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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mineral And Protein Blocks And Tubs For Beef Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Roy Burris, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips Nov 2014

Mineral And Protein Blocks And Tubs For Beef Cattle, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Roy Burris, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs ...


Hypomagnesemic Tetany Or “Grass Tetany”, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler Sep 2014

Hypomagnesemic Tetany Or “Grass Tetany”, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or “grass tetany” is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany.


Brassicas: Be Aware Of The Animal Health Risks, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler Aug 2014

Brassicas: Be Aware Of The Animal Health Risks, Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Winter annuals are often used to extend the grazing season. These forages can be used as supplemental feed when lower quality perennial forages dominate or to provide grazing at times when other forages are not available. On farms where row crops are grown, the combination of crop residues and fall growth of annual crops can allow livestock grazing to be extended well into the winter months. The annuals provide a cover for the soil during winter as well. Winter annuals planted in the early fall will allow grazing in late fall to early winter similar to stockpiled fescue. Based on ...


Fescue Toxicosis, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith Jul 2014

Fescue Toxicosis, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is a cool-season, perennial grass frequently infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. An endophyte is a fungus or bacteria that lives entirely within the tissue spaces of plants and is only visible microscopically. The plant and fungus enjoy a relationship that is symbiotic—mutually beneficial to both organisms. The fungus has free access to the plant’s nutrients and the plant provides a means for the endophyte to reproduce through infected seeds. The fungus, in turn, produces chemicals (ergot alkaloids) that function as chemical defenses, making the plant more vigorous, pest-resistant, drought-resistant, and ...


Cyanide Poisoning In Ruminants, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith, Garry D. Lacefield Apr 2014

Cyanide Poisoning In Ruminants, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, S. Ray Smith, Garry D. Lacefield

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Prussic acid, cyanide, or hydrocyanic acid are all terms relating to the same toxic substance. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from a blue dye (Prussian blue) and because of its acidic nature it became known by the common name “prussic acid.” Cyanide is one of the most rapidly acting toxins that affect cattle.


Ergotism, Michelle Arnold Apr 2014

Ergotism, Michelle Arnold

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. Ergot is a fungus that grows on the seed head of cereal grains and grasses. The term “ergot” is used in general as a common name for the Claviceps fungi or it may be used more specifically when referring to the ergot body of Claviceps purpurea when present on rye. These fungi parasitize the ovary of the developing grass flower and prevent development ...


Nitrate Poisoning, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, Jeff Lehmkuhler, S. Ray Smith Mar 2014

Nitrate Poisoning, Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill, Jeff Lehmkuhler, S. Ray Smith

Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications

Nitrates are present in all plants, but normally their concentrations are not excessive. Under normal growing conditions, nitrate from the soil is absorbed by the roots of forage plants, and is supplied to the upper portions of the plant (primarily leaves) where it is converted into plant protein. However, adverse environmental conditions (such as drought), sudden weather changes (cool, cloudy weather), leaf damage (due to hail, frost, or herbicides), or heavy fertilization with nitrogen, can cause plants to develop and retain potentially dangerous levels of nitrate. The lower stalks and stems at the base of the plant are the site ...


Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger Jan 2014

Grazing Management Effects On Environmental Quality Of Riparian And Upland Grassland Ecosystems, Justin Bisinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Grazing cattle in grasslands can impact many ecosystems services including the movement of sediment and nutrients to water bodies, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. In riparian grassland ecosystems congregation of cattle in or near streams may increase the sediment, nutrient, and pathogen loading of surface water resources, however the impact of cattle on water bodies may be limited through pasture characteristics or management practices that reduce congregation of cattle in or near streams. The first study in this thesis was designed to determine the effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on the presence of cattle near pasture streams ...