Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Environmental Sciences

2014

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 571 - 585 of 585

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Carbon Assessment Of Iowa State University's Land, Catherine Rosson Delong Jan 2014

A Carbon Assessment Of Iowa State University's Land, Catherine Rosson Delong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In 1862, Iowa State University was the first college to become a land-grant university. Today, their mission has expanded beyond the Iowa farmer to the global farmer and more broadly the agricultural world. As part of this global perspective, Iowa State University has chosen to be the first US university to evaluate itself in an environmental context through a carbon assessment of its soils. The carbon content of Iowa State's 6,392 hectares was evaluated to an 18 and 100 cm depth using two databases. The carbon flux of Iowa State University's land, given a change in management ...


Initial Results From A Survey Of Iowa Corn Ethanol Plants, Bailley A. Richardson, Russell M. Euken, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2014

Initial Results From A Survey Of Iowa Corn Ethanol Plants, Bailley A. Richardson, Russell M. Euken, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Animal Industry Report

A survey of Iowa ethanol plants was conducted to understand the production of animal feed coproducts from ethanol processing. Of interest is which coproducts are being produced, how the coproducts are being produced, coproduct composition, facility utility information, and challenges associated with coproduct manufacture. Specifically, the intent was to understand oil removal from distillers coproducts, and the impact of those processes on the concentration of oil in the distillers coproducts. We did not intend to determine variation in coproducts plant to plant or within a given plant over time.


Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Jan 2014

Diesel Fuel Consumption During Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Direct energy expenses (diesel, gasoline, propane, electricity) total more than $1 billion annually for Iowa’s farmers. Farm management techniques such as adjusting tractor gear and throttle settings or reducing tillage depths can reduce diesel fuel consumption for row crop production. This study is being conducted over multiple years to measure the effects of energy management techniques on tractor fuel consumption during spring and fall field operations.


Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino Jan 2014

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The primary objective of this project was to determine the impact of appropriate rates of swine manure applications to corn and soybeans based on nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of crops, soil phosphorus accumulation, and the potential of nitrate and phosphorus leaching to groundwater. Another purpose of this long-term experimental study was to develop and recommend appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to producers to minimize water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as fertilizer. A third component of this study was to determine the potential effects of rye as a cover crop to reduce nitrate loss to ...


Water Table Level As Influenced By Rainfall, Crop Requirements, And Tiling Method During The Past Two Years, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky, Jeffery D. Cook Jan 2014

Water Table Level As Influenced By Rainfall, Crop Requirements, And Tiling Method During The Past Two Years, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky, Jeffery D. Cook

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

In 1979, a portion of the research farm was pattern tiled. This was used as an opportunity to compare tile installation methods: a conventional trenching machine (used widely prior to late 1970s) and a trenchless “tile plow” machine. The tile plow inserted plastic tile using a mole approach, which is the current primary tiling method. This research showed plow and trenching tiling methods were not significantly different and both provided adequate drainage. It also showed that water table measurements were influenced more by timing of water needs of the crop being grown and intensity of the rainfall event than tiling ...


What Did Discovery Farms Learn About Nutrient And Sediment Loss From Studying A Wisconsin Beef And Cash Grain Farm?, Mark Riechers, Amber Radatz Jan 2014

What Did Discovery Farms Learn About Nutrient And Sediment Loss From Studying A Wisconsin Beef And Cash Grain Farm?, Mark Riechers, Amber Radatz

Driftless Region Beef Conference

Riechers Beef is the family farming operation owned by Mark and Jan Riechers along with their sons Joe and Jeff. Joe is actively engaged in the operation having taken over many of the daily chores and management decisions from Mark. Jeff frequently assists with the cropping and livestock duties. Mark and Jan’s family also includes their daughter January and their 11 grandchildren.


Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger Jan 2014

Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Grazing cattle in grasslands can impact many ecosystems services including the movement of sediment and nutrients to water bodies, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. In riparian grassland ecosystems congregation of cattle in or near streams may increase the sediment, nutrient, and pathogen loading of surface water resources, however the impact of cattle on water bodies may be limited through pasture characteristics or management practices that reduce congregation of cattle in or near streams. The first study in this thesis was designed to determine the effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on the presence of cattle near pasture streams ...


Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Soil-Surface Carbon Dioxide Emissions In Bioenergy Corn Rotations And Reconstructed Prairies, Aaron L. Daigh, Thomas J. Sauer, Xinhua Xiao, Robert Horton Jan 2014

Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Soil-Surface Carbon Dioxide Emissions In Bioenergy Corn Rotations And Reconstructed Prairies, Aaron L. Daigh, Thomas J. Sauer, Xinhua Xiao, Robert Horton

Agronomy Publications

The interest in bioenergy crops has raised questions as to the potential of management strategies to preserve soil C pools and soil quality. Since soil-surface CO2 effluxes are a major fate of soil C, knowledge of CO2 efflux’s spatial and temporal trends among bioenergy crops will facilitate advances in research on improving terrestrial C-cycle models as well as decision support tools for policy and land-management. Our objective was to evaluate spatial and temporal dynamics of soil-surface CO2 effluxes in bioenergy-based corn (Zea mays L.) and reconstructed prairie systems. Systems evaluated included continuous corn (harvested for grain ...


"Mining" For A Reference Condition In Southern West Virginia Streams, Matthew Rouch Jan 2014

"Mining" For A Reference Condition In Southern West Virginia Streams, Matthew Rouch

Theses and Dissertations

Quarterly samples were used to estimate assemblage-level (all species combined) fish production within three minimally-impacted, southern West Virginia streams. The total annual fish production estimate was highest in Slaunch Fork (37.52 kg∙ha-1∙y-1), a tributary of the Tug Fork River, and lowest in Cabin Creek (10.59 kg∙ha-1∙y-1), a Guyandotte River tributary. Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus, Mottled Sculpin Cottus bairdii and Blacknose Dace Rhinicthys atratulus were the most abundant species among sites, accounting for >90% of all sampled individuals. Reference condition criteria were also selected and metrics calculated for each of the ...


Soil Seed Banks Of Fringing Salt Lake Vegetation In Arid Western Australia - Density, Composition And Implications For Postmine Restoration Using Topsoil, Eddie J. Van Etten, Brett Neasham, Sarah Dalgleish Jan 2014

Soil Seed Banks Of Fringing Salt Lake Vegetation In Arid Western Australia - Density, Composition And Implications For Postmine Restoration Using Topsoil, Eddie J. Van Etten, Brett Neasham, Sarah Dalgleish

ECU Publications Post 2013

Although studies of seed banks in arid ecosystems are commonplace, they are lacking for the large arid zone of Western Australia. Across the six major plant communities fringing a large salt lake within this zone, topsoil (0-5 cm depth) was collected from 12 to 36 sites per community. Samples were dried, spread out on a bed of vermiculite in seedling trays and placed in a well-watered glasshouse to determine the readily germinable component of the soil seed bank. Subsamples of topsoil were treated with smoke water, hot water or flooding to help determine seed bank of species with dormancy mechanisms ...


A Critical Review Of Habitat Use By Feral Cats And Key Directions For Future Research And Management, Tim S. Doherty, Andrew J. Bengsen, Robert A. Davis Jan 2014

A Critical Review Of Habitat Use By Feral Cats And Key Directions For Future Research And Management, Tim S. Doherty, Andrew J. Bengsen, Robert A. Davis

ECU Publications Post 2013

Feral cats (Felis catus) have a wide global distribution and cause significant damage to native fauna. Reducing their impacts requires an understanding of how they use habitat and which parts of the landscape should be the focus of management. We reviewed 27 experimental and observational studies conducted around the world over the last 35 years that aimed to examine habitat use by feral and unowned cats. Our aims were to: (1) summarise the current body of literature on habitat use by feral and unowned cats in the context of applicable ecological theory (i.e. habitat selection, foraging theory); (2) develop ...


Impact Of Mercury Exposure On Birds And The Effect Of Molt On Mercury Depuration In Songbirds, Margaret Crossley Whitney Jan 2014

Impact Of Mercury Exposure On Birds And The Effect Of Molt On Mercury Depuration In Songbirds, Margaret Crossley Whitney

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Using A Sonic Net To Deter Pest Bird Species: Excluding European Starlings From Food Sources By Disrupting Their Acoustic Environment, Ghazi Mahjoub Jan 2014

Using A Sonic Net To Deter Pest Bird Species: Excluding European Starlings From Food Sources By Disrupting Their Acoustic Environment, Ghazi Mahjoub

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa Dec 2013

Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa

Teshome H. Regassa

No abstract provided.


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Dec 2013

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...