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Developing A Hands-On Food Science Curriculum With Bilingual, Elementary-Aged, Hispanic Heritage Students, Jaime Leia Ragos May 2019

Developing A Hands-On Food Science Curriculum With Bilingual, Elementary-Aged, Hispanic Heritage Students, Jaime Leia Ragos

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

In the United States alone there are over 48 million cases of foodborne illness, with most of these cases deriving from food cooked in the home (Young 2016). Many themes have been assessed such as confidence, knowledge, habits, taste in food preferences, and societal/social influences (Young 2016). However, when food safety curricula are targeted toward younger populations, including young adults and children, attitudes and behavior change (Mullan 2018 and Young 2016). As there is a lack in home economics education in today’s current curriculum, students and their families may not know food safety behaviors (Finch 2005; Young 2016 ...


Developing A Hands-On Food Science Curriculum With Bilingual Elementary-Aged Hispanic Heritage Students, Jaime Leia Ragos May 2019

Developing A Hands-On Food Science Curriculum With Bilingual Elementary-Aged Hispanic Heritage Students, Jaime Leia Ragos

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Ultrasonication On Physicochemical Properties And Digestibility Of Sorghum Starch, Zhihong Wang May 2018

Impact Of Ultrasonication On Physicochemical Properties And Digestibility Of Sorghum Starch, Zhihong Wang

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Sorghum, a highly nutritious grain, is usually not considered as a main staple in many families because it is not as easy to be digested as other grains such as rice or maize. But recent studies of ultrasonication shed a light on potential utilization of this world’s fifth important cereal other than being raw material source of biofuel or liquor. This experiment was meant to compare the differences between unsonicated and sonicated sorghum starch in terms of their physical chemical properties and digestion ability. Despite their similarities in shapes under microscopes and their thermal properties, but sonicated sorghum starch ...


Bg-4, A Bioactive Peptide From Momordica Charantia, Promotes Apoptosis In Ovarian Cancer Cells, Ashley D. Bloom May 2018

Bg-4, A Bioactive Peptide From Momordica Charantia, Promotes Apoptosis In Ovarian Cancer Cells, Ashley D. Bloom

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. Food-derived molecules, like the novel peptide BG-4 found in Momordica charantia, have been shown to have anticancer properties by promoting apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is the deadliest form of all gynecological cancers. The high fatality rate of OVCA is due to late presentation of the disease, cancer persistence, and recurrence in patients. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of BG-4 to cause cytotoxicity to ovarian cancer cells (A27801AP and COV318) and determine the mechanism involved by measuring proteins associated with apoptosis. BG-4 ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport Adaptive Response To Oxidative Antimicrobials, Dara Melanie Smith May 2018

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport Adaptive Response To Oxidative Antimicrobials, Dara Melanie Smith

Masters Theses

Agricultural water systems are a known potential source for contamination of fresh produce with foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, as well as Salmonella enterica strains. To reduce this associated risk, antimicrobials such as hypochlorite compounds and peroxyracetic acid (PAA) have been utilized as in-line irrigation disinfectants and as post-harvest treatments. These treatments are considered effective and commonly used; however, pathogenic microbes like Salmonella have the ability to adapt to many environmental conditions. Adaptive response to environmental factors like oxidative conditions, contributes to transfer, attachment, and resilience of Salmonella on surfaces. Through RNA sequencing and analysis of the ...


Bg-4, A Bioactive Peptide From Momordica Charantia, Promotes Apoptosis In Ovarian Cancer Cells, Ashley D. Bloom May 2018

Bg-4, A Bioactive Peptide From Momordica Charantia, Promotes Apoptosis In Ovarian Cancer Cells, Ashley D. Bloom

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


A Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport In Planta And After Postharvest Sanitization, Laurel Lynn Dunn Aug 2017

A Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport In Planta And After Postharvest Sanitization, Laurel Lynn Dunn

Doctoral Dissertations

The consumption of fresh produce is increasingly linked to incidence of foodborne illness. Pathogens including Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes are exposed to produce crops through direct human or animal contact, contaminated agricultural water, bioaerosols, run-off, and improperly treated compost. S. enterica has demonstrated exceptional tolerance to the stresses encountered in the environment, on plant tissue, and from postharvest antimicrobial mitigation strategies. Understanding the transcriptomic mechanisms S. enterica employs to survive these hazards is integral for the development of more effective preventive controls and post-harvest steps to prevent the pathogen from infecting consumers.


Effect Of Ultrasonication On The Physicochemical Properties Of Sorghum Kafirin And Evaluation Of Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties In Vitro, Andrew Cullen Sullivan Aug 2017

Effect Of Ultrasonication On The Physicochemical Properties Of Sorghum Kafirin And Evaluation Of Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties In Vitro, Andrew Cullen Sullivan

Masters Theses

Sorghum is one of the hardiest, most drought resistent cereal grains known to exist, providing the bulk of nutritional content for many semi-arid regions and developing countries throughout Africa and southwestern Asia. It contains dense nutritional value, but due to inhibition factors within the grain, much of these nutrients are indigestible. Access to these nutrients, which have shown to contain high contents of bioactive molecules linked to the decrease of prevalence of chronic disease, must then be facilitated before consumption. In sorghum, these molecules could include complex carbohydrates, proteins and polyphenols. The overall objective of this study was to determine ...


Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price May 2017

Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price

Masters Theses

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most cultivated crops in the world providing the population with large amounts of protein and oil. In addition to its nutritional composition, soybean also contains biologically active compounds with potential health-promoting properties. The presence of these bioactives may be responsible for the lower incidence of chronic diseases in populations that consume a significant portion of soybeans in their diet. One group of soybeanderived bioactives are bioactive peptides and proteins including lunasin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (KTI). The overall objective of this research was to develop a method of preparing lunasin-enriched ...


Protein, Methionine, And Cysteine Upregulation In Phaseolus Vulgaris ‘Black Turtle Bean’ Seeds Through Sulfur Fertilization At V2 And R2 Stages Of Growth, Hannah Paige Barry May 2017

Protein, Methionine, And Cysteine Upregulation In Phaseolus Vulgaris ‘Black Turtle Bean’ Seeds Through Sulfur Fertilization At V2 And R2 Stages Of Growth, Hannah Paige Barry

Masters Theses

The purpose of this research was to increase protein, methionine, and cysteine content in Phaseolus vulgaris L., common bean in relation to the inhibitory compound tannin. Previous research has shown that sulfur fertilization increases total protein, methionine and cysteine content in various crops, but always in tandem with inhibitory compound increases. If successful, the resulting bean seed will have a better nutrient profile for malnourished populations around the world.

Granular gypsum was applied at 0 kg S ha-1 [kilograms of sulfur per hectare], 10 kg S ha-1, 20 kg S ha-1, 40 kg S ha-1, 60 ...


Effects Of Ultra-Sonication Process On Digestibility Of Kafirin In Sorghum, Sarah F. Beazley May 2017

Effects Of Ultra-Sonication Process On Digestibility Of Kafirin In Sorghum, Sarah F. Beazley

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Heat Inactivation Kinetics Of Tulane Virus And Aichi Virus, Sukriti Ailavadi May 2017

Heat Inactivation Kinetics Of Tulane Virus And Aichi Virus, Sukriti Ailavadi

Masters Theses

Human noroviruses (HNoVs) and Aichi virus (AiV) causes significant number of gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. Tulane virus (TV), a cultivable HNoV surrogate, is used to determine control measures against HNoV. The objectives of this study were to determine the heat inactivation kinetics of TV and AiV in cell-culture media and TV in spinach using the first-order and Weibull models. TV and AiV in cell-culture media at ~7 log PFU/ml in 2-ml glass vials were heated at 50-58°C [degree Celsius] up to 10 min in a circulating water-bath. Surviving infectious viruses were enumerated by standard plaque assays using confluent host ...


The Effect Of Retronasal Odor Adaptation On Flavor Perception, Addison Atchley May 2017

The Effect Of Retronasal Odor Adaptation On Flavor Perception, Addison Atchley

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce Dec 2016

Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce

Masters Theses

Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a perennial grass native to North America, is a leading biomass feedstock candidate for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol. Switchgrass is considered a viable option for biofuel production due to its cheap production cost and ability to grow on marginal land. Biofuel derived from switchgrass has been shown to be very energy efficient, producing 540% more renewable energy versus nonrenewable energy expended. Switchgrass-derived biofuel is also estimated to have greenhouse gas emissions that are 94% lower than emissions from gasoline (Schmer et al 2008). Biofuels are created through biochemical processes that utilize various enzymes and microorganisms for ...


Sorghum Phenolic Extracts: Chemical Characterization And Biological Activity Determination, James Jordan Bradwell Aug 2016

Sorghum Phenolic Extracts: Chemical Characterization And Biological Activity Determination, James Jordan Bradwell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Red sorghum contains phytochemicals such as 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and flavonoids with reported health benefits. The objective was to determine the chemical composition of sorghum phenolic extracts that were extracted with acidified methanol and separated into co-pigments and anthocyanin fraction by chromatographic procedure. In addition, the ability of sorghum extract to modify activation of the inflammasomes, a macromolecular protein complex involved in several malignancies, was evaluated. The total polyphenols, total flavonoids and total anthocyanins of the sorghum phenolic extract was quantified and phenolic profile was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The ability to modify the inflammasomes was evaluated using THP-1 human ...


Identification Of Potential Bacterial Surrogates For Validation Of Thermal Inactivation Processes Of Hepatitis A Virus, Marcel Schmidt Aug 2016

Identification Of Potential Bacterial Surrogates For Validation Of Thermal Inactivation Processes Of Hepatitis A Virus, Marcel Schmidt

Masters Theses

Thermal treatment is a method for inactivating pathogens in a wide range of food products. Recent studies have shown that hepatitis A virus (HAV) has a D72°C [D72 degree celcius] of 0.9 min in buffer which is greater than vegetative bacterial pathogens. Common surrogates, such as Listeria innocua, are not resistant enough to be used as surrogates for HAV, thus, new surrogates need to be identified. The purpose of this study was to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics (D- and z-values) of Staphylococcus carnosus in different foods and different incubation temperatures to identify a potential surrogate for ...


Combinations Of Multiple Natural Antimicrobials With Different Mechanisms As An Approach To Control Listeria Monocytogenes, Savannah Grace Hawkins Aug 2016

Combinations Of Multiple Natural Antimicrobials With Different Mechanisms As An Approach To Control Listeria Monocytogenes, Savannah Grace Hawkins

Masters Theses

To improve food safety and shelflife requires the use of preservation processes, such as physical (heat, refrigeration) or chemical (antimicrobial addition) processes. Regulatory approved synthetic food antimicrobials (preservatives) have some uses but are very limited in their spectrum of activity. Thus, alternatives are needed to conventional chemical antimicrobials. One method is to use naturally occurring antimicrobials, especially those found in spices and herbs, essential oils (EO) and essential oil components (EOC). EOs have been shown to have antimicrobial activity but the activity is highly variable. Finding a combination of EOs, EOCs, or other natural antimicrobials that act synergistically would allow ...


Structuring Solid/Oil/Water Emulsions To Deliver Water-Soluble Bioactive Food Ingredients, Yun Zhang May 2016

Structuring Solid/Oil/Water Emulsions To Deliver Water-Soluble Bioactive Food Ingredients, Yun Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

Numerous delivery systems are studied for lipophilic bioactive compounds, but much work is needed for bioactive food ingredients soluble or dispersible in water. The overall hypothesis of this dissertation is that structured solid/oil/water (S/O/W) emulsions can be used to encapsulate water-soluble/dispersible ingredients to retain their release during processing and storage and control their release during simulated digestions. The encapsulation principle is to prepare spray-dried powder of water-soluble/dispersible compounds as the solid core that is coated by an oil layer emulsified by food biopolymers. The oil layer isolates the compounds from the continuous aqueous phase ...


Odor-Induced Taste Modifications In Teas, Rachel Elizabeth Isaacs May 2016

Odor-Induced Taste Modifications In Teas, Rachel Elizabeth Isaacs

Masters Theses

Although odorants and tastants are perceived by two different sensory modalities, the perceived taste qualities of a solution may be modified with the addition of an odorant. While many studies have investigated odor-induced taste modifications in model solutions, there is a lack of conducted research examining odor-induced taste modifications in complex food systems. The research objective was to determine the effect of added vapor-phase stimuli on the perceived sweetness of a model solution and complex food system.

Eight vapor-phase stimuli (i.e. blueberry, caramel, ginger, honey, lemon, orange, peach, and strawberry) were selected for investigation. The study was conducted in ...


The Food Industry’S Perception Of Economically Motivated Adulteration And Related Risk Factors, Lindsay Colleen Murphy May 2016

The Food Industry’S Perception Of Economically Motivated Adulteration And Related Risk Factors, Lindsay Colleen Murphy

Masters Theses

The United States of America has numerous safeguards in place to protect our food supply, including federal regulations and the food and beverage industry’s dedication to food safety. One of the issues that the food and beverage industry continuously battles is the prevalence of intentional adulteration. The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) specifically addresses intentional adulteration and its sub-category of economically motivated adulteration (EMA) by requiring all facilities that supply food to the US to assess the vulnerabilities within their operation in order to prevent events that could cause public harm. The purposes of this study are threefold: (1 ...


High Intensity Ultrasound Assisted Extraction Of Oak Compounds For Accelerated Aging Of Wines And Whiskies, Lindsay Elizabeth Rogerson May 2016

High Intensity Ultrasound Assisted Extraction Of Oak Compounds For Accelerated Aging Of Wines And Whiskies, Lindsay Elizabeth Rogerson

Masters Theses

Aging of wines and whiskies in oak barrels is a timely and expensive process which could be reduced by acceleration. The purpose of this study is to identify if the use of high intensity ultrasound (HIUS) assisted extraction as an alternative, accelerated aging method could be utilized in the production of an oak extract to be used in wine and whiskies. HIUS will also be compared to reflux and room-temperature control extraction treatments as other accelerated aging methods. Secondary objectives of this study were to compare the heat treatment of charred and toasted staves donated by an anonymous donor, their ...


Stability Of Sorgum Bicolor Alcoholic Extract As Affected By Ph And Temperature, James Jordan Bradwell Apr 2016

Stability Of Sorgum Bicolor Alcoholic Extract As Affected By Ph And Temperature, James Jordan Bradwell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Storage stability of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extract as affected by pH and temperature

Jordan Bradwell, Philipus Pangloli, Vermont P Dia

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville TN

Red sorghum contains phytochemicals such as 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and flavonoids with potential application in food as coloring and health promoting agents. The objective was to determine the stability of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of sorghum as affected by pH (2, 4 and 6) and temperature of storage (4 and 22 °C). The following parameters were measured: polyphenol concentration, absorbance at 490 nm and L*, a* and b ...


Chemical Disinfectants For The Inactivation Of The Emerging Foodborne Aichi Virus, Andres Ignacio Arreaza Dec 2015

Chemical Disinfectants For The Inactivation Of The Emerging Foodborne Aichi Virus, Andres Ignacio Arreaza

Masters Theses

Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging virus responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Improved decontamination methods are being researched to control AiV spread. The effects of common hard surface disinfectants including benzalkonium chloride (BAC), potassium peroxymonosulfate (KPMS), tribasic sodium phosphate (TSP) as well as sodium metasilicate (SMS) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2) [calcium hypochlorite] against AiV need to be explored. The objective of this research was to determine their effects against AiV using suspension and carrier tests over various contact times at room temperature. Phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), 0.64% BAC, 10% KPMS, 10% TSP, 0 ...


Evaluation Of A Natural Antimicrobial-Based Sanitizer As An Alternative To Chlorine For Reducing Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria On Organic Produce, Ellen Rebecca Simmons Dec 2015

Evaluation Of A Natural Antimicrobial-Based Sanitizer As An Alternative To Chlorine For Reducing Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria On Organic Produce, Ellen Rebecca Simmons

Masters Theses

There is a need for the development of a “natural” sanitizing agent to reduce or eliminate foodborne pathogens that meets USDA organic standards, as an alternative to chlorine. The sanitizer needs to eliminate foodborne pathogens and prevent cross contamination in rinse liquids in the presence of organic matter. In this study, the focus was to evaluate a natural antimicrobial-based sanitizing (NABS) agent in rinse liquids to determine if it was capable of eliminating foodborne pathogens on organic produce through cross-contamination studies. Five-serovar/strain cocktails of pathogenic bacteria were combined to form an inoculum cocktail, which was used to inoculate the ...


Improving Antimicrobial Activity Of Lauric Arginate By Combination With Essential Oils For Novel Applications, Qiumin Ma Aug 2015

Improving Antimicrobial Activity Of Lauric Arginate By Combination With Essential Oils For Novel Applications, Qiumin Ma

Doctoral Dissertations

Lauric arginate (LAE) and essential oils (EOs) are highly efficacious in broth media but are required at much higher concentrations in food products to inhibit foodborne pathogens. Because high levels of LAE and EOs affect organoleptic properties of food products, this dissertation was studied for the potential of lowering their usage concentrations by using them in combination. Antimicrobial activities of LAE and EO used alone or in combination were characterized in Chapter 2. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of LAE-EO combinations and cinnamon leaf oil/eugnol/thymol were observed for inhibiting Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes and Gram-negative Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli ...


Self-Assembled Casein Nanostructures To Deliver Novel Functionalities, Kang Pan Aug 2015

Self-Assembled Casein Nanostructures To Deliver Novel Functionalities, Kang Pan

Doctoral Dissertations

The nanoscale micellar structure of caseins can be manipulated by mechanical forces, solvent quality, and pH to reduce turbidity, encapsulate hydrophobic compounds, and improve dispersion stability and rheological properties. The goal of this dissertation was to control the nanostructure of self-assembled caseins to deliver functionalities. The combination of treatments at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid was first studied to produce translucent skim milk dispersions at pH 5.5-7.0, resulting from the significantly reduced dimensions of reassembled casein nanoparticles. Using sodium caseinate (NaCas), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), and high-speed homogenization, a food grade delivery system was studied ...


Salmonella In Low Water Activity Foods: Physiological, Genetic Modification And Control Methods, Wei Chen Aug 2015

Salmonella In Low Water Activity Foods: Physiological, Genetic Modification And Control Methods, Wei Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid associated genes (fabA, fabD and cfa) of five serovars of Salmonella exposed to sugar over a 14-day period. Changes in the fatty acid composition of Salmonella Tennessee in glycerol solutions of different water activity (aw) (1.0-0.6) and the relationship between survival and fatty acid modification (as altered by exogenously supplied fatty acids) at aw 1.0-0.6 were also determined. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activities of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and lauric arginate (LAE) alone or in combination against Salmonella Tennessee in a laboratory model of ...


Blueberry Polyphenols As Natural Antimicrobial Agents Against Foodborne Viruses: Towards Understanding Their Mechanism And Applications In Food Systems, Snehal Shrikant Joshi Aug 2015

Blueberry Polyphenols As Natural Antimicrobial Agents Against Foodborne Viruses: Towards Understanding Their Mechanism And Applications In Food Systems, Snehal Shrikant Joshi

Doctoral Dissertations

Foodborne viruses are recognized as public health concerns worldwide and therefore effective strategies to control their spread are being researched. Blueberries are known for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to (1) determine the antiviral effects of blueberry juice (BJ) and blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) against the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV), Aichi virus (AiV) and human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) at 37oC over 24-h using standard plaque assays; (2) evaluate antiviral effects in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% milk) and simulated gastrointestinal conditions at 37oC ...


Evaluation Of The Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Of Surrogate Vegetative Bacteria, Amber Lynne Parham Renix Aug 2015

Evaluation Of The Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Of Surrogate Vegetative Bacteria, Amber Lynne Parham Renix

Masters Theses

Microbial surrogates are defined as non-pathogenic organisms with behavioral and/or survival characteristics correlating to those of specific pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics (D and z-values) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842, Lactobacillus fructivorans ATCC 8288, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 4008, Listeria innocua ATCC 33091, ATCC 51742, and 11/97, and Staphylococcus carnosus CS-299 as potential surrogates for hepatitis A virus (HAV; D72°C = 0.9 min). Additionally, the effect of sub-lethal heat on increasing the thermotolerance of L. bulgaricus was investigated. All strains were tested in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as a ...


Gallic Acid-Grafted Chitosan Films As Antioxidant Food Packaging, Ping Guo Aug 2015

Gallic Acid-Grafted Chitosan Films As Antioxidant Food Packaging, Ping Guo

Masters Theses

Chitosan is the second most abundant natural polysaccharide in the nature. Due to its biodegradability and film forming ability, chitosan has the potential to be used as an alternative to petroleum-based polymers for food packaging. The presence of a primary amine as well as primary and secondary hydroxyl groups enable chitosan to be chemically modified with various functional groups. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural occurring antioxidant (AOX), which can be grafted to chitosan using by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The first project deals with the effect of ethanol (EtOH) concentration on efficiency of grafting GA onto ...