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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

River Health In Puyo, Ecuador The Use Of Macroinvertebrates As Bioindicators Of Water Quality And Alternatives To Chlorine For Whitening Clothes In The Puyo River Watershed, Allison Rowe Dec 2014

River Health In Puyo, Ecuador The Use Of Macroinvertebrates As Bioindicators Of Water Quality And Alternatives To Chlorine For Whitening Clothes In The Puyo River Watershed, Allison Rowe

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Fresh water is an important resource in Puyo, Ecuador, a city named after the Kichwa word for ‘cloudy’ in reference to its overcast weather. However, the Puyo River watershed is the most contaminated in all of Pastaza Province. The objective of this investigation was first to evaluate the health of the Puyo River using macroinvertebrate analyses and measurements of chlorine concentrations, temperature, pH, turbidity, velocity, and flow rate. The second objective was to learn about practices used to whiten clothes in Puyo and perceptions of water quality in order to understand the magnitude of bleach pollution and the population’s ...


Goomig Farmlands Development Baseline Water Quality In The Lower Keep River, D L. Bennett, Richard J. George Dr Nov 2014

Goomig Farmlands Development Baseline Water Quality In The Lower Keep River, D L. Bennett, Richard J. George Dr

Resource management technical reports

In 2008 the Ord Irrigation Expansion Project was approved by the Western Australian Government to develop irrigated agriculture on the Weaber Plain. By mid-2014 construction of almost all of the water supply, drainage, access, monitoring and other infrastructure for the 7400ha Goomig Farmlands development had substantially been completed. An important concern is the effect the Goomig Farmlands development may have on the water quality of the downstream lower Keep River aquatic environment, particularly as it relates to threatened species that inhabit or may inhabit the area. Possible increases in salinity, nutrients, suspended sediment, heavy metals and farm chemicals delivered in ...


Biofiltration Potential Of Ribbed Mussel Populations, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell Jul 2014

Biofiltration Potential Of Ribbed Mussel Populations, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell

Reports

Our primary study objective was to characterize the ribbed mussel population and estimate their water processing potential along the York River, Virginia.


Interactions Of Various Bacterial Populations With Chemical And Physical Factors From Seasonal Inputs And Outputs Of Retention Ponds, Felicia A. Krelwitz Jul 2014

Interactions Of Various Bacterial Populations With Chemical And Physical Factors From Seasonal Inputs And Outputs Of Retention Ponds, Felicia A. Krelwitz

All Student Theses

Retention ponds at Governors State University play an important role in collecting and treating storm water runoff before leaving campus and entering Thorn Creek. Many chemical and physical factors influence the diversity of bacterial populations in freshwater ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to compare the interactions of various bacterial populations with chemical and physical factors from seasonal inputs and outputs of Governors State University retention ponds before being discharged into Thorn Creek. The retention ponds studied include the Café Settling pond, Café pond and Beaver pond. Water and sediment were collected from inputs and outputs every other ...


Roosting, Site Fidelity, And Food Sources Of Urban Gulls In Massachusetts: Implications For Protecting Public Water Supplies, Daniel E. Clark Apr 2014

Roosting, Site Fidelity, And Food Sources Of Urban Gulls In Massachusetts: Implications For Protecting Public Water Supplies, Daniel E. Clark

Doctoral Dissertations

Anyone who has spent time in coastal New England has seen gulls flying overhead and heard their familiar sound; gulls may be one of the most recognizable birds in the world. There are over 50 species of gulls worldwide, and many of them are closely associated with human development or activities. In Massachusetts, there are several common gull species including herring (Larus argentatus), great black-back (Larus marinus), laughing (Leucophaeus atricilla), and ring-billed (Larus delawarensis).

While coastal encounters with gulls are ubiquitous, gulls can also be found inland, and ring-billed and herring gulls are now a common sight at lakes, parks ...


Effects Of Tillage And Application Rate On Atrazine Transport To Subsurface Drainage: Evaluation Of Rzwqm Using A Six-Year Field Study, Robert W. Malone, B. T. Nolan, Liwang Ma, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Philip Heilman Jan 2014

Effects Of Tillage And Application Rate On Atrazine Transport To Subsurface Drainage: Evaluation Of Rzwqm Using A Six-Year Field Study, Robert W. Malone, B. T. Nolan, Liwang Ma, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Philip Heilman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Well tested agricultural system models can improve our understanding of the water quality effects of management practices under different conditions. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) has been tested under a variety of conditions. However, the current model's ability to simulate pesticide transport to subsurface drain flow over a long term period under different tillage systems and application rates is not clear. Therefore, we calibrated and tested RZWQM using six years of data from Nashua, Iowa. In this experiment, atrazine was spring applied at 2.8 (1990–1992) and 0.6 kg/ha/yr (1993–1995) to two ...


Qualitative And Comparative Analysis Of Stormwater Management In The Tan Brook Watershed, Natalia Von Hausen, Robert F. Smith Jan 2014

Qualitative And Comparative Analysis Of Stormwater Management In The Tan Brook Watershed, Natalia Von Hausen, Robert F. Smith

Research

The Tan Brook Watershed is both a daylighted and diverted underground stream that runs through the Town Center of Amherst and the campus of UMass Amherst. Various stormwater management practices have been used to infiltrate stormwater runoff from streets, lots, buildings and/or vehicles. These systems are custom-designed relative to the surrounding permeability of the soil, vegetation and geographical topography. Some systems have higher success rates than others.


Sedimentation And Barnacle Recruitment And Growth In A Shallow Coastal Lagoon Of South Texas, John Jack Gray Jan 2014

Sedimentation And Barnacle Recruitment And Growth In A Shallow Coastal Lagoon Of South Texas, John Jack Gray

UTB/UTPA Electronic Theses and Dissertations

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, one of this nation’s greatest concerns to the receiving waters of an aquatic system is the impairment of water quality due to sediment transport. Thus, an aquatic system whose receiving waters are subject to unrestrained sediment transport from a spoil bank, which is an unstabilized depository for sediment acquired during a dredge, should be a concern. In this study an attempt was made to assess sedimentation and its effect on the life cycle of sessile aquatic life over a year. South Bay was chosen for the study site because it is ...


Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger Jan 2014

Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Grazing cattle in grasslands can impact many ecosystems services including the movement of sediment and nutrients to water bodies, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. In riparian grassland ecosystems congregation of cattle in or near streams may increase the sediment, nutrient, and pathogen loading of surface water resources, however the impact of cattle on water bodies may be limited through pasture characteristics or management practices that reduce congregation of cattle in or near streams. The first study in this thesis was designed to determine the effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on the presence of cattle near pasture streams ...


Land Use And Climate Variability Amplify Carbon, Nutrient, And Contaminant Pulses: A Review With Management Implications, Sujay S. Kaushal, Peter M. Mayer, Philippe G. Vidon, Rose M. Smith, Micheal J. Pennino, Tamara A. Newcomer, Shuiwang Duan, Claire Welty, Kenneth T. Belt Jan 2014

Land Use And Climate Variability Amplify Carbon, Nutrient, And Contaminant Pulses: A Review With Management Implications, Sujay S. Kaushal, Peter M. Mayer, Philippe G. Vidon, Rose M. Smith, Micheal J. Pennino, Tamara A. Newcomer, Shuiwang Duan, Claire Welty, Kenneth T. Belt

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture and urbanization is increasing globally at the same time climate extremes have increased in frequency and intensity. We review >200 studies of hydrologic and gaseous fluxes and show how the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon, nutrient, and greenhouse gas pulses in watersheds. Agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Organic carbon concentrations/exports increase and organic carbon quality changes with runoff. Nitrogen and phosphorus exports increase during floods (sometimes by ...


Growth Performance And Economic Analysis Of Indian Major Carps And Tilapia In Rainwater Ponds, Pramod K. Pandey, Laxmi N. Sethi, Limbraj P. Pholane, Sudhindra N. Panda, Vinay K. Pandey, Sagor Biswas, Michelle L. Soupir Jan 2014

Growth Performance And Economic Analysis Of Indian Major Carps And Tilapia In Rainwater Ponds, Pramod K. Pandey, Laxmi N. Sethi, Limbraj P. Pholane, Sudhindra N. Panda, Vinay K. Pandey, Sagor Biswas, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Enhancing water resources is crucially important for improving food production in rainfed regions. The income of rural people in these regions is mainly tied with water availability. One option is disseminating rainwater harvesting for conserving rainwater and utilizing it for food production. Here we propose a rainwater harvesting method, which helps to conserve rainwater in the rainy season, provide water storage for rearing fish and facilitate supplemental irrigation to crops in the dry season. To verify the suitability of rainwater harvesting approach for improving food production and rural income, here we conducted a field study, which involved designing rainwater harvesting ...


Predicting Time Cattle Spend In Streams To Quantify Direct Deposition Of Manure, Shannon B. Brown, Charles D. Ikenberry, Michelle L. Soupir, Justin J. Bisinger, James R. Russell Jan 2014

Predicting Time Cattle Spend In Streams To Quantify Direct Deposition Of Manure, Shannon B. Brown, Charles D. Ikenberry, Michelle L. Soupir, Justin J. Bisinger, James R. Russell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Current methods to predict bacterial loads into streams resulting from direct deposition of manure by livestock do not consider factors that influence livestock behavior. Data from three studies that monitored spatial behavior of cattle through GPS were used to develop a new method with increased temporal resolution and consideration of environmental factors to predict the time that cattle spend in streams. Information on relative location of the cattle to the pasture stream was used to calculate the number of hours a cow spent in the stream, and from that the load of bacteria deposited directly into the stream. Ultimately, four ...


Assessing Linkages Between E. Coli Levels In Streambed Sediment And Overlying Water In An Agricultural Watershed In Iowa During The First Heavy Rain Event Of The Season, Pramod K. Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir Jan 2014

Assessing Linkages Between E. Coli Levels In Streambed Sediment And Overlying Water In An Agricultural Watershed In Iowa During The First Heavy Rain Event Of The Season, Pramod K. Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This study involved field observations in Squaw Creek watershed, located in central Iowa, to investigate the impact of a heavy rain event (rainfall of 71 mm in 24 h) on E. coli levels in the streambed sediment and overlying water. We assessed relationships between streamflow and E. coli and nutrient levels in the water column and streambed sediment. The results showed that during a heavy rain event, E. coli levels in the water column varied considerably, ranging from 360 to 37,553 CFU per 100 mL with a mean of 7,598 CFU per 100 mL. Elevated streamflow resulted in ...


Prairie Strips: Bringing Biodiversity, Improved Water Quality, And Soil Protection To Agriculture, Lisa A. Schulte Moore Jan 2014

Prairie Strips: Bringing Biodiversity, Improved Water Quality, And Soil Protection To Agriculture, Lisa A. Schulte Moore

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The motivation for expanding the basket of goods that Midwestern farms produce is strong. While our current agricultural system achieves record productivity in crops and livestock, it is also associated with serious environmental shortcomings, including declines in water quality and biodiversity, increased flooding and greenhouse gas emissions, and even degradation of the foundation of agricultural productivity: the soil.


Reducing Water Extractable Phosphorus In Poultry Litter Using Chitosan Treatment, Zachary Simpson, Brina Smith, David A. Zaharoff, Brian E. Haggard Jan 2014

Reducing Water Extractable Phosphorus In Poultry Litter Using Chitosan Treatment, Zachary Simpson, Brina Smith, David A. Zaharoff, Brian E. Haggard

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Phosphorus (P) is an important factor in the eutrophication of freshwater, and watershed sources include effluent discharges and the landscape. Poultry litter applied to the landscape can be a potential source of P, which is dependent on rainfall, runoff and dissolution. Chitosan, the deacetylated form of the biopolymer chitin, has been shown to have an effect on reducing water extractable phosphorus (WEP) in poultry litter when applied as a powder. The intent of this study was to measure the effect that poultry litter treatment (PLT), acetic acid and incubation time have on chitosan’s ability to reduce WEP in poultry ...


Assessing Monitoring And Modeling Approaches To Improve Water Quality In The Hickory Grove Lake, Rohith Gali Jan 2014

Assessing Monitoring And Modeling Approaches To Improve Water Quality In The Hickory Grove Lake, Rohith Gali

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Surface water quality regulated by agricultural pollution remains to be an important environmental concern around the world. Major contaminants from agriculture systems such as bacteria, sediment, and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) continue to affect the designated use of a waterbody. As per the Clean Water Act legislation, water quality impairments must be addressed through the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) approach. The TMDL program is a comprehensive and watershed-scale approach involving contaminant source identification and quantification, and conservation practice recommendation to reduce contaminant transport. The overall goal of this study was to improve the TMDL development process in achieving water ...


Predicting Phosphorus Dynamics In Complex Terrains Using A Variable Source Area Hydrology Model, Amy S. Collick, Daniel R. Fuka, Peter J.A. Kleinman, Anthony R. Buda, Jennifer L. Weld, Mike J. White, Tamie L. Veith, Ray B. Bryant, Carl H. Bolster, Zachary M. Easton Jan 2014

Predicting Phosphorus Dynamics In Complex Terrains Using A Variable Source Area Hydrology Model, Amy S. Collick, Daniel R. Fuka, Peter J.A. Kleinman, Anthony R. Buda, Jennifer L. Weld, Mike J. White, Tamie L. Veith, Ray B. Bryant, Carl H. Bolster, Zachary M. Easton

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural watersheds has long been a critical water quality problem, the control of which has been the focus of considerable research and investment. Preventing P loss depends on accurately representing the hydrological and chemical processes governing P mobilization and transport. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a watershed model commonly used to predict run-off and non-point source pollution transport. SWAT simulates run-off employing either the curve number (CN) or the Green and Ampt methods, both assume infiltration-excess run-off, although shallow soils underlain by a restricting layer commonly generate saturation-excess run-off from variable source areas ...


Future Prospects For Corn As A Biofuel Crop, Kenneth J. Moore, Douglas L. Karlen, Kendall R. Lamkey Jan 2014

Future Prospects For Corn As A Biofuel Crop, Kenneth J. Moore, Douglas L. Karlen, Kendall R. Lamkey

Agronomy Publications

Ethanol production from corn grain has increased signifi cantly during the past ten years in the US. This increase was driven by government policy guided by the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and embodied in the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit and other legislation created to promote a biofuels industry. As corn grain ethanol production approaches the target set out in the RFS, the industry is looking to develop capacity for producing advanced biofuels, primarily from agricultural wastes and dedicated energy crops. The residues remaining following corn harvest have been identifi ed as a voluminous and readily available feedstock for advanced ...