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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle Dec 2014

An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Programme, chemical companies have volunteered to conduct screening-level toxicity tests on approximately 2800 widely-used industrial chemicals. Participating companies are committed to providing available toxicity information to the EPA and presenting testing proposals for review by the EPA and posting on the EPA Web site as public information. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and a coalition of animal protection organisations have reviewed all the test plans submitted by the participating chemical companies for compliance with the original HPV framework, as well as with animal welfare guidelines ...


A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann Dec 2014

A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann

Troy Seidle, PhD

The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation mandates testing and evaluation of approximately 30,000 existing substances within a short period of time, beginning with the most widely used “high production volume” (HPV) chemicals. REACH testing requirements for the roughly 3000 HPV chemicals specify three separate tests for reproductive toxicity: two developmental toxicity studies on different animal species (OECD Test Guideline 414) and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD TG 416). These studies are highly costly in both economic and animal welfare terms. OECD TG 416 is a fertility study intended to evaluate reproductive performance ...


Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds Dec 2014

Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish ...


Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

During offshore and onshore studies (2004 to 2009), the interactions between pair-trawls and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were studied to better understand the impact of bycatch. A ‘hotspot’ area where pair-trawls overlapped with high dolphin abundance was identified. We made comparisons between boat-based data collected in absence and presence of pair-trawlers. The relative abundance and group-size of dolphins was significantly higher in the presence of pair-trawlers. Dolphins were observed associating with towing and hauling procedures. Significantly, more carcasses occurred in areas with hauling-activity than those without. Body-temperatures obtained from carcasses found near operating pair-trawlers indicated that bycatch mostly occurred ...


Beyond Sustainability: A New Conceptual Model, Molly Kerby, Gayle Mallinger Oct 2014

Beyond Sustainability: A New Conceptual Model, Molly Kerby, Gayle Mallinger

Molly Kerby

Over the last few decades, the notion of sustainability has become an interdisciplinary buzz word. Sustainability has been an integrative concept that includes three constructs or pillars: a) social; b) economic; and c) ecological. Until recently, theoretical approaches based on the three pillars approach have operated in silos rather than exploring the interconnectedness of the constructs. Few models have moved beyond the idea that logical relations exist among the constructs (social, economic, and ecological) to consider factors external to communities, nor have they examined the internal socio-economic factors that influence positive outcomes. While this conceptualization has raised awareness about the ...


Nantucket Shellfish Management Plan, Matthew Herr, Frank Dutra, Tara Riley, Sarah Oktay, Peter Boyce, Doug Smith, Carl Sjolund, Jake Kritzer, Cormac Collier, Dave Fronzuto, Kristin Uiterwyk, Jack Wiggin, Dale Leavitt, Steve Bliven, Allison Novelly, Dan Hellin Sep 2014

Nantucket Shellfish Management Plan, Matthew Herr, Frank Dutra, Tara Riley, Sarah Oktay, Peter Boyce, Doug Smith, Carl Sjolund, Jake Kritzer, Cormac Collier, Dave Fronzuto, Kristin Uiterwyk, Jack Wiggin, Dale Leavitt, Steve Bliven, Allison Novelly, Dan Hellin

Kristin Uiterwyk

Nantucket’s shellfisheries are significant both locally and nationally. Locally, commercial and recreational shellfishing are critical to the Island’s history, culture, and economy. Nationally, the Island’s largest commercial shellfishery — the Nantucket bay scallop fishery is one of the last wild-harvest bay scallop fisheries in the country, but there is growing concern over the health of the overall population and the sustainability of the fishery. Given the importance of the shellfisheries on Nantucket and the drastic decline of bay scallop populations elsewhere along the Atlantic coast, there is a compelling interest in ensuring that the Town’s shellfish are ...


The Curse Of Rafinesquina: Negative Taphonomic Feedback Exerted By Strophomenid Shells On Storm-Buried Lingulids In The Cincinnatian (Katian, Ordovician) Series Of Ohio, Rebecca Freeman, Benjamin Dattilo, Aaron Morse, Michael Blair, Steve Felton, John Pojeta Jul 2014

The Curse Of Rafinesquina: Negative Taphonomic Feedback Exerted By Strophomenid Shells On Storm-Buried Lingulids In The Cincinnatian (Katian, Ordovician) Series Of Ohio, Rebecca Freeman, Benjamin Dattilo, Aaron Morse, Michael Blair, Steve Felton, John Pojeta

Benjamin F. Dattilo

Thousands of lingulid brachiopods were found clustered beneath hundreds of individual valves of the strophomenid brachiopod Rafinesquina in the Upper Ordovician of Ohio. This association suggested a relationship between the two brachiopods, but the nature of this relationship was unclear. We utilized serial thin sectioning to examine these brachiopods and to determine the origin of the bed in which they were found. Sedimentary structures, mixed taphonomies, and stratigraphic and paleogeographic setting suggest that the lingulids occupied a hiatal concentration that had previously been reworked, but not significantly transported, by tropical storms. The final burial event was a storm that exhumed ...


Alternatives For Ecosystem Classification And Their Use In Developing Rangeland Inventory And Management Planning Approaches, Neil E. West Jun 2014

Alternatives For Ecosystem Classification And Their Use In Developing Rangeland Inventory And Management Planning Approaches, Neil E. West

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


Biomass And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Major Cold Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West Jun 2014

Biomass And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Major Cold Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


Phenology, Productivity And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Cool Desert Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West, Carol Gunn Jun 2014

Phenology, Productivity And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Cool Desert Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West, Carol Gunn

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


The Application Of Ecosym Vegetation Classification To Rangelands Near Price, Utah, Don Shute, Neil E. West Jun 2014

The Application Of Ecosym Vegetation Classification To Rangelands Near Price, Utah, Don Shute, Neil E. West

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


Science And The Storms: The Usgs Response To The Hurricanes Of 2005 - Chapter Six: Ecological Impacts, William Conner, Stephen Faulkner, Wylie Barrow, Brady Couvillion, Lori Randall, Michael Baldwin Jun 2014

Science And The Storms: The Usgs Response To The Hurricanes Of 2005 - Chapter Six: Ecological Impacts, William Conner, Stephen Faulkner, Wylie Barrow, Brady Couvillion, Lori Randall, Michael Baldwin

William Conner

Ecological impacts from the hurricanes of 2005 affected both vegetation and the animals that depend on coastal habits on land and in water. Discussed in this section are migratory birds, coastal marsh vegetation, chenier forests, coastal floodplain forests, mangrove forests, estuaries, and the endangered manatee.


Modeled Impacts Of Cover Crops And Vegetative Barriers On Corn Stover Availability And Soil Quality, Ian J. Bonner, David J. Muth Jr., Joshua B. Koch, Douglas L. Karlen May 2014

Modeled Impacts Of Cover Crops And Vegetative Barriers On Corn Stover Availability And Soil Quality, Ian J. Bonner, David J. Muth Jr., Joshua B. Koch, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion ...


The Public Health Impacts Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Local Communities, Michael Greger, Gowri Koneswaran May 2014

The Public Health Impacts Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Local Communities, Michael Greger, Gowri Koneswaran

Michael Greger, MD, FACLM

Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been welldocumented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs.


Susceptibility Of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) To Hot-Water Sprays As A Means Of Watercraft Decontamination, Sean Comeau, Scott Rainville, Wen Baldwin, Emily Austin, Shawn Gerstenberger, Chad Cross, Wai Wong Mar 2014

Susceptibility Of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) To Hot-Water Sprays As A Means Of Watercraft Decontamination, Sean Comeau, Scott Rainville, Wen Baldwin, Emily Austin, Shawn Gerstenberger, Chad Cross, Wai Wong

Shawn Gerstenberger

The recent spread of dreissenid mussels to various bodies of water in the western US has sparked interest by many state and federal agencies to develop protocols to stop further expansion. Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are of particular importance as they are currently the most widespread dreissenid species in the region. This project examined the susceptibility of quagga mussels to hot-water sprays at different temperatures and durations of spray contact at Lake Mead (Nevada-Arizona, USA). Emersed adult quagga mussels were exposed to hot-water sprays at 20, 40, 50, 54, 60, 70, and 80°C for 1, 2, 5, 10 ...


Estimating Survival Rates Of Quagga Mussel (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) Veliger Larvae Under Summer And Autumn Temperature Regimes In Residual Water Of Trailered Watercraft At Lake Mead, Usa, W. Choi, Shawn Gerstenberger, R. Mcmahon, Wai Wong Mar 2014

Estimating Survival Rates Of Quagga Mussel (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) Veliger Larvae Under Summer And Autumn Temperature Regimes In Residual Water Of Trailered Watercraft At Lake Mead, Usa, W. Choi, Shawn Gerstenberger, R. Mcmahon, Wai Wong

Shawn Gerstenberger

No abstract provided.


An Evaluation Of Mercury Concentrations In Three Brands Of Canned Tuna, Shawn Gerstenberger, Adam Martinson, Joanna Kramer Mar 2014

An Evaluation Of Mercury Concentrations In Three Brands Of Canned Tuna, Shawn Gerstenberger, Adam Martinson, Joanna Kramer

Shawn Gerstenberger

There is widespread concern over the presence of Hg in fish consumed by humans. While studies have been focused on determining the Hg concentration in sport fish and some commercial fish, little attention has been directed to canned tuna; it is widely held that concentrations are low. In the present study, the amount of Hg present in canned tuna purchased in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, was examined, and the brand, temporal variation, type, and packaging medium impacts on Hg concentrations in tuna were explored. A significant (p < 0.001) brand difference was noted: Brand 3 contained higher Hg concentrations ($\bar ...


Study Targets Striped Bass, Catherine V. Schmitt Mar 2014

Study Targets Striped Bass, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

This article in the Bangor Daily News profiles the Sea Grant-funded research of Dr. Joe Zydlewski, who is studying the striped bass population in the Penobscot River. A must read for all striper fans.


Alewives: Feast Of The Season, Catherine V. Schmitt Mar 2014

Alewives: Feast Of The Season, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

Alewives are sea-run, or diadromous, fish that spend most of their lives in the Atlantic Ocean but return as adults to coastal rivers in spring to spawn in freshwater streams and ponds. This article in Maine Boats, Homes, & Harbors magazine discusses the natural and cultural history of Maine's native runs of alewives and other sea-run fish.


The Salters Of Stanley Brook, Catherine V. Schmitt Mar 2014

The Salters Of Stanley Brook, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

No abstract provided.


20 Things You Can Do To Conserve Energy In 2015, Lissa Coffey Feb 2014

20 Things You Can Do To Conserve Energy In 2015, Lissa Coffey

LissaCoffey

Energy is lost when air conditioners and hot-air furnaces have to work harder to draw air through dirty filters. Cleaning/replacing a dirty air conditioner filter can save 5 percent of the energy used. That could save 175 pounds of CO2.air filters can save your company up to 30% of your total HVAC energy spend and last twice as long as traditional air filters. Also your company will benefit from significantly reduced installation labor costs and waste disposal costs. In the average commercial building, 50% of the energy bill is for the HVAC system and 30% of that is ...


Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa Dec 2013

Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa

Teshome H. Regassa

No abstract provided.


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Dec 2013

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...