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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Denitrification In Soils: From Genes To Environmental Outcomes, Jianqiu Zheng Jan 2014

Denitrification In Soils: From Genes To Environmental Outcomes, Jianqiu Zheng

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Denitrification is an important process of global nitrogen cycle as it removes reactive nitrogen from the biosphere, and acts as the primary source of nitrous oxide (N2O). This thesis seeks to gain better understanding of the biogeochemistry of denitrification by investigating the process from four different aspects: genetic basis, enzymatic kinetics, environmental interactions, and environmental consequences. Laboratory and field experiments were combined with modeling efforts to unravel the complexity of denitrification process under microbiological and environmental controls.

Dynamics of denitrification products observed in laboratory experiments revealed an important role of constitutive denitrification enzymes, whose presence were further confirmed ...


Enzyme Optimization For Lignocellulose Hydrolysis Using Mechanistic Modeling, Adam S. Marlowe Jan 2014

Enzyme Optimization For Lignocellulose Hydrolysis Using Mechanistic Modeling, Adam S. Marlowe

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

A novel mechanistic model for the saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose is utilized to predict the products of hydrolysis over a range of enzyme loadings and times. The mechanistic model considers the morphology of the substrate and the kinetics of enzymes to optimize enzyme concentrations for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose simultaneously. Substrates are modeled based on their fraction of accessible sites, glucan content, xylan content, and degree of polymerizations. This enzyme optimization model takes into account the kinetics of six core enzymes for lignocellulose hydrolysis: endoglucanase I (EG1), cellobiohydrolase I (CBH1), cellobiohydrolase II (CBH2), and endo-xylanase (EX ...


Remediation Of Tetracycline From Water Sources Using Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides L. Nash) And Tetracycline-Tolerant Root-Associated Bacteria, Aparupa Sengupta Jan 2014

Remediation Of Tetracycline From Water Sources Using Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides L. Nash) And Tetracycline-Tolerant Root-Associated Bacteria, Aparupa Sengupta

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Antibiotics are emerging contaminants worldwide. Due to insufficient policy regulations, public awareness, and the constant exposure of the environment to antibiotic sources has created a major environmental concern. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are not equipped to filter-out these compounds before the discharge of the disinfected effluent into water sources (e.g., lakes and streams) and current available technologies are not equipped to remediate these compounds from environmental sources. Hence, the challenge remains to establish a biological system to remove these antibiotics from wastewater. An invitro hydroponic remediation system was developed using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash) to remediate tetracycline ...


Application Of An Imputation Method For Geospatial Inventory Of Forest Structural Attributes Across Multiple Spatial Scales In The Lake States, U.S.A., Ram K. Deo Jan 2014

Application Of An Imputation Method For Geospatial Inventory Of Forest Structural Attributes Across Multiple Spatial Scales In The Lake States, U.S.A., Ram K. Deo

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Credible spatial information characterizing the structure and site quality of forests is critical to sustainable forest management and planning, especially given the increasing demands and threats to forest products and services. Forest managers and planners are required to evaluate forest conditions over a broad range of scales, contingent on operational or reporting requirements. Traditionally, forest inventory estimates are generated via a design-based approach that involves generalizing sample plot measurements to characterize an unknown population across a larger area of interest. However, field plot measurements are costly and as a consequence spatial coverage is limited. Remote sensing technologies have shown remarkable ...


Impacts Of Climate Change On Soil Microorganisms In Northern Hardwood Forests, Carley Jane Kratz Jan 2014

Impacts Of Climate Change On Soil Microorganisms In Northern Hardwood Forests, Carley Jane Kratz

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

As global climate continues to change, it becomes more important to understand possible feedbacks from soils to the climate system. This dissertation focuses on soil microbial community responses to climate change factors in northern hardwood forests. Two soil warming experiments at Harvard Forest in Massachusetts, and a climate change manipulation experiment with both elevated temperature and increased moisture inputs in Michigan were sampled. The hyphal in-growth bag method was to understand how soil fungal biomass and respiration respond to climate change factors. Our results from phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses suggest that the hyphal in-growth bag method allows relatively pure ...


Volume Yields Of Smallholder Eucalyptus Grandis W. Hill Ex Maiden Stands In Eastern Paraguay, Brook F. Alloway Jan 2014

Volume Yields Of Smallholder Eucalyptus Grandis W. Hill Ex Maiden Stands In Eastern Paraguay, Brook F. Alloway

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Smallholders in eastern Paraguay plant small stands of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden intended for sale on the local market. Smallholders have been encouraged to plant E. grandis by local forestry extension agents who offer both forestry education and incentive programs. Smallholders who practice recommended forestry techniques geared towards growing large diameter trees of good form are financially rewarded by the local markets which desire saw log quality trees. The question was posed, are smallholders engaging in recommended silvicultural practices and producing reasonable volume yields? It was hypothesized that smallholders, having received forestry education and having financial incentives from ...


Genetic Variation, Local Adaptation And Population Structure In North American Red Oak Species, Quercus Rubra L. And Q. Ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill, Jennifer F. Lind-Riehl Jan 2014

Genetic Variation, Local Adaptation And Population Structure In North American Red Oak Species, Quercus Rubra L. And Q. Ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill, Jennifer F. Lind-Riehl

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Forest trees, like oaks, rely on high levels of genetic variation to adapt to varying environmental conditions. Thus, genetic variation and its distribution are important for the long-term survival and adaptability of oak populations. Climate change is projected to lead to increased drought and fire events as well as a northward migration of tree species, including oaks. Additionally, decline in oak regeneration has become increasingly concerning since it may lead to decreased gene flow and increased inbreeding levels. This will in turn lead to lowered levels of genetic diversity, negatively affecting the growth and survival of populations. At the same ...