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Environmental Sciences

2014

Theses/Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 125

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Response Of Soil Nitrification To The Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Monensin, Ivermectin And Zinc Bacitracin, Magda A. Konopka Dec 2014

Response Of Soil Nitrification To The Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Monensin, Ivermectin And Zinc Bacitracin, Magda A. Konopka

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pharmaceutical residues can reach agricultural land through amendment with animal or human waste. Since 2010, a series of replicated plots received annual applications of ivermectin, monensin and zinc bacitracin, either singly or in a mixture, at 0.1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg concentrations. I collected soil samples before and after the fourth annual application of pharmaceuticals and assayed them for functional changes and amoA gene abundance, a gene needed for ammonia oxidation. In 2013, I exposed the soils to 100 mg/kg in a laboratory experiment which resulted in acceleration of nitrification. Under 10 mg/kg treatments in ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of Ecotourism As A Funding Source For Protected Area Management In Guyana, Jordan S. Flagel Dec 2014

Examining The Effectiveness Of Ecotourism As A Funding Source For Protected Area Management In Guyana, Jordan S. Flagel

Masters Theses

Protected areas in tropical rainforests serve many important ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. These areas are often in need of donor or grant funding to operate as governments in tropical forested countries are not always able to provide adequate funds for protection. This paper focuses on the Iwokrama International Center for Rainforest Conservation and Development in the South American country of Guyana, which has had funding issues since the global economic crisis of 2008 and an accompanying shift in donor country financial priorities. Increasing the amount of sustainable ecotourism in the Iwokrama reserve was identified as a potential source for ...


Selected Topics In The Utilization Of Natural Resources: Production Of Transportation Fuel And Potential Biomass Source For Use In Biorefinery, Andrew James Murphy Dec 2014

Selected Topics In The Utilization Of Natural Resources: Production Of Transportation Fuel And Potential Biomass Source For Use In Biorefinery, Andrew James Murphy

Honors Theses

As the price of corn-based ethanol products is estimated to continue increasing in the near future, lignocellulosics remains the only viable candidate as a renewable source of ethanol production. Wheat straw is grown in over 115 nations under a wide range of conditions, with 300 million tons being produced every year in North America and Europe alone. The Biorefinery proposed at SUNY ESF is based on the first, environmentally acceptable step of hot-water extraction {HWE) as a pretreatment, which removes easily accessible hemicelluloses. Most of the studies of HWE have been performed on different hardwoods (model species: sugar maple, Acer ...


Wildwood/Kraemer Lake County Park Observational Study: The Effects Of Fragmentation On Old-Growth Forest Species, Rhonda H. Zimmerman Dec 2014

Wildwood/Kraemer Lake County Park Observational Study: The Effects Of Fragmentation On Old-Growth Forest Species, Rhonda H. Zimmerman

Culminating Projects in Biology

Habitat fragmentation generates forest fragments with increased ratio of "edge". This "edge effect" alters the natural community. Old growth forests support deep forest communities which rely on the closed canopy for survival, often indicators of healthy old growth communities. Putative old growth forest patches were identified in Wildwood Park and St. John’s Arboretum/University. One study objective was to collect baseline data on flora and fauna in Wildwood to confirm the presence of old-growth patches. The main ecological goal of the study was to determine if bird and plant communities exhibited patterns consistent with the operating assumption of 50 ...


Decontamination Protocols For Watercraft And Wildland Firefighting Equipment In Preventing The Spread Of Invasive Quagga (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) And Zebra (Dreissena Polymorpha) Mussels, Ashlie Watters Dec 2014

Decontamination Protocols For Watercraft And Wildland Firefighting Equipment In Preventing The Spread Of Invasive Quagga (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) And Zebra (Dreissena Polymorpha) Mussels, Ashlie Watters

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Quagga and zebra mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and Dreissena polymorpha) are two invasive species introduced via ballast water discharged by large oceanic cargo ships to the North American Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Once established, the mussels spread quickly. In January 2007, D. rostriformis bugensis was discovered in Lake Mead, NV-AZ, and in that same year, mussels were confirmed further south on the Colorado River in Lakes Mojave and Havasu. Dreissenids clog water intake pipes, water filtration systems, and electric generating plants. The mussels also ruin boat motors, damage recreational equipment, and once established in the reservoir, routine maintenance ...


Switchgrass Cultivar, Harvest Frequency, Fertilizer Source, And Irrigation Effects On Near-Surface Soil Properties In West-Central Arkansas, Alayna A. Jacobs Dec 2014

Switchgrass Cultivar, Harvest Frequency, Fertilizer Source, And Irrigation Effects On Near-Surface Soil Properties In West-Central Arkansas, Alayna A. Jacobs

Theses and Dissertations

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as a model bioenergy feedstock crop and is expected to become an important feedstock for future renewable fuel generation. Agronomic management combinations that maximize monoculture switchgrass yield are generally well understood; however, little is known about corresponding effects of differing switchgrass management combinations on near-surface soil properties. The objective of this research was to determine the residual near-surface soil property effects of three years (2008 to 2011) of consistent management combinations to maximize switchgrass biomass production, including cultivar (‘Alamo’ and ‘Cave-in-Rock’), harvest frequency (1-cut and 2-cut systems per year), fertilizer source (poultry litter ...


The Response Of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) To Slow Release Foliar Fertilization And The Effect Of Environment On Absorption, James Matthews Burke Dec 2014

The Response Of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) To Slow Release Foliar Fertilization And The Effect Of Environment On Absorption, James Matthews Burke

Theses and Dissertations

In cotton production, nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient and the demand is substantial. Foliar-N fertilization is regarded as an effective and environmentally sound method of supplying cotton with N during times of deficiency and high demand. In response to the potential benefits of the foliar-N fertilization of cotton, a myriad of foliar-N based fertilizers have been created; each with their own individual chemical technology and constitution. Experiments were performed with the objectives of examining the effects of the slow-release foliar-N fertilizer, Nitamin® (1) on the growth and development of field-grown cotton, (2) on uptake under various environmental conditions ...


Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson Dec 2014

Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Packed-bed digesters are an alternative to covered lagoon digesters for methane production and anaerobic treatment of dilute wastewaters such as dairy barn flush water. The physical media of packed-beds retain biofilms, often allowing increased treatment rates. Previous studies have evaluated several types of media for digestion of dilute wastewaters, but cost and media fouling have setback commercial development. A major operational cost has been effluent recirculation pumping.

In the present effort, a novel approach to anaerobic digestion of flush dairy water was developed at pilot-scale: broken walnut shells were used as a low-cost packed-bed medium and effluent recirculation was replaced ...


Using Migration Monitoring Data To Assess Bird Population Status And Behavior In A Changing Environment, Evan M. Adams Dec 2014

Using Migration Monitoring Data To Assess Bird Population Status And Behavior In A Changing Environment, Evan M. Adams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Across the world, researchers use migration banding stations to document bird migration and study the phenomenon. In this dissertation, I focus on ways of analyzing bird migration banding data and the utility migrating birds as indicators of ecosystem health that make these monitoring efforts more useful to answering ecological questions and managing migratory species. In Chapter 1, we provide background on hierarchical modeling and an overview of our findings. In Chapter 2, we developed and validated new methods to estimate daily changes in migratory population size while controlling for changes in detectability due to environmental conditions. In Chapter 3, this ...


Energy Production, Distribution, And Pollution Controls: Combining Engineering And Economic Analysis To Enhance Efficiency And Policy Design, David F. Perkis Oct 2014

Energy Production, Distribution, And Pollution Controls: Combining Engineering And Economic Analysis To Enhance Efficiency And Policy Design, David F. Perkis

Open Access Dissertations

Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. ^ The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases ...


Irrigation With Treated Wastewater: Potential And Limitations, Anne Dare Oct 2014

Irrigation With Treated Wastewater: Potential And Limitations, Anne Dare

Open Access Dissertations

As the world population increases and resources become more coveted, water emerges as a key component to global food security. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is among the driest regions in the world: containing just one percent of the world's freshwater resources. An increasing population creates greater quantities of wastewater and demands greater quantities of food, so an obvious connection arises. However logical wastewater reuse may be for bridging the irrigation supply-demand gap in this arid region, significant limitations prevent widespread adoption. The overall goal of this research is to take a holistic view of the limitations ...


Migratory Ecology Of Sea Turtles, Nathan Jack Robinson Oct 2014

Migratory Ecology Of Sea Turtles, Nathan Jack Robinson

Open Access Dissertations

Establishing the movement patterns of free-ranging animals is imperative to understanding their behavior and ecology, and is often necessary for designing effective conservation-strategies. This is especially true for migratory species, such as sea turtles, whose long-distance movements form a major component of their life history. In this thesis, I investigated which factors are driving the migratory behavior of the leatherback turtleDermochelys coriacea. Firstly, I examined whether the timing of the nesting season (nesting phenology) is influenced by oceanographic conditions along the pre-nesting migratory route or by variation in population structure. The discovery that nesting phenology appears more influenced by ...


Profit-Maximizing Responses To Climate Change In Commodity Agriculture: Does Adaptation Matter?, Sajeev Erangu Purath Mohankumar Oct 2014

Profit-Maximizing Responses To Climate Change In Commodity Agriculture: Does Adaptation Matter?, Sajeev Erangu Purath Mohankumar

Open Access Theses

Accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to rising temperatures, and is expected to lead to a change in climate. Crop yields are vulnerable to these changes. Adaptation is expected to be key to combating climate change impacts, but the effectiveness of adaptation strategies is not well understood. Hence, there is a need to assess the impacts of climate change on agriculture and devise profitable adaptation strategies to combat its effects. This study uses historical and three projected climate data sets to simulate yields using the crop model Daycent, empirical relationships between weather and agronomic variables that influence ...


Uncertainty, Irreversibility, And Investment In Secondgeneration Biofuels, Tanner Joseph Mccarty Oct 2014

Uncertainty, Irreversibility, And Investment In Secondgeneration Biofuels, Tanner Joseph Mccarty

Open Access Theses

The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to ...


Nitrate Removal From Subsurface Drainage By Denitrifying Bioreactor, Erin Chichlowski Oct 2014

Nitrate Removal From Subsurface Drainage By Denitrifying Bioreactor, Erin Chichlowski

Open Access Theses

Denitrifying bioreactors are an edge-of-field best management practice that reduce nitrate in runoff and subsurface drainage waters with minimum surface foot print and management requirements. The objectives of this study included evaluating a 173 m3 wood chip bioreactor for nitrate reduction and removal rates, the effects on phosphorus, and the impacts of the bioreactor's physical characteristics on effective nitrate reduction During periods of flow, weekly water samples were collected for lab analysis of nitrate+nitrite (nitrate-N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and total phosphorus (TP) and measurements were made of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, oxidation reduction ...


Effects Of Large Scale Growing Season Prescribed Burns On Movement, Habitat Use, Productivity, And Survival Of Female Wild Turkey On The White Rock Ecosystem Restoration Project Of The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest, Henry Tyler Pittman Aug 2014

Effects Of Large Scale Growing Season Prescribed Burns On Movement, Habitat Use, Productivity, And Survival Of Female Wild Turkey On The White Rock Ecosystem Restoration Project Of The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest, Henry Tyler Pittman

Theses and Dissertations

Restoration of woodland and savanna ecosystems has become a common management strategy in the Central Hardwoods region. Over the past two decades forest managers have implemented woodland and savanna restoration at the landscape level (≥10,000 ha), especially using early growing season prescribed fire. The implementation of the restoration strategy has coincided with declines of Eastern Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in many treated areas causing concern that early growing season prescribed fire was impacting wild turkey. We initiated our study to examine the effect of woodland and savanna restoration on the ecology and habitat of wild turkey in the ...


Evaluation Of Alternative Culling Strategies For Maintenance Of Genetic Variaton In Bison (Bison Bison), Rachael Marie Toldness Aug 2014

Evaluation Of Alternative Culling Strategies For Maintenance Of Genetic Variaton In Bison (Bison Bison), Rachael Marie Toldness

Theses and Dissertations

Bison (Bison bison) once numbered in the millions and roamed across much of the lower 48 states. By the late 1800s, overhunting had reduced the population to around 1,000 individuals. Strong efforts to establish managed herds have resulted in a steady bison population increase. Currently, six herds are maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) at National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) and are intensively managed through annual culling to keep herd size at targeted levels. Although various criteria have historically been used to select individuals for culling, the FWS currently employs an allele frequency based strategy that ...


New Remote Sensing Methods For Detecting And Quantifying Forest Disturbance And Regeneration In The Eastern United States, Michael Joseph Hughes Aug 2014

New Remote Sensing Methods For Detecting And Quantifying Forest Disturbance And Regeneration In The Eastern United States, Michael Joseph Hughes

Doctoral Dissertations

Forest disturbances, such as wildfires, the southern pine beetle, and the hemlock woolly adelgid, affect millions of hectares of forest in North America with significant implications for forest health and management. This dissertation presents new methods to quantify and monitor disturbance through time in the forests of the eastern United States using remotely sensed imagery from the Landsat family of satellites, detect clouds and cloud-shadow in imagery, generate composite images from the clear-sky regions of multiple images acquired at different times, delineate the extents of disturbance events, identify the years in which they occur, and label those events with an ...


Use Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Uav) For Urban Tree Inventories, Brian Ritter Aug 2014

Use Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Uav) For Urban Tree Inventories, Brian Ritter

All Theses

In contrast to standard aerial imagery, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) utilize recent technological advances to provide an affordable alternative for imagery acquisition. Increased value can be realized through clarity and detail providing higher resolution (2-5 cm) over traditional products. Many natural resource disciplines such as urban forestry will benefit from UAS. Tree inventories for risk assessment, biodiversity, planning, and design can be efficiently achieved with the UAS. Recent advances in photogrammetric processing have proved automated methods for three dimensional rendering of aerial imagery. Point clouds can be generated from images providing additional benefits. Association of spatial locational information within the ...


Survival, Growth, And Settlement Of Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis Veligers In Low And High Calcium Waters, Emma Ruhmann Aug 2014

Survival, Growth, And Settlement Of Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis Veligers In Low And High Calcium Waters, Emma Ruhmann

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Populations ofDreissena rostriformis bugensis(quagga mussels) have continued to spread throughout the western United States since their discovery in the Boulder Basin of Lake Mead, NV-AZ in early 2007. Today, quagga mussel specific research is still lacking and the physicochemical characteristics of aquatic systems required by quagga mussels to successfully establish is not fully understood. This includes an absence of research in aquatic environments in the western United States and on quagga mussel veligers (larval stage). Calcium is considered the defining factor for determining if a lake or river is suitable for quagga mussel establishment. The minimum calcium threshold for ...


South Atlantic Stream Fish Assemblages: Multi-Scale Structuring Factors, Trait Associations And Channelization, And Responses To Dam Removal, Cathy Marion Aug 2014

South Atlantic Stream Fish Assemblages: Multi-Scale Structuring Factors, Trait Associations And Channelization, And Responses To Dam Removal, Cathy Marion

All Dissertations

South Atlantic coastal plain wadeable streams are unique and understudied freshwater environments that provide crucial habitats for a wide range of aquatic taxa. In Chapter 1, we investigated patterns in fish assemblages across South Carolina's coastal plain, and developed statistical models to identify the dominant multi-scale abiotic environmental factors that influence assemblage structure. Our analyses indicated the presence of four predominant fish assemblages that commonly occur in the coastal plain, which we termed the: 1) fluvial, 2) eastern mudminnow, 3) centrarchid, and 4) non-fluvial assemblages. Natural geographic gradients and instream habitat parameters associated with velocity, channel form, stream size ...


A Mixed Methods Approach Of Communication Campaign Development And Assessment: Identifying The Needs Of An Audience And Determining The Value In Evaluation, Tara Johnson Aug 2014

A Mixed Methods Approach Of Communication Campaign Development And Assessment: Identifying The Needs Of An Audience And Determining The Value In Evaluation, Tara Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The two articles presented in this thesis used both quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine two distinct stages of communication campaigns: research and evaluation. In the quantitative study, students (n = 440) at the University of Arkansas were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the Arkansas Water Resources Center (AWRC), water resources, and water issues. A questionnaire was developed from an existing instrument, reviewed by a panel of experts, pilot tested, and revised. The researchers found participants were most aware (M = 3.23, SD = 1.14), concerned (M = 4.07, SD = 0.86), and interested (M = 4.10, SD = 0 ...


Application Of A Bioenergetics Framework For Assessing Sub-Lethal Effects Of Pollutants In The Freshwater Mussel Elliptio Complanata, Christopher G. Goodchild Aug 2014

Application Of A Bioenergetics Framework For Assessing Sub-Lethal Effects Of Pollutants In The Freshwater Mussel Elliptio Complanata, Christopher G. Goodchild

All Theses And Dissertations

Although biomarkers are frequently used to assess sublethal effects of contaminants, a lack of mechanistic linkages to higher-level effects limits the predictive power of biomarkers. Bioenergetics has been proposed as a framework for linking cellular effects to whole-animal effects. We investigated sublethal effects of exposure to wastewater treatment facility effluent in freshwater mussels in situ, thereby capturing ecologically relevant exposure conditions. Our study focused on the energetic biomarker AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), while also considering more traditional biomarkers like heat shock proteins (HSP70), and antioxidant enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)). We examined biomarkers at mRNA and protein ...


Development And Evaluation Of An Enrichment Culture For Reductive Dechlorination Of Tetrachloroethene Under Low Ph Conditions, Rui Xiao Aug 2014

Development And Evaluation Of An Enrichment Culture For Reductive Dechlorination Of Tetrachloroethene Under Low Ph Conditions, Rui Xiao

All Theses

Perchloroethene (PCE) is a pollutant of major environmental concern at hazardous waste sites worldwide. PCE and trichloroethene (TCE) are suspected carcinogens and are ranked 16th and 31st, respectively, on the Environmental Protection Agency's priority list for hazardous substances, developed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. As a consequence of the widespread use of chlorinated solvents (including PCE and TCE) for dry cleaning, chemical feedstocks, metal degreasing and other purposes, chloroethenes are widely distributed in the environment. Many soils and groundwater throughout the world are contaminated by chloroethenes. Therefore, further improvements are needed in clean-up methods. Bioaugmentation ...


Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta Caretta) Hatchling Disorientation In Broward County, Florida, Allison Durland Donahou Jul 2014

Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta Caretta) Hatchling Disorientation In Broward County, Florida, Allison Durland Donahou

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Hatchling disorientation after emergence is a major factor impacting sea turtle populations. This study utilized data from over 1,200 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) Marine Turtle Disorientation Report forms from years 2006 to 2011 to assess changes in the severity and locations of disorientation events and the impact of municipal beach lighting ordinances. While the FWC forms were completed for all sea turtle species observed, this study focused only on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). A Disorientation Severity Index (DSI) was derived from the number of hatchlings and the direction of their tracks leaving the nests to ...


Interactions Of Various Bacterial Populations With Chemical And Physical Factors From Seasonal Inputs And Outputs Of Retention Ponds, Felicia A. Krelwitz Jul 2014

Interactions Of Various Bacterial Populations With Chemical And Physical Factors From Seasonal Inputs And Outputs Of Retention Ponds, Felicia A. Krelwitz

All Student Theses

Retention ponds at Governors State University play an important role in collecting and treating storm water runoff before leaving campus and entering Thorn Creek. Many chemical and physical factors influence the diversity of bacterial populations in freshwater ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to compare the interactions of various bacterial populations with chemical and physical factors from seasonal inputs and outputs of Governors State University retention ponds before being discharged into Thorn Creek. The retention ponds studied include the Café Settling pond, Café pond and Beaver pond. Water and sediment were collected from inputs and outputs every other ...


Field To Flight: A Techno-Economic Analysis Of Stover To Aviation Biofuels Supply Chain, Amanda C. Bittner Jul 2014

Field To Flight: A Techno-Economic Analysis Of Stover To Aviation Biofuels Supply Chain, Amanda C. Bittner

Open Access Theses

Greenhouse gas emissions have been a growing concern. The transportation sector contributes to one-third of GHG emissions in the United States from fossil fuel burning. The Renewable Fuel Standard set a requirement for 16 billion gallons (ethanol equivalent) of cellulosic biofuels to be used in the market. Aviation biofuels can help to meet both of these problems as well as improve U.S. energy security.

Investment in the biofuel industry carries a lot of risk. The biofuel industry is run by the private sector, but can be incentivized by government. Cellulosic biofuels carry even more risk than first generation biofuels ...


The Effects Of Radar On Avian Behavior: Implications For Wildlife Management At Airports, Eleanor R. Sheridan Jul 2014

The Effects Of Radar On Avian Behavior: Implications For Wildlife Management At Airports, Eleanor R. Sheridan

Open Access Theses

Airports are areas with a high availability of resources for wildlife to forage, breed, and roost. Airports also have different types of radars to assist with air traffic control as well as tracking of wildlife that could become a risk for aircraft. The effect of radar electromagnetic radiation on wildlife behavior is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine if bird behavior is affected by radar in two contexts: static radar (e.g., surveillance radar) and approaching radar (e.g., aircraft weather radar). We used brown-headed cowbirds as a model species. In the static radar context ...


Development Of A Public Education Website: Building Bridges Over Water, Angelina Mckee Jul 2014

Development Of A Public Education Website: Building Bridges Over Water, Angelina Mckee

Agricultural Education and Communication

Website created by Angelina McKee to educate the public about water resource issues. Water is the basic unit of life, water resources are the basis for what societies and ecosystems are founded upon. Water shortages and droughts are more prevalent in our ever-changing world. It is no shock that there are discrepancies between various stockholders on either sides of the dry riverbed. This senior project resulted in the development of a website that addresses global water resources, water use in California, water conservation, and water allocation. The website informs the public on water resources and related issues and will hopefully ...


Variation In Habitat Thresholds: An Analysis Of Minimum Habitat Requirements Of North American Breeding Birds, Yntze Van Der Hoek Jun 2014

Variation In Habitat Thresholds: An Analysis Of Minimum Habitat Requirements Of North American Breeding Birds, Yntze Van Der Hoek

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many species show dramatic changes in population extinction or persistence probability at particular habitat amounts. These `extinction thresholds' could be translated to conservation targets, under the condition that we can derive generalities. I investigated the level of variation in landscape-level habitat thresholds for a suite of North American, forest-associated, breeding birds. Records from Breeding Bird Atlases and the availability of remotely-sensed land cover data allowed me to compare habitat thresholds for 25 species across the states of Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont. I show that variation in thresholds is considerable (Chapter II, III), as thresholds range from ...