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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Of Polyphenols From Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) And Evaluation Of Its Antioxidant And Antimicrobial Properties, Amy Murphy, Eilish Norton, Faye Montgomery, Amit Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal May 2020

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Of Polyphenols From Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) And Evaluation Of Its Antioxidant And Antimicrobial Properties, Amy Murphy, Eilish Norton, Faye Montgomery, Amit Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal

Articles

In this present study, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction conditions were optimized to develop a more efficient method that would result in maximum extraction of polyphenols from ginger. To achieve this optimal extraction process, a central composite design of response surface methodology was applied. A second-order polynomial equation was developed, indicating the effect of ginger concentration (400-1,200 mg/20mL solvent), solvent mixture composition (20-100%), temperature (30-70°C) and treatment time (10-30 min) on polyphenols extraction. The optimum parameters were found to be 1200mg of ginger prepared with 86% ethanol and sonication for 11 minutes at 65°C. The total phenolic and ...


Food Safety Risk In An Indoor Microgreen Cultivation System, Gina Marie Misra May 2020

Food Safety Risk In An Indoor Microgreen Cultivation System, Gina Marie Misra

Theses and Dissertations

Microgreens are immature sprouts of edible plants, sharing some similarities with sprouted seeds and petite leafy greens. Since they are most often grown in containers in buildings or greenhouses, they present a new area for food safety research at the intersection of the built environment and produce farming. Contamination by human pathogens has been extensively studied in other types of produce typically eaten raw, including sprouted seeds, which have been implicated in numerous outbreaks of salmonellosis over the last several decades. There is a paucity of knowledge about the microgreen sector of the fresh-cut industry; thus, it was determined that ...


Comparative Analysis Of Metabolic Pathways Of Bacteria Used In Fermented Food, Keanu Hoang, Kiran Bastola May 2020

Comparative Analysis Of Metabolic Pathways Of Bacteria Used In Fermented Food, Keanu Hoang, Kiran Bastola

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

This study presents a novel methodology for analyzing metabolic pathways. Utilizing KEGG REST API through a Biopython package and file parser, data about whether or not a bacteria has an enzyme or not was extracted. The results found that differences in metabolic pathway enrichment values follow along the lines of genera and pathway type. In particular, bacteria found in food spoilage and commercial nitrogen fixing products had high values of enrichment.


Authentication Of Species In Bison Products Using Molecular Methods, Zerika Scales May 2020

Authentication Of Species In Bison Products Using Molecular Methods, Zerika Scales

Food Science (MS) Theses

American bison (Bison bison) meat is vulnerable to species substitution due to its high value and similar appearance to less expensive meats, such as beef from domestic cattle (Bos taurus). DNA barcoding of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene is a commonly used method to test for meat species mislabeling. However, due to historical hybridization between the American bison and domestic cattle, additional testing is required to confirm species. The objective of this study was to perform a market survey of products sold as bison meat and verify the species of each product using a combination of DNA ...


Labeling Compliance, Species Authentication And Net Weight Identification Of Frozen Fish Fillets Sold In Grocery Stores In Southern California, April Peterson May 2020

Labeling Compliance, Species Authentication And Net Weight Identification Of Frozen Fish Fillets Sold In Grocery Stores In Southern California, April Peterson

Food Science (MS) Theses

Proper labeling of seafood is important to prevent economic deception, promote consumer awareness, and prevent exposure of at-risk groups to certain allergens and toxins. The objective of this study was to investigate prepackaged frozen fish sold in Southern California for Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) compliance, species authentication, use of acceptable market names, net weights, and percent glaze. A total of 111 frozen fish fillets from 13 different fish categories were purchased from grocery stores in Southern California. The fish categories targeted for this study were: catfish, cod, flounder, halibut, mahi-mahi orange rough, pollock, salmon, swai, swordfish, tilapia, tuna, and ...


Preserving Pomegranates, Charlotte P. Brennand, Suzanne Jorgenson May 2020

Preserving Pomegranates, Charlotte P. Brennand, Suzanne Jorgenson

All Current Publications

This publication describes pomegranates and how to store and can them. It also provides nutritional information.


Effect Of Low Dose Irradiation On Expression Of Genes Involved In Ethylene Biosynthesis Of 'Granny Smith' Apples, Brian Nyakundi May 2020

Effect Of Low Dose Irradiation On Expression Of Genes Involved In Ethylene Biosynthesis Of 'Granny Smith' Apples, Brian Nyakundi

Food Science (MS) Theses

Superficial scald is a physiological disorder characterized by skin browning that appears during or after storage of ‘Granny Smith’ apples. The mechanism for scald development is not fully understood, but it is hypothesized that scald formation is related to increased ethylene production. In apples, low dose irradiation induced ethylene reduction appears to be directly related to prevention of superficial scald. However, the molecular basis of such an irradiation induced effect is not known. In this study, effort was made to better understand the molecular basis of the decrease in ethylene production in apple fruit after treatment with x-ray irradiation. ‘Granny ...


The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo May 2020

The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo

Senior Honors Projects

Stress is something that everyone faces in their lifetime and has an everlasting impact on their health. College students face high levels of stress throughout the semester, but how is that impacting their behavior? I conducted a survey alongside Dr. Melanson, a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, to see just how college students are reacting to stress. The survey was circulated to different departments and classes to achieve a widespread collection of data. The survey remained completely anonymous and posed questions about eating, exercise, and sleep habits, along with questions on demographics and stress levels. Our ...


Protein Availability And Consumption, And Stunting Rates, For Primary School Children In The Southern Regions Of Ethiopia And Zambia, Megan Wackel May 2020

Protein Availability And Consumption, And Stunting Rates, For Primary School Children In The Southern Regions Of Ethiopia And Zambia, Megan Wackel

NUTR/GLST 498b: Global Research Experiences in Nutrition & Health

•Stunting is common in Sub-Sahara Africa, with millions of children who are short in stature also experiencing poor overall health and development, as well as poor school performance (Semba 2016; Semba, et al., 2016). •As many as 39% of children under 5 years of age in Ethiopia’s Sidama Region (formerly SNNPR) can be classified as stunted (CSA & ICF 2016). By comparison, 29% of under 5’s in Zambia’s Southern Province have short height for age (CSA, MOH, & ICF 2018). •Low protein and essential amino acid intake, among populations of 116 countries, has been suggested as the primary cause of stunting (Semba 2016; Semba, et al., 2016). •Given that Ethiopia and Zambia have high rates of stunting, children are unlikely to be consuming protein on a regular basis. Because data on protein availability and dietary intake are limited, this study was designed to explore availability ...


Thermal Inactivation Of Bacterial Pathogens And Fungal Spores Under Post-Process Contamination Scenarios In Maple Syrup Processing, Maria Fiore May 2020

Thermal Inactivation Of Bacterial Pathogens And Fungal Spores Under Post-Process Contamination Scenarios In Maple Syrup Processing, Maria Fiore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maple syrup is produced by the extensive thermal evaporation of maple sap traditionally collected from the Acer saccharum tree and other maple varietals. The resulting low water activity product (Aw < 0.85) is classified by the FDA as a low risk food commodity, due to the moisture limitations which inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent outbreaks associated with other designated low risk products, including peanut butter and wheat flour, now challenge the current understanding of factors required to induce human illness. Among the most notorious bacterial pathogens, as few as ten bacterial cells, have been cited to cause infection. In addition to bacteria-based risks, fungal contaminants have also been noted to jeopardize safety due to the potential for mycotoxin production, penetrating beyond the immediate product surface.

The extensive heating process required to produce syrup from sap is sufficient to eradicate the majority of present microflora. However, post-process contamination scenarios, which are augmented by producer behaviors, can introduce microorganisms into the finished product. Among these risk factors include direct product contamination due to insufficient heating temperatures, or contamination of bottles, as a result of improper container storage. Therefore, the objectives of this work are to (i) determine ...


Beans In The Garden, Dan Drost May 2020

Beans In The Garden, Dan Drost

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes growing beans in Utah gardens. It includes varieties, how to grow them, how to control pests, harvesting and storage, productivity, nutrition and answers to frequently asked questions.


Impact Of Selected Infrared Wavelengths Treatment On Inactivation Of Microbes On Rough Rice, Rebecca Bowie May 2020

Impact Of Selected Infrared Wavelengths Treatment On Inactivation Of Microbes On Rough Rice, Rebecca Bowie

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Formation of harmful microbes and their associated mycotoxins on rough rice during storage present negative socioeconomic impacts to producers and consumers. The objective for this study was to investigate the impact of treating rough rice with selected infrared (IR) wavelengths at different IR intensities and heating durations, followed by a tempering step for further inactivation of microbes (mold and bacteria) on the grain. Freshly-harvested long-grain, hybrid, rough rice (XL 745) with initial moisture content (IMC) of 18.4% wet basis (w.b.) was used. Two-hundred grams (200 g) of the samples were treated at different IR wavelengths (λ) which were ...


Characterization Of Jasmine Rice Cultivars Grown In The United States, Anastasia Mills May 2020

Characterization Of Jasmine Rice Cultivars Grown In The United States, Anastasia Mills

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Jasmine rice from Thailand accounts for about 60-70% of U.S. imported rice, primarily due to its preference by ethnic Asians as well as general American population. Recently new U.S. jasmine rice cultivars have been developed independently at three rice research stations in Arkansas, California, and Louisiana, but their properties have not been characterized. The objective of this research was to characterize and compare the physical appearance, chemical composition, thermal and pasting properties, cooked rice texture and starch structures of the newly-developed U.S. jasmine rice from Arkansas, California and Louisiana, to be compared with jasmine rice samples from ...


Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson May 2020

Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The traditional method for the carbonation of beer includes bubbling CO2 through a pressurized brite tank until the desired level of carbonation concentration is reached. The gas either dissolves in the liquid volume or passes through the beer into the gas headspace above the bulk volume of beer. The gas that passes through the liquid can strip the beer of flavors, and this undissolved gas is vented to the atmosphere. To reduce the gas lost to the atmosphere, the CO2 is dissolved into the beer slowly over a long period of time, which increases gas-use efficiency but sacrifices ...


Flourishing Gardens In Peoples Lives, Ramiro Rocha May 2020

Flourishing Gardens In Peoples Lives, Ramiro Rocha

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Mesa Verde Gardens has been a great asset in the Watsonville and Pajaro area by providing a unique way for people to live healthier lives. The community gardens have given people an opportunity to reach new standards for themselves. The organic produce being grown out of the seven different gardens in the area has accommodated the gardeners with delicious food for the entire season. In order to grow Mesa verde Gardens, an outreach project was conducted to allow people to familiarize with all seven gardens. These events included fundraisers, door to door outreach, and participation in community gatherings like festivals ...


Effect Of Dietary Maillard Reaction Products On Insulin Sensitivity, Metabolic Inflammation And Intestinal Inflammation In Mice Fed The Total Western Diet, Siyu Xiao May 2020

Effect Of Dietary Maillard Reaction Products On Insulin Sensitivity, Metabolic Inflammation And Intestinal Inflammation In Mice Fed The Total Western Diet, Siyu Xiao

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are generated when proteins or amino acids are heated with reducing sugars. In previous studies, baking whole diet pellets at a high temperature has been the most common way to promote MRP formation. However, baking diets also induces other chemical reactions besides MRP production, for example lipid oxidation. In this study, only casein and sugars were cooked to generate MRPs. Thus, a complementary experiment was conducted to determine how baking diet pellets affects lipid oxidation.

Previous rodent studies showed MRPs either induced weight gain and or impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, dietary MRPs were ...


Effect Of Thermosonication On Viscosity Of Milk Concentrates And Milk Quality And Shelf Life, Vidita Deshpande May 2020

Effect Of Thermosonication On Viscosity Of Milk Concentrates And Milk Quality And Shelf Life, Vidita Deshpande

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Thermosonication is the application of soundwaves at temperatures ≥50°C. It can be used to improve functional properties, overall quality, and shelf life of dairy products. Milk is concentrated before being spray dried and currently milk concentration is limited by increased viscosity. Decreasing the viscosity of concentrates prior to spray drying could be economically beneficial to dairy processors. Results from this study showed that that thermosonication significantly reduced the viscosity of concentrates such as reconstituted milk protein concentrate (rMPC) and reconstituted skim milk powder (rSMP). This would allow for spray drying of these concentrates at a higher total solids with ...


Producer Willingness To Pay For Enhanced Packaging To Prevent Postharvest Decay Of Strawberries, Brian Coffey, Valentina Trinetta, Londa Nwadike, Umut Yucel Apr 2020

Producer Willingness To Pay For Enhanced Packaging To Prevent Postharvest Decay Of Strawberries, Brian Coffey, Valentina Trinetta, Londa Nwadike, Umut Yucel

Journal of Applied Farm Economics

We surveyed specialty crop producers in Kansas and Missouri to determine producer willingness to pay for new active packaging technology that prevents postharvest loss and increases shelf life. The survey also asked demographic questions to determine the producer and operation traits for this growing segment of production agriculture. More than half of those surveyed were female, and 60% were under 50 years of age. Smaller operations tend to utilize direct marketing and social media activity more than larger operations. Parametric willingness to pay estimates are approximately $0.39 per cardboard flat to purchase the antifungal film that increases shelf life ...


Do Lactic Acid Bacteria In Fermented Foods Persist In The Gastrointestinal Tract: An In Vitro Investigation, Chloe M. Christensen, Car Reen Kok, Robert W. Hutkins Apr 2020

Do Lactic Acid Bacteria In Fermented Foods Persist In The Gastrointestinal Tract: An In Vitro Investigation, Chloe M. Christensen, Car Reen Kok, Robert W. Hutkins

UCARE Research Products

It is now well established that the composition of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has a profound influence on intestinal and overall health. Many contemporary diseases such as type two diabetes, IBS and obesity are associated with a dysbiotic microbiota. Therefore, researchers are interested in how diet and specific dietary components can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota and possibly repair a dysbiotic state. One approach to improve gastrointestinal health is by consuming probiotics and prebiotics or a diet rich in fermented foods containing live microbes. Fermented foods are popular because of their enhanced preservation, safety, organoleptic, functionality, and nutritional properties. These fermented ...


Breastfeeding Or Formula Feeding: A Mother's Choice, Trista Briggs, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Lydia Bangerter, Casey Coombs Apr 2020

Breastfeeding Or Formula Feeding: A Mother's Choice, Trista Briggs, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Lydia Bangerter, Casey Coombs

All Current Publications

Deciding how to feed an infant is a decision that should be made by a mother and her family. The benefits of exclusively breastfeeding an infant for the first six months of life are well established (World Health Organization [WHO], 2017); however, it may not always be feasible or a preferred option. For mothers who cannot or choose not to breastfeed, formula feeding is a great option that can support a healthy and thriving infant. This fact sheet will address common questions about breastfeeding and formula feeding to help mothers make an informed decision on how to feed their infant ...


Religious Food Ethics: Categorizing Religious Perceptions Of Diet And Agriculture, Avalon Jade Theisen Apr 2020

Religious Food Ethics: Categorizing Religious Perceptions Of Diet And Agriculture, Avalon Jade Theisen

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

"As religion and food affect everyone everywhere, studying religious motivations for agricultural and consumption patterns is vital. To understand this topic, food-related views of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Rastafarianism, Hinduism, Orang Asli, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Daoism, and Wicca are analyzed. Most belief systems include taboos on meat, genetic modification, and biocides. The reasoning for their food ethics determined each faith's categorization as Western or Eastern.

Western-type religions focus on respecting their God's intentions. Christianity forbids meat, excepting fish, during certain holy seasons to honor God. One sect, Greek Orthodox, requires believers to eat vegan 1-3 days weekly. Judaism and ...


Research Tools And Their Uses For Determining The Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Of Salmonella In Low-Moisture Foods, Soon Kiat Lau Apr 2020

Research Tools And Their Uses For Determining The Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Of Salmonella In Low-Moisture Foods, Soon Kiat Lau

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The reputation of low-moisture foods as safe foods has been crumbling over the past decade due to repeated involvement in foodborne illness outbreaks. Although various pasteurization technologies exist, a majority are thermal processes and have not been well-characterized for pasteurizing low-moisture foods. In addition, the nature of a low-moisture food matrix introduces various experimental complications that are not encountered in high-moisture foods. In this dissertation, the development, building instructions, and characterization of various open source tools for studying the inactivation kinetics of microorganisms in low-moisture foods are described. The first tool is the TDT Sandwich, a dry heating device for ...


Development Of A Sandwich Elisa Targeting Cashew Ana O 2 And Ana O 3, Morganne Schmidt Apr 2020

Development Of A Sandwich Elisa Targeting Cashew Ana O 2 And Ana O 3, Morganne Schmidt

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Cashew nut is the second leading tree nut allergy in the US. Cross-contact of cashew nut poses potential food safety risks for individuals with cashew allergies. Highly-processed foods, such as HTST/UHT cashew milks may lead to problems in cashew protein detection by current allergen detection methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a robust sandwich ELISA for detection of highly processed cashew proteins. Commercial cashew ELISAs were evaluated for their robustness and sensitivity in detecting cashew milk cashew protein. After unreliable results were determined, cashew Ana o 2 (11S) and Ana o 3 (2S) were semi-purified ...


The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman Apr 2020

The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman

Senior Honors Theses

Depression is a major clinical concern, having a complex onset and the presence of multiple, often unidentifiable causes. Depression affects millions of individuals worldwide, with a high prevalence in regions of the world with a Western-style diet as compared to regions with a Mediterranean diet. A Western-style diet consists of foods high in sugar, fat, and processed meats and grains, whereas the Mediterranean diet contains significantly more vegetables, fruits, lean meats, and whole grains. The link between diet and mental health disorders has implications for individuals of all ages who are hesitant to turn to medication. In addition to presenting ...


Edible Films Made Of Corn Zein Protein And Cellulose Derivatives, Gloria Dukuzeyesu, Changmou Xu, Zhang Yue Apr 2020

Edible Films Made Of Corn Zein Protein And Cellulose Derivatives, Gloria Dukuzeyesu, Changmou Xu, Zhang Yue

UCARE Research Products

A composite edible film made of corn zein protein (Z) and cellulose derivatives (C) was successfully fabricated. Edible films are coatings used to wrap food products to protect them against microbial deterioration, loss of moisture, and to extend the shelf life of the product. These edible films are consumed together with the product . The mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, application on fruits, and shelf life of the composite film were studied. Zein demonstrated excellent packing characteristics; due to its high no polar contents and hydrophobic nature, zein film served as a moisture barrier. Hydroproxy methylcellulose (HPM) is tasteless, odorless and ...


Spinach In The Garden, Dan Drost Apr 2020

Spinach In The Garden, Dan Drost

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes spinach, recommended varieties, how to grow, planting and spacing, problems, harvest and storage, and nutrition.


Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu Apr 2020

Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu

Masters Theses

Human norovirus (HuNoVs) are the most common enteric pathogen around the world that cause ~50% of foodborne illness of disease outbreaks annually. HuNoVs are the member of the Caliciviridae family, which consist of small (38 nm), unenveloped, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Norovirus are divided into 5 genogroup (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, GVI and GVII). The GI, GII, and GIV cause human illness, in addition, GII.4 genotype cause the most human disease. Due to HuNoVs are difficult cultured in vitro, the cultivable HuNoVs surrogates have been widely studied. Recently, some studies have been conducted with HuNoVs surrogates, for ...


Influence Of Health Beneficial Monk Fruit Sweetener On Microbial And Physicochemical Characteristics Of Camel Milk Yogurt, Alina Buchilina Apr 2020

Influence Of Health Beneficial Monk Fruit Sweetener On Microbial And Physicochemical Characteristics Of Camel Milk Yogurt, Alina Buchilina

LSU Master's Theses

Camel milk contains all the essential nutrients found in cow’s milk and has potentially health beneficial compounds such as anti-carcinogenic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and insulin and insulin-like substances. Camel milk has been reported as a treatment for diseases such as diabetes and autism. Camel milk favorably alters gut microbiota to a higher abundance of bifidobacteria.

Sweetness is one of the most desirable tastes in people’s diet; however, the surplus consumption of sugar has a negative effect on human health. Monk fruit sweetener is a natural zero caloric sweetener with many health beneficial properties, namely, prevention of asthma, prevention of ...


Innovative Cotton Oil Refining Technology, Majidova Nargiza, Sattarov Karim, Majidov Kaxramon, Ismatov Sunatillo Apr 2020

Innovative Cotton Oil Refining Technology, Majidova Nargiza, Sattarov Karim, Majidov Kaxramon, Ismatov Sunatillo

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The results of partial and final refining of raw cottonseed oil by solution of aluminates and and sodium hydroxide are given. The intensification of the technological process is carried out by the treatment of alkaline solutions by exposure to electromagnetic field intensity. Increase in yield and quality improvement of refined oil is achieved.


New Composition And Method For Producing Pasta, Sanaev Ermat, Tursunkhodjaev Pulat, Ayhodjaeva Nodira, Normatov Anvar Apr 2020

New Composition And Method For Producing Pasta, Sanaev Ermat, Tursunkhodjaev Pulat, Ayhodjaeva Nodira, Normatov Anvar

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The main objective of this study is to develop a composition of pasta containing a mixture of ginger, lemon and mint powder, as well as a combination of legumes and cereals with high nutritional value. This will expand the range of pasta. The problem of achieving high quality and economic efficiency is solved by improving several technological processes and using innovative methods. The effectiveness of using innovative methods of sublimation and microwave drying is shown in comparison with the drying process of instant pasta by frying it in vegetable oil.