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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Ku70 On Mitochondrial Stability In The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Allyson Burkhart Jun 2016

The Effects Of Ku70 On Mitochondrial Stability In The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Allyson Burkhart

Biology Master’s Theses

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the role of KU70, a nuclear gene, in maintaining mitochondrial DNA in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the budding yeast. The mitochondrion is an organelle in eukaryotes that produces much of the ATP used by a cell. ATP, or adenosine-triphosphate, is a molecule within a cell that provides energy for cellular functions via its high energy holding phosphate bonds. Mitochondria have their own genomes, separate from nuclear DNA, which encodes many proteins needed for cellular respiration. Mutations can occur in the mitochondria of humans that could result in decrease or loss of ...


The Role Of Kitlb On Development Of Coordinated Muscular Contractions In The Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Brittany A. Heatherington Aug 2012

The Role Of Kitlb On Development Of Coordinated Muscular Contractions In The Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Brittany A. Heatherington

Biology Master’s Theses

Gastrointestinal (GI) motility is the spontaneous rhythmic contractions of smooth muscles that mix and propel the contents of the GI tract. Regulation of the complex muscular contractions is controlled by smooth muscles, interstitial cells of the Cajal (ICC) and enteric neurons. ICC act as pacemaker cells in the GI tract and set the frequency of spontaneous contractions. Altering ICC density results in uncoordinated GI muscular contractions. Our lab examines the role of ICC in GI motility and is focused on mechanisms that regulate ICC growth and development. Expression of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase is used to identify ICC. Kit ...


Defining The Limits And Mapping The Control Sequences Of The Gene, Enhancer Of Rudimentary, In Drosophila Melanogaster, Nicholas Rizzo Nov 2009

Defining The Limits And Mapping The Control Sequences Of The Gene, Enhancer Of Rudimentary, In Drosophila Melanogaster, Nicholas Rizzo

Biology Master’s Theses

The enhancer of rudimentary gene, e(r) is a highly conserved gene located on the X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster. The gene encodes a transcriptional co-factor of 104 amino acids in length, and although the exact function is still unclear it has been shown to be involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis, oogenesis, and the cell cycle. Mutations in e(r) are characterized by low viability and decreased fertility. They have also been shown to enhance phenotypes caused by mutations in two genes involved in neurogenesis, notch and deltex, suggesting a possible role in neurogenesis. In the present study, transgenes of e ...


The Role Of The Mrx Complex And The Non-Homologous End Joining Dna Repair Pathway In Mitochondrial Genome Stability And Repair, Garry L. Coles Aug 2009

The Role Of The Mrx Complex And The Non-Homologous End Joining Dna Repair Pathway In Mitochondrial Genome Stability And Repair, Garry L. Coles

Biology Master’s Theses

Mitochondria are required for cellular respiration, which is essential in the production of ATP. Mitochondrial genome maintenance is necessary for the continued function of the mitochondrion. Deletions within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been shown to be associated with a variety of human neuromuscular and age-related diseases. In this study we investigated the role of the MRX complex and the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway in mitochondrial genome stability and repair. Specifically, we investigated the role of the MRX complex and the NHEJ pathway in the occurrence of spontaneous mitochondrial direct repeat-mediated deletions, nuclear direct repeat-mediated deletions, mitochondrial ...


The Role Of Clu1 In Maintaining Mitochondrial Genome Stability And Morphology In S. Cerevisiae, Christine E. Hochmuth Feb 2008

The Role Of Clu1 In Maintaining Mitochondrial Genome Stability And Morphology In S. Cerevisiae, Christine E. Hochmuth

Biology Master’s Theses

Mitochondrial genome maintenance is essential for the normal function of the cell. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is located in the matrix, where it is in close proximity to the electron transport chain, which is within the inner mitochondrial membrane. During oxidative phosphorylation, the electron transport chain produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may damage the DNA and contribute to mutations within the genome. Mutations in the mitochondrial genome have long been hypothesized as a contributor to diseases, especially those of the neuromuscular system. Mitochondrial mutations have also been linked to some types of cancer, programmed cell death, and aging in humans ...


A Fundamental Investigation Into The Presence Of Interstitial Cells Of Cajal Within The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Dania Rerio, Scott Leddon Jul 2007

A Fundamental Investigation Into The Presence Of Interstitial Cells Of Cajal Within The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Dania Rerio, Scott Leddon

Biology Master’s Theses

Coordinated gastrointestinal (GI) motility results from the complex interactions between interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), enteric neurons, and smooth muscle cells. Kit positive immunoreactivity has been extensively utilized as a marker for ICC; these cells function to generate rhythmic depolarization in the GI smooth muscle termed the electrical slow wave. Coordinated GI motility is regulated by the electrical slow wave. Directly lesioning ICC populations with neutralizing antibodies results in GI dysmotility and loss of the electrical slow wave. Furthermore, GI dysmotility symptoms and other human pathologies have been correlated with ICC deficiencies within the GI tract. Currently, there are few ...


The Role Of Ilv5p Interacting Factors In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Anthony J. Mirando Jun 2006

The Role Of Ilv5p Interacting Factors In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Anthony J. Mirando

Biology Master’s Theses

The ease of manipulating yeast allows for advanced studies on the factors affecting the mitochondrial DNA mutation rates. The control mechanisms of the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate has been determined to involve the dual function protein, Ilv5p. The Ilv5p plays an integral role in the proper segregation of newly replicated mitochondrial DNA into daughter cells during cell division. The focus of this study is to find unknown factors involved in mitochondrial DNA stability. This study uses the Ilv5p to pull unknown factors out of the many genes that comprise the yeast genome. The identification of interacting factors of the Ilv5p ...


Evaluation Of Gyp7 Protein Ability To Coordinate And Regulate Mitochondrial Genomes Stability, Louis Didone Jun 2006

Evaluation Of Gyp7 Protein Ability To Coordinate And Regulate Mitochondrial Genomes Stability, Louis Didone

Biology Master’s Theses

Cellular creation of adenosine triphosphate, ATP, is essential for eukaryotic cells to function properly. The ATP molecule drives most of the biochemical and metabolic pathways of the cell. The cell's ATP is produced in the mitochondria. Mutations within the genome of the mitochondria will alter the cell's ability to generate A TP. Preliminary work has shown that loss of the Gyp 7p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae blocks the ability of mitochondria to properly function. The Gyp 7 gene was isolated using a technique called two-hybrid analysis with a known mitochondrial protein called llvSp, which was used as 'bait'. We ...


Characterization Of Fmp35: A Novel Gene And Its Role In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Chad A. Cornelius Jan 2006

Characterization Of Fmp35: A Novel Gene And Its Role In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Chad A. Cornelius

Biology Master’s Theses

Mitochondria are essential organelles for all eukaryotic organisms with very few exceptions. The life-giving processes contributed by mitochondria are the end result of many proteins that are encoded within the mitochondria. Many nuclear encoded proteins give mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) the high stability needed so that life can thrive.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has historically been a model organism for mitochondrial function studies. These yeast are categorized as facultative anarobes; meaning that they are able to respire or ferment depending on media available. Functional mitochondria allow baker's yeast to thrive on a 3-carbon medium (p+), while mitochondrial dysfunctions due ...


Dna Fingerprinting: Identification Of Organisms Using The Polymerase Chain Reaction And Various Primers, Vera Santoleri Dec 1999

Dna Fingerprinting: Identification Of Organisms Using The Polymerase Chain Reaction And Various Primers, Vera Santoleri

Biology Master’s Theses

The study undertaken involved small scale DNA isolation from eight different fruits using a modified technique written for leaf material. Genetic analysis of this extracted DNA was performed by PCR. Four primers known to target specific DNA sequences were utilized: Analu, Bactoribo, HHFl, and Mitocox. PCR with the Analu, HHFl, and Mitocox primers resulted in a unique pattern of bands that enabled each fruit to be differentiated. Since one major band was observed with the Bactoribo primers and the size of that amplified DNA fragment was either the same or very similar for each fruit, they could not be distinguished ...


Taxa Determination By The Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Survey, Jeffrey S. Kiggins Aug 1999

Taxa Determination By The Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Survey, Jeffrey S. Kiggins

Biology Master’s Theses

The objective of this research was to survey a number of DNA samples from various organisms, using different primers, to determine what differences exist between organisms relative to each primer. This survey would help to contribute information for the following:

1. Educational purposes. A student receiving an unknown DNA should be able to identify the organism to particular taxa.

2. Determine the presence of PCR products from DNA and primers that would not typically be used together. That is, a survey of unconventional combinations.

3. Determine what differences exist between the snails, L. saxatalis and L. compressa using this particular ...


W-Reactivation (Inducible "Sos" Dna Repair) Of Double Stranded Dna Bacteriophage Λ And Single Stranded Dna Bacteriophage Fd On Isogenic Rec And Uvrb Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Sammy F.W. Ndive May 1983

W-Reactivation (Inducible "Sos" Dna Repair) Of Double Stranded Dna Bacteriophage Λ And Single Stranded Dna Bacteriophage Fd On Isogenic Rec And Uvrb Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Sammy F.W. Ndive

Biology Master’s Theses

The recA mutant has been shown to be completely recombination deficient and highly UV-sensitive. Also, this mutant is remarkably deficient in inducible "SOS" DNA repair and, consequently it is not UV-mutable and it cannot perform W-reactivation, an inducible non-excision repair dependent enhancement of phage recovery. The recB-recF- double mutant like the recA mutant, is recombination deficient and UV-sensitive.

As observed, each of these mutations appear to block an independent pathway of genetic recombination.

We are interested in determining how closely the recB-recF- double mutant resembles the recA mutant. In this perspective we looked at the W-reactivation of double ...


Characterization Of Rna Associated With Rat Liver Plasma Membranes, John J. Debellis Jun 1977

Characterization Of Rna Associated With Rat Liver Plasma Membranes, John J. Debellis

Biology Master’s Theses

RNA was extracted from purified rat liver plasma membranes. The RNA was characterized in terms of molecular weight distribution (electrophoresis) and base composition. Plasma membrane RNA was shown to have a major 28S species, several minor 15-22S species and another minor 4S species. There was no difference between plasma membrane RNA and ribosomal RNA in terms of base composition. The intact plasma membrane was incubated in the presence of RNAse as well as varying concentrations of NaCl. These results demonstrate that the RNA associated with the plasma membrane is partially digested with RNAse, while 0.15 M NaCl seems to ...


Detection Of 5-Bromodeoxyuridine Incorporation In Metaphase Chromosomes Of Dedifferentiated Melanoma Cells, David Emerson Dec 1976

Detection Of 5-Bromodeoxyuridine Incorporation In Metaphase Chromosomes Of Dedifferentiated Melanoma Cells, David Emerson

Biology Master’s Theses

Observed reversible effects, mediated by the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) into the DNA of mouse melanoma cells were; changes in culture growth pattern, altered cell morphology and suppression of melanogenecis. The incorporation of BrdUrd into the metaphase chromosomes, was traced with 1.) the Hoechst 33258 fluorescence stain and 2.) the unlabeled antibody peroxidase method. Different levels of BrdUrd incorporation, are shown to exhibit differential staining patterns on the metaphase chromosomes. The specific sites of preferential BrdUrd incorporation may provide a morphological clue to the structural and functional changes observed.


Amino Acid Accepting Activity For Lysine And Arginine Transfer Ribonucleic Acids In Moloney And Wm1-B Strains Of Murine Leukemia Viruses, Jack Randall Evans Jan 1974

Amino Acid Accepting Activity For Lysine And Arginine Transfer Ribonucleic Acids In Moloney And Wm1-B Strains Of Murine Leukemia Viruses, Jack Randall Evans

Biology Master’s Theses

The object of this research was to isolate and purify Moloney and WMl-B strains of Murine Leukemia virus from (NIH) Swiss mouse embryo tissue culture and to determine transfer ribonucleic acid presence for Lysine and Arginine. Viruses were purified by ultracentrifugation and activity determined by Plaque Assay. Protein concentration and RNA content by Lowry and Orcinol assays respectfully, concludes a 2-3% total RNA content of this RNA tumor virus, similar to that reported for Avian tumor viruses and other strains of Murine Leukemia viruses. Enzymatic aminoacylation proved that Murine Leukemia viruses contain transfer RNA populations. This is the first time ...