from the National Athletic Trainers’ Association member database ...


Determining The Effectiveness Of Core Strengthening Exercise Therapies In Treating Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Critically Appraised Topic, Amanda King, Andrea Cripps Oct 2019

Determining The Effectiveness Of Core Strengthening Exercise Therapies In Treating Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Critically Appraised Topic, Amanda King, Andrea Cripps

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

CLINICAL SCENARIO: Nonspecific low back pain is a condition which impacts athletes of all calibers and sports. It has been found that a total of 68% of top athletes from multiple sports have been affected by nonspecific low back pain at some point in their career. Clinicians have discussed that tight hamstrings and weak core muscles are a major cause of nonspecific low back pain. A myriad of program exist to reduce nonspecific low back pain caused from hamstring tightness, however a standardized rehabilitation protocol for strengthening the core muscles to reduce nonspecific low back pain is not as well ...


Energy Cost Of Land And Shallow Water Walking In Females Who Are Overweight And Obese, Jacquelyn N. Zera, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Bethany B. Gibbs, John P. Abt, John M. Jakicic Sep 2019

Energy Cost Of Land And Shallow Water Walking In Females Who Are Overweight And Obese, Jacquelyn N. Zera, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Bethany B. Gibbs, John P. Abt, John M. Jakicic

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Nineteen overweight or obese females completed three 10-minute experimental trials including a self-selected pace shallow water walking trial, a matched heart rate response land walking trial, and a self-selected pace land walking trial. Energy expenditure (kcal·min-1)was computed from expired gases assessed via indirect calorimetry. Results showed energy expenditure was lower (p= 0.046) during shallow water walking (6.46 ± 1.38 kcal·min-1) compared to matched heart rate response land walking trial (7.26 ± 1.29 kcal·min-1), with no significant difference in between shallow water and self-selected pace land walking (6.92 ± 1.61 ...


Learning From Incidents To Reduce The Risk Of Drowning In Swimming Pools: Implementation Of Experience-Based Feedback Regarding Near-Misses In Four Public Facilities In France, Élie Vignac, Pascal Lebihain, Bastien Soulé Sep 2019

Learning From Incidents To Reduce The Risk Of Drowning In Swimming Pools: Implementation Of Experience-Based Feedback Regarding Near-Misses In Four Public Facilities In France, Élie Vignac, Pascal Lebihain, Bastien Soulé

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The prevention of sports accidents must rely on a detailed knowledge of accident circumstances and risk factors. Today, very few studies have investigated in depth non-fatal drowning incidents that have occurred in public swimming pools (PSP). Learning from incidents seems likely to advance the knowledge of accident scenarios. This research study aimed to capture minor incidents that might identify safety lessons and preventive measures. Incidents of minor and major aquatic events were collected from four PSPs that had hosted 700,000 bathers per year. About 800 incidents and 300 aquatic rescues performed by lifeguards were recorded within a time frame ...


Emg Analysis Of The Neuromuscular Activity During Sit-To-Stand From Different Height Chairs In Water, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Cano-Herrera, Carlos Sep 2019

Emg Analysis Of The Neuromuscular Activity During Sit-To-Stand From Different Height Chairs In Water, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Cano-Herrera, Carlos

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The purpose of this study was to use surface electromyography to measure the muscular activity during the sit-to-stand task in water and compare it at three different chair heights. Ten healthy young adults [5 males and 5 females (mean ± SD): age, 22.0 ± 3.1 yr; height, 172.8 ± 9.0 cm; body mass, 63.9 ± 17.2 kg] were recruited for study. We used a telemetry EMG system on the following muscles on the right side of the body: quadriceps (vastus medialis and rectus femoris), long head of the biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, rectus abdominis, and ...


Analysis Of Cognitive Abilities In Female Swimmers, Nora Bekendam Ph.D., German Diaz Ph.D., Oscar García Ph.D. Sep 2019

Analysis Of Cognitive Abilities In Female Swimmers, Nora Bekendam Ph.D., German Diaz Ph.D., Oscar García Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This study compared the differences in spatial relations, spatial ability, and reasoning ability between female swimmers and sedentary people. Fifty-eight participants (24 swimmers and 34 sedentary females) were recruited to complete the PMA E & R tests (Primary Mental Ability Test) and the DAT-SR test (Differential Aptitude Test). Findings indicated that swimmers scored higher in spatial relations, spatial ability, and reasoning ability. The practice of competitive swimming appears to have a positive relationship with the spatial relation, spatial ability and reasoning ability.


Perceptions And Motivation Toward Water Safety And Aquatic Activities In College Students, Jorge Olaves, Ezzeldin R. Aly, Asherah N. B. Allen, Maria Okeke Sep 2019

Perceptions And Motivation Toward Water Safety And Aquatic Activities In College Students, Jorge Olaves, Ezzeldin R. Aly, Asherah N. B. Allen, Maria Okeke

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

As individuals reach adulthood there is a substantial reduction of participation in physical activities. Quality instruction in various physical activities, more specifically aquatics, are beneficial to an individual’s health and career. This current study examined college student’s perceptions and motivations towards the impact of aquatic instruction and water safety skills. Participants included 265 college students between the ages of 19 and 30 years old (n = 147 males, n = 118 females), enrolled in aquatic-related courses at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Researchers used a mixed-method approach where the findings indicated that 72% of the participants reported the ...


Effect Of Aquatic Exercise On Fatigue, Fitness, Arm Edema, Levels Of Distress, And Quality Of Life Among Breast Cancer Survivors, Ellen Broach, Phillip Norrell Sep 2019

Effect Of Aquatic Exercise On Fatigue, Fitness, Arm Edema, Levels Of Distress, And Quality Of Life Among Breast Cancer Survivors, Ellen Broach, Phillip Norrell

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a recreational therapy aquatic intervention on physical and psychosocial performance of breast cancer survivors. Eligible participants were assigned to either a water exercise group or a control group who received standard care treatment for breast cancer. The intervention group attended aquatic exercise sessions three times per week for eight weeks in a heated outdoor pool. Sessions lasted 50 minutes in duration. The aquatic exercise group significantly improved their endurance, body mass, level of distress, and total score for fatigue. No significant differences occurred in the control group. Social validity ...


The Assessment Of Swimming And Survival Skills: Is Your Programme Fit For Its Purpose?, Paolo Di Paola Aug 2019

The Assessment Of Swimming And Survival Skills: Is Your Programme Fit For Its Purpose?, Paolo Di Paola

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Assessment of swimming and survival skills is a crucial part of any swimming and lifesaving programme. Unfortunately, quite often, it is also the weakest part of the programme itself. Inadequate skills assessment and verification might lead to ineffective skills acquisition and development, to a false sense of safety and over confidence in the water that can be extremely dangerous. Assessor experience and observation skills, assessment methodology, and criteria are all closely inter-linked and their interaction will somehow determine the assessment outcomes. Our paper analyses some of the current issues in these areas of the assessment process, such as assessor’s ...


First Responders' Narratives Of Drowning: Perceptions Of Family And Community Impacts And Policy Implications, John Wells Phd, Michael Bergin Phd, John Connolly B.Ed., Ma In Ed., Suzanne Denieffe Phd Aug 2019

First Responders' Narratives Of Drowning: Perceptions Of Family And Community Impacts And Policy Implications, John Wells Phd, Michael Bergin Phd, John Connolly B.Ed., Ma In Ed., Suzanne Denieffe Phd

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This is an exploratory study of the impacts of drowning death on local communities and families in the Republic of Ireland as perceived by first responders. The impact of a death may be particularly stressful. The identified population of interest were members of the Garda and first responders from Community Rescue Boats Ireland. The principal data collection method was one-to-one narrative interviews followed by a focus group. Questioning involved asking interviewees to talk about specific events rather than providing general opinions. Community identity was a source of impact, an urban or rural setting was a significant factor, social media was ...


From Treading Water To Swimming Uphill: A Comprehensive And Innovative Assessment Program For Teaching Swimming In Belgian Primary Schools., Filip Roelandt Aug 2019

From Treading Water To Swimming Uphill: A Comprehensive And Innovative Assessment Program For Teaching Swimming In Belgian Primary Schools., Filip Roelandt

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every child should learn to swim as a recognised life skill. Which swimming skill or stroke to learn first is not the most important question. What is important is to teach children to learn tasks or techniques which allow them to they feel safe. Emphasizing foundational principles of motor development and focusing on safety in and around the water are paramount. Beginning in 2016 school swimming lessons in Flanders (Belgium) were given a new focus in all educational institutions. Foundational competence tasks replaced the focus on acquiring competitive swimming strokes as the primary ...


Measures Of Fluid Loss During Surfing: A Preliminary Analysis In Recreational Surfers, Rudi A. Meir, Zachary James Crowley-Mchattan Dr, Lyndon O. Brooks, Blake Duncan, Christian Gorrie, Jeremy Sheppard Aug 2019

Measures Of Fluid Loss During Surfing: A Preliminary Analysis In Recreational Surfers, Rudi A. Meir, Zachary James Crowley-Mchattan Dr, Lyndon O. Brooks, Blake Duncan, Christian Gorrie, Jeremy Sheppard

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Surfing is a popular sport, but little is known about the extent to which recreational surfers experience fluid loss from this activity. The principal objective of this research was to estimate fluid loss during a surfing session through changes in pre- to post-session urine color (Ucol), urine osmolality (Uosm), and body mass (BM). Data were collected from 11 recreational surfers across 14 surf sessions conducted under various environmental (mean water temperature = 22.1 SD ± 2.3; range = 20-26oC; air temperature range = 13.1-31.5oC; relative humidity range = 37.5-88.1%) and surfing conditions (e.g. winter ...


Head Depth And Head Speed During Competitive Backstroke Ledge Starts, Wesley J. Manz, Joel T. Greenshields, Brian V. Wright, Curtis S. Goss, Benjamin C. Skutnik, Joel M. Stager Aug 2019

Head Depth And Head Speed During Competitive Backstroke Ledge Starts, Wesley J. Manz, Joel T. Greenshields, Brian V. Wright, Curtis S. Goss, Benjamin C. Skutnik, Joel M. Stager

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Recently, a commercially available starting ‘ledge’ designed to reduce foot slippage during the execution of the backstroke start was introduced in competitive swimming. For the purpose of identifying potential safety consequences, the present study investigated the effect of ledge use on head depths, speeds, and distances in backstroke starts of athletes with no prior or only novice familiarity of the ledge. Competitive backstroke starts were performed with and without ledges by high school-aged (14.5 to 19.2 yr, N = 61) swimmers in 1.52 m of water during a closed testing session. A SIMI Reality Motion System in a ...


The Consequences Of Cold Water Immersion: Impacts And Treatment, Patrick J. Buck Ph.D., Commander William Roberts, Commander Ken Minehane, Irish Naval Service May 2019

The Consequences Of Cold Water Immersion: Impacts And Treatment, Patrick J. Buck Ph.D., Commander William Roberts, Commander Ken Minehane, Irish Naval Service

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This paper documents a demonstration project conducted by the authors under the auspices of the Irish Naval service. It explores and describes in detail the consequences that cold water immersion can have on the human body. Further, this study investigates post immersion treatment and survival challenges and proposes appropriate casualty care regimes with specific focus on ‘post rescue collapse’ and ‘afterdrop.’ Observations of individual differences in response are reported.


Letter From President-Elect, Brian Huck May 2019

Letter From President-Elect, Brian Huck

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

The JSMAHS is proud to present Volume 5 Issue 1 of the journal. This issue comes in conjunction with the OATA Annual Symposium and Meeting Poster Presentations. Please enjoy this innovative research and letter from your President-Elect, Brian Huck.


Surgical Interventions For The Treatment Of Chiari Malformation Type I, Noah Pennypacker May 2019

Surgical Interventions For The Treatment Of Chiari Malformation Type I, Noah Pennypacker

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


Collegiate Football Athlete Presents With Nontraditional Case Of Rhabdomyolysis And Secondary Finding Of Ureterocele, Kelly Ferian, Dane Eberle, Jake Woodruff, Elizabeth Walters, Karyn Gentile, Tricia Hamad May 2019

Collegiate Football Athlete Presents With Nontraditional Case Of Rhabdomyolysis And Secondary Finding Of Ureterocele, Kelly Ferian, Dane Eberle, Jake Woodruff, Elizabeth Walters, Karyn Gentile, Tricia Hamad

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


Socialization Into Athletic Training Student Leadership, Rachel Reinhart, Erika Smith-Goodwin May 2019

Socialization Into Athletic Training Student Leadership, Rachel Reinhart, Erika Smith-Goodwin

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


A College Athlete's Return From Severe Aplastic Anemia, Cole Miller, Alex Walker May 2019

A College Athlete's Return From Severe Aplastic Anemia, Cole Miller, Alex Walker

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


Healthcare Satisfaction Of Sexual Minority Athletes In The Athletic Training Setting, Sarah Nance, Kristine Ensign May 2019

Healthcare Satisfaction Of Sexual Minority Athletes In The Athletic Training Setting, Sarah Nance, Kristine Ensign

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Effects Of An Ice Bag Treatment On Peroneal Artery Diameter, Alessandra Poirier, Dustin Grooms, Janet Simon, Chad Starkey May 2019

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Effects Of An Ice Bag Treatment On Peroneal Artery Diameter, Alessandra Poirier, Dustin Grooms, Janet Simon, Chad Starkey

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

This research was funded by an OATA Research Grant

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


Effects Of Vibration Plates On Postural Instability Of Healthy Individuals, Anthony Wene, Dustin Grooms, Jeffrey A. Russell May 2019

Effects Of Vibration Plates On Postural Instability Of Healthy Individuals, Anthony Wene, Dustin Grooms, Jeffrey A. Russell

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

This research was funded by an OATA Research Grant

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


Change In Concussion Knowledge And Attitudes From Pre To Post Season In Sports, Lauren Dolick, Janet E. Simon Ohio University, Laura Harris May 2019

Change In Concussion Knowledge And Attitudes From Pre To Post Season In Sports, Lauren Dolick, Janet E. Simon Ohio University, Laura Harris

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.


Employer Perceptions Of Newly Credentialed Athletic Trainers As They Transition To Practice, Samantha Compton, Janet Simon, Laura L. Harris May 2019

Employer Perceptions Of Newly Credentialed Athletic Trainers As They Transition To Practice, Samantha Compton, Janet Simon, Laura L. Harris

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Please enjoy Volume 5, Issue 1 of the JSMAHS. In this issue you will find Professional and under graduate research abstracts, case reports, and critically appraised topics.

Thank you for viewing this 5th Annual OATA Special Edition.