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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski Dec 2014

Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Symphoricarpos, a genus of the Caprifoliaceae family, consists of about 15 species of clonal deciduous shrubs in North America and 1 species endemic to China. In North American tallgrass prairie, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (buckbrush) is the dominant shrub often forming large colonies via sexual and asexual reproductive mechanisms. Symphoricarpos shrubs, in particular S. orbiculatus, use a unique sexual reproductive mechanism known as layering where vertical stems droop and the tips root upon contact with the soil. Because of conflicting societal values of S. orbiculatus for conservation and agriculture and the current attempt to restore historical fire regimes, there is a ...


Satellite-Based Management Tool For Oak Savanna Ecosystem Restoration, Peter T. Wolter, Elizabeth A. Berkley, Scott D. Peckham, Aditya Singh Dec 2014

Satellite-Based Management Tool For Oak Savanna Ecosystem Restoration, Peter T. Wolter, Elizabeth A. Berkley, Scott D. Peckham, Aditya Singh

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The structure and function of oak Quercus spp. savanna ecosystems in the North American Midwest were originally maintained by an active disturbance regime (often fire). Subsequent reductions in the frequency of disturbance after European settlement have facilitated rapid, regional conversion of these ecosystems to more closed-canopy forest. Hence, regional-scale management strategies are now needed to restore critical spatial gradients of light, temperature, soil moisture, and soil organic matter for recovery and sustenance of the unique mosaic of understory grass and forb species assemblages that define oak savannas. Tree species composition, distribution, mortality, basal area, and canopy cover are important forest ...


Alewives: Feast Of The Season, Catherine V. Schmitt Mar 2014

Alewives: Feast Of The Season, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

Alewives are sea-run, or diadromous, fish that spend most of their lives in the Atlantic Ocean but return as adults to coastal rivers in spring to spawn in freshwater streams and ponds. This article in Maine Boats, Homes, & Harbors magazine discusses the natural and cultural history of Maine's native runs of alewives and other sea-run fish.


The Potential For Restoration Of Tan Brook, An Urban Headwater Stream In Amherst, Massachusetts, Alison Tenhulzen, Alyssa Black, Robert F. Smith Jan 2014

The Potential For Restoration Of Tan Brook, An Urban Headwater Stream In Amherst, Massachusetts, Alison Tenhulzen, Alyssa Black, Robert F. Smith

Research

The goal of the Tan Brook Student Conservation Group is to educate undergraduate students at the University of Massachusetts Amherst about freshwater sustainability. to accomplish this, the group will act to provide opportunities in original research, applied field and laboratory methods, and outreach. The initial goal for the group will be a collaborative project describing the ecological, historical, and social significance of the Tan Brook, which will result in an informative website and educational signage located at several locations in the town of Amherst and on University property where the Tan Brook enters campus. Ultimately, the group will contribute to ...


Brief Analysis Of The Tan Brook Watershed In Amherst, Massachusetts, Andrew Mckenna, Robert F. Smith Jan 2014

Brief Analysis Of The Tan Brook Watershed In Amherst, Massachusetts, Andrew Mckenna, Robert F. Smith

Research

The Tan Brook is a small 3.91 square kilometer watershed that runs through and encompasses the highly urbanized areas of Amherst, MA. It is part of the Connecticut River basin and the Mill River sub-basin. In order to meet the high demands of the local middle and high school, and heavy runoff from high amounts of impervious cover from downtown Amherst and the University of Massachusetts, the Tan Brook has been highly culverted.


Closing The Knowing-Doing Gap In Invasive Plant Management: Accessibility And Interdisciplinarity Of Scientific Research, Virginia Matzek, Justin Covino, Jennifer L. Funk, Martin Saunders Jan 2014

Closing The Knowing-Doing Gap In Invasive Plant Management: Accessibility And Interdisciplinarity Of Scientific Research, Virginia Matzek, Justin Covino, Jennifer L. Funk, Martin Saunders

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Like many conservation disciplines, invasion biology may suffer from a knowing-doing gap, where scientific research fails to inform management actions. We surveyed California resource managers to evaluate engagement with scientific research and to identify research priorities. We examined managers' access to information, judgment of the usefulness of existing research, ability to generate scientific information, and priorities for future research. We found that practitioners rely on their own experience, and largely do not read the peer-reviewed literature, which they regard as only moderately useful. Less than half of managers who do research carry out experiments conforming to the norms of hypothesis ...


Land Use And Climate Variability Amplify Carbon, Nutrient, And Contaminant Pulses: A Review With Management Implications, Sujay S. Kaushal, Peter M. Mayer, Philippe G. Vidon, Rose M. Smith, Micheal J. Pennino, Tamara A. Newcomer, Shuiwang Duan, Claire Welty, Kenneth T. Belt Jan 2014

Land Use And Climate Variability Amplify Carbon, Nutrient, And Contaminant Pulses: A Review With Management Implications, Sujay S. Kaushal, Peter M. Mayer, Philippe G. Vidon, Rose M. Smith, Micheal J. Pennino, Tamara A. Newcomer, Shuiwang Duan, Claire Welty, Kenneth T. Belt

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture and urbanization is increasing globally at the same time climate extremes have increased in frequency and intensity. We review >200 studies of hydrologic and gaseous fluxes and show how the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon, nutrient, and greenhouse gas pulses in watersheds. Agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Organic carbon concentrations/exports increase and organic carbon quality changes with runoff. Nitrogen and phosphorus exports increase during floods (sometimes by ...


Ecotypes Of An Ecologically Dominant Prairie Grass (Andropogon Gerardii) Exhibit Genetic Divergence Across The U.S. Midwest Grasslands’ Environmental Gradient, Miranda M. Grey, Paul St. Amand, Nora M. Bello, Matthew B. Galliart, Mary Knapp, Karen A. Garrett, Theodore J. Morgan, Sarah G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, Eduard D. Akhunov, Loretta C. Johnson Jan 2014

Ecotypes Of An Ecologically Dominant Prairie Grass (Andropogon Gerardii) Exhibit Genetic Divergence Across The U.S. Midwest Grasslands’ Environmental Gradient, Miranda M. Grey, Paul St. Amand, Nora M. Bello, Matthew B. Galliart, Mary Knapp, Karen A. Garrett, Theodore J. Morgan, Sarah G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, Eduard D. Akhunov, Loretta C. Johnson

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates.

Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate ...