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Food Science

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 258

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan Dec 2010

Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan

Articles

Dental caries is a highly prevalent disease caused by colonisation of tooth surfaces by cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius. Reducing initial adherence of such bacteria to teeth may delay onset of caries. Many foods, such as milk, can inhibit microbial adherence. In this investigation, the effect of untreated (UT) and enzyme-treated (ET) dairy powders on adherence of S. sobrinus and S. salivarius to hydroxylapatite (HA), an analogue of tooth enamel, was examined. Untreated (UT) acid whey protein concentrate (AWPC) 80 inhibited streptococcal adherence to phosphate-buffered saline-coated HA (PBS-HA) and saliva-coated HA (S-HA) by >80% at ⩾31 ...


Growth Inhibition Of Common Food Spoilage And Pathogenic Microorganisms In The Presence Of Brown Seaweed Extracts, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Gaurav Rajauria, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam Dec 2010

Growth Inhibition Of Common Food Spoilage And Pathogenic Microorganisms In The Presence Of Brown Seaweed Extracts, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Gaurav Rajauria, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The possibility of using extracts from brown seaweed, Himanthalia elongata, as a natural antimicrobial agent for food preservation is presented. The effect of different concentrations of seaweed extract on the growth kinetics of four common food spoilage (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis) and food pathogenic micro-organisms (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella abony) was examined. Seaweed extract at a concentration of 6% inhibited the growth of all four of the studied organisms. Lower concentrations of seaweed extract prolonged the lag phase and reduced both the exponential growth rate and final population densities of the culture. Suitability of three kinetic models, Baranyi-Roberts, Modified ...


The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis Dec 2010

The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis

Theses and Dissertations

High fat feeding increases hepatic fat accumulation and is associated with hepatic insulin resistance. AMP Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is thought to inhibit lipid synthesis by the acute inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) activity and transcriptional regulation via SREBP-1c. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic activation of AMPK prevented an increase in GPAT1 activity in rats fed a high fat diet. Rats were fed a control (C), or a high fat (HF) diet (60% fat) for 6 weeks and injected with saline or a daily AICAR dose of 0.5 mg/g body weight. Chronic AMPK ...


Novel Delivery Systems Of Nisin To Enhance Long-Term Efficacy Against Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes, Dan Xiao Dec 2010

Novel Delivery Systems Of Nisin To Enhance Long-Term Efficacy Against Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes, Dan Xiao

Doctoral Dissertations

Novel intervention strategies such as food grade antimicrobials are used to enhance food safety. Nisin is a widely used naturally occurring antimicrobial effective against many pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. However, its antimicrobial efficacy in food matrices is much reduced because of interactions with food components. Novel delivery systems may overcome this problem by protecting nisin in capsules and releasing it in a controlled manner. The overall goal of this research was to develop delivery systems of nisin to improve its long-term antimicrobial effectiveness. The first objective was to develop a low-cost method to extract nisin from a commercial preparation containing ...


Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe Dec 2010

Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Egg white proteins have become an important and desirable ingredient to the food industry due to their functional properties which include gelling, foaming, and emulsification. Egg white is also well recognized as an excellent source of nutrition. The goal of this work was to determine the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on egg white proteins. Specifically, experiments were conducted using Raman spectroscopy and pepsin digestibility to investigate structural changes. Pressure treatment at 400 to 800 MPa (5 minutes at 4°C) resulted in increased pepsin digestibility of egg white proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme compared to heat-treated (85 to ...


The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis Dec 2010

The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The goal of this research was to determine the effect of different doses of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the fecal microbiota of healthy adults, with a focus on bifidobacteria. The study was designed as a single-blinded study, with eighteen subjects consuming GOS-containing chocolate chews at four increasing dosage levels; 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g. Subjects consumed each dose for 3 weeks, with a two-week baseline period preceding the study and a two-week washout period at the end. Cultural methods were used for bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli, and total anaerobes; culture-independent methods included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ...


Developing, Refining, And Validating A Survey To Measure Adolescent Food Safety Self-Efficacy, Monica K Brandon Dec 2010

Developing, Refining, And Validating A Survey To Measure Adolescent Food Safety Self-Efficacy, Monica K Brandon

Masters Theses

Self-efficacy is a proven indicator of predicting risky behaviors, but without a baseline level of adolescent food safety self-efficacy to develop targeted interventions it is difficult to produce meaningful behavior change. The research question around which this study was designed is: To what extent can a validated instrument accurately capture adolescent beliefs of food safety self-efficacy. Through rigorous field testing and statistical analysis we hypothesize a valid and reliable instrument can be created for measuring adolescents’ food safety self-efficacy. The purposes of this study included: (a) development of a high quality, food safety self-efficacy instrument, (b) validation of the instrument ...


Development And Validation Of A Rapid Multi-Class Method For The Confirmation Of Fourteen Prohibited Medicinal Additives In Pig And Poultry Compound Feed By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Mark Cronly, Patrice Behan, Barry Foley, Liam Regan, Marella Gallagher, Sean Earley, Paula Shearan, Edward Malone Dec 2010

Development And Validation Of A Rapid Multi-Class Method For The Confirmation Of Fourteen Prohibited Medicinal Additives In Pig And Poultry Compound Feed By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Mark Cronly, Patrice Behan, Barry Foley, Liam Regan, Marella Gallagher, Sean Earley, Paula Shearan, Edward Malone

Articles

A confirmatory method has been developed to allow for the analysis of fourteen prohibited medicinal additives in pig and poultry compound feed. These compounds are prohibited for use as feed additives although some are still authorised for use in medicated feed. Feed samples are extracted by acetonitrile with addition of sodium sulphate. The extracts undergo a hexane wash to aid with sample purification. The extracts are then evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in initial mobile phase. The samples undergo an ultracentrifugation step prior to injection onto the LC-MS/MS system and are analysed in a run time of 26 minutes ...


Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu Dec 2010

Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting?

– Germination of grain in moist air under controlled conditions

Objectives for opaque beer brewing

–Mobilization of endogenous enzymes of the grain

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to modify grain constituents for ready solubilisation

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to solubilise starchy adjunct during mashing


The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi Dec 2010

The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses sorghum grain color and kernel hardness, assessment methods, and the importance of each to the overall quality of the grain.


Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor Dec 2010

Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting? It is limited germination of cereal grains in moist air under controlled conditions.

Why malt sorghum products?

Sorghum malt for home brewing

For brewing opaque beer, lager and stout

For “brewing” malt (malta) type non-alcoholic beverages

To produce malt extract for hot malted beverages,cereal and confectionery flavoring and coloring

For breakfast cereals

For “power flour”–enzyme active flour to “thin” infant porridges

Also explains the science of malting, and the importance of using high-quality grain.


Market Development In Support Of Sorghum And Millet Farmers In Tanzania And Zambia, J. Mark Erbaugh, Emmanuel R. Mbiha, Fredy T.M. Kilima, Precious Hamukwala, Gelson Tembo, Donald W. Larson Dec 2010

Market Development In Support Of Sorghum And Millet Farmers In Tanzania And Zambia, J. Mark Erbaugh, Emmanuel R. Mbiha, Fredy T.M. Kilima, Precious Hamukwala, Gelson Tembo, Donald W. Larson

INTSORMIL Presentations

Problem: Sorghum and millet productivity, production and consumption have been stagnant or declining for 20 years.

Challenge: How to increase the productivity and incomes of sorghum and millet farmers to improve food security and accelerate economic growth.

Solution: Better technology and linking producers to markets are important parts of the solution to the problem.

Objectives

Examine the effects of new production and marketing technology on sorghum and millet producers’ income and productivity in Tanzania and Zambia.

Identify better technologies, enhance market linkages between producers and buyers, improve quality and diversify utilization to ensure food security and increase farm income.

Conclusions ...


Eagle Lager: A Sorghum Success Story On Many Levels, Ian Mackintosh Dec 2010

Eagle Lager: A Sorghum Success Story On Many Levels, Ian Mackintosh

INTSORMIL Presentations

In 1999 in Uganda we were faced with a static but highly competitive market.

Needed to grow our market and to do this we needed to make beer cheaper

It was felt that a suitable local ingredient would reduce the cost of manufacture and stimulate local agriculture and the economy as well as provide opportunities for growth and profit for the company.

An extensive base line study of the Ugandan agricultural sector was undertaken to determine what was “out there.”

It was clear that there was enormous potential but little else.

Sorghum seemed the logical starting point because there was ...


Improvements In Sorghum Milling Technologies, Martin M. Kebakile Dec 2010

Improvements In Sorghum Milling Technologies, Martin M. Kebakile

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses in some detail various sorghum milling techniques.


Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flours, Onesmo N.O. Mella Dec 2010

Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flours, Onesmo N.O. Mella

INTSORMIL Presentations

Includes information about the sorghum market in Tanzania, and provides an overview of the chemical components present in sorghum grain and their effects on the nutritional qualities of the grain with respect to human consumption. Explains that malting and fermentation improve the nutritional profile of sorghum grain, and describes the methods used to test this hypothesis.


Sorghum Malting, Luke Mugode Dec 2010

Sorghum Malting, Luke Mugode

INTSORMIL Presentations

Malting is defined as the germination of grain in moist air under controlled conditions. Malting occurs in three stages: steeping (soaking), germination, and drying or kilning, then milling can take place. Malting changes the chemistry of the grain.


Breeding Sorghum Cultivars For Processing, Gary Perterson Dec 2010

Breeding Sorghum Cultivars For Processing, Gary Perterson

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses the diversity of traits in sorghum and details some aspects of breeding techniques.


Virtues Of Sorghum: Utilization And Supply Chain Management, Lloyd W. Rooney Dec 2010

Virtues Of Sorghum: Utilization And Supply Chain Management, Lloyd W. Rooney

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses the consumer demands, value-added supply chain, strategy for value-added products, functionality of sorghums and millets, sorghum food use in Central America, plant breeding and improvement of grain quality, sorghum image, special sorghums as a particularly healthy food item, food utilization, improving sorghum quality, effect of molds, insects, and weathering on grain quality, and mycotoxins.


Developing Entrepreneurship, The Tanzania Experience: Sua-Intsormil Project, Joseph J. Mpagalile, Wenceslaus R. Ballegu Dec 2010

Developing Entrepreneurship, The Tanzania Experience: Sua-Intsormil Project, Joseph J. Mpagalile, Wenceslaus R. Ballegu

INTSORMIL Presentations

Project Title: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure for Product Development and Food Entrepreneur/Industry Technical Support: A Strategy to Promote Increased Use of Sorghum and Millet in East Africa.

Long Term Program Objectives: Development of successful entrepreneurial businesses that add-value to sorghum and millet such that:

~Farmers have an established outlet for cash sales of high-quality sorghum and millet

~Small businesses or cooperatives develop processing capabilities enabling the incorporation of sorghum and millet into a wide variety of food products

~Markets and market channels for sorghum and millet-based products develop.

Further develop research, extension and marketing expertise of National Agricultural Research ...


Mycotoxins In Grains – Causes, Prevention And Control, Hester F. Vismer Dec 2010

Mycotoxins In Grains – Causes, Prevention And Control, Hester F. Vismer

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses mycotoxins, their effect on grain, mitigation considerations, and resulting human toxicology.


Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of The Blood: Tissue Relationship In Poultry: Screening For Antibiotic Residues In Chicken Muscle, Ixchel Reyes Herrera Dec 2010

Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of The Blood: Tissue Relationship In Poultry: Screening For Antibiotic Residues In Chicken Muscle, Ixchel Reyes Herrera

Theses and Dissertations

During their life, humans are exposed to numerous substances that are naturally present in the environment or that are the result of man made processes, including heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, pesticides and veterinary drugs. Some of these substances can leave residues in food products and possibly expose consumers to their potential toxic effects. To address these problems extensive regulatory efforts are devoted to prevent, detect and control these substances from reaching the food supply. However, given the vast diversity of food products that requires monitoring and the immense diversity of potential chemical contaminants, the need for an efficient and ...


Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco Dec 2010

Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco

Master's Theses and Project Reports

There is considerable interest among food manufacturers to incorporate protein into food products in both developed and developing countries. Dairy proteins are excellent choices for many different applications, as they are known to have several nutritional and functional benefits. Membrane filtration techniques are often utilized as the preferred method of fractionation, due to the high throughput and continuous nature of the process. One such product produced from membrane filtration of skim milk is called milk protein concentrate. This product is valued for its high protein content, but it has historically exhibited poor solubility when reconstituted into water, which severely restricts ...


Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick Dec 2010

Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Master's Theses and Project Reports

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A LIGHT WEIGHT, ENERGY DENSE, READY TO EAT (RTE) BAR

Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Providing additional calories in the form of an RTE bar to endurance athletes will increase performance and muscle re-synthesis, reduce muscle breakdown, and shorten recovery time. An RTE bar containing a blend of dairy proteins and carbohydrates will create a product with superior functionality, including bioactive and immunity enhancing properties from dairy derived ingredients. The protein will provide benefits in the form of easily digestible calories, essential amino acids and physical satiate.

A formulation was developed and optimized, resulting in a final product ...


Mechanical Processing Of European Green Crab (Carcinus Maenas), The Development Of A Value-Added Product And The Use Of Restructuring Additives To Increase The Functional Properties Of Green Crab Patties, Joseph A. Galetti Dec 2010

Mechanical Processing Of European Green Crab (Carcinus Maenas), The Development Of A Value-Added Product And The Use Of Restructuring Additives To Increase The Functional Properties Of Green Crab Patties, Joseph A. Galetti

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The European Green Crab (Carcinus maenas) has proven to be a successful invasive predator and has potential to be a valuable food source for human consumption. Due to the small size of green crab, hand picking commercial operations are not feasible. The objectives of this research were to develop uses for this undervalued resource by examining mechanical separation techniques of mince meat; developing a consumer acceptable mince meat product and exploring the functionality of green crab mince meat with additions of restructuring additives. The first part of this research was designed to determine how boil versus steam thermal processing, large ...


Dietary Milk Fat Globule Membrane Reduces The Incidence Of Aberrant Crypt Foci In Fischer-344 Rats And Provides Protections Against Gastrointestinal Stress In Mice Treated With Lipopolysaccharide, Dallin R. Snow Dec 2010

Dietary Milk Fat Globule Membrane Reduces The Incidence Of Aberrant Crypt Foci In Fischer-344 Rats And Provides Protections Against Gastrointestinal Stress In Mice Treated With Lipopolysaccharide, Dallin R. Snow

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Milk fat globule membrane surrounds the fat droplets of milk. It is a biopolymer containing primarily membrane glycoproteins and polar lipids which contribute to its properties as a possible neutraceutical. The aims of the studies were to determine if dietary milk fat globule membrane: (1) confers protection against colon carcinogenesis; and (2) promotes gut mucosal integrity while decreasing inflammation compared to diets containing corn oil or anhydrous milk fat.

Aim 1. Three dietary treatments differing only in the fat source were formulated: (1) AIN-76A, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A, anhydrous milk fat; and (3) AIN-76A, 50% milk fat globule membrane, 50 ...


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 1: Getting Ready To Cook, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 1: Getting Ready To Cook, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 1 focuses on the steps needed when getting ready to cook.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 5: Microwave Munchies, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 5: Microwave Munchies, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 5 provides recipes and instructions for microwave munchies.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 3: Cookies: Drop & Bar, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 3: Cookies: Drop & Bar, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 3 provides recipes and instructions to make drop and bar cookies.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 4: Beverages, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 4: Beverages, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 4 provides tips and recipes for making beverages.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 6: Cookies: Molded, Refrigerator & Rolled, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 6: Cookies: Molded, Refrigerator & Rolled, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 6 provides recipes and instructions for molded, refrigerator, and rolled cookies.