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Life Sciences Commons

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Environmental Sciences

2014

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Articles 571 - 580 of 580

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impacts Of Fire And Climate Change On Long-Term Nitrogen Availability And Forest Productivity In The New Jersey Pine Barrens, Melissa S. Lucash, Robert M. Scheller, Alec M. Kretchun, Kenneth L. Clark, John Hom Jan 2014

Impacts Of Fire And Climate Change On Long-Term Nitrogen Availability And Forest Productivity In The New Jersey Pine Barrens, Melissa S. Lucash, Robert M. Scheller, Alec M. Kretchun, Kenneth L. Clark, John Hom

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Increased wildfires and temperatures due to climate change are expected to have profound effects on forest productivity and nitrogen (N) cycling. Forecasts about how wildfire and climate change will affect forests seldom consider N availability, which may limit forest response to climate change, particularly in fire-prone landscapes. The overall objective of this study was to examine how wildfire and climate change affect long-term mineral N availability in a fire-prone landscape. We employed a commonly used landscape simulation model (LANDIS-II) in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, a landscape characterized by frequent small fires and fire-resilient vegetation. We found that fire had ...


Effects Of Salinity And Dissolved Organic Matter On Cu Toxicity To Americamysis Bahia In Estuarine Environments, Rabia Nasir Jan 2014

Effects Of Salinity And Dissolved Organic Matter On Cu Toxicity To Americamysis Bahia In Estuarine Environments, Rabia Nasir

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As salinity increases the geochemical speciation of Cu is altered as a result of organic/inorganic complexation/competition. Such salinity changes may further challenge the osmoregulatory capabilities of euryhaline organisms. This chemical-biological interaction complicates the understanding of the impacts of Cu in estuarine waters. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been widely established to be an important modifier of Cu toxicity in freshwaters however its effectiveness in modulating Cu toxicity across the range of salinities that occur in estuarine conditions has not been studied in a systematic manner. Site to site differences in DOM quality with respect to the potential for ...


Degradable Plastics And Their Potential To Affect Solid Waste Systems, Krista L. Thyberg, David J. Tonjes Jan 2014

Degradable Plastics And Their Potential To Affect Solid Waste Systems, Krista L. Thyberg, David J. Tonjes

Technology & Society Faculty Publications

Plastic waste forms a substantial part of municipal solid waste and has caused environmental concerns, particularly due to chemical contamination of the environment and effects from persistent litter. Plastics also complicate waste management processes, such as by having poor recovery rates through recycling, and causing contamination in composting operations. One potential means to address some of these challenges is through degradable plastics which, unlike conventional plastics, are designed to decompose at an accelerated rate in specific environments. Degradable plastics aim to address the end-of-life of plastic products and are intended to reduce the environmental impacts associated with their use and ...


Unintended Outcomes Of Farmers' Adaptation To Climate Variability: Deforestation And Conservation In Calakmul And Maya Biosphere Reserves, Claudia Rodriguez-Solorzano Jan 2014

Unintended Outcomes Of Farmers' Adaptation To Climate Variability: Deforestation And Conservation In Calakmul And Maya Biosphere Reserves, Claudia Rodriguez-Solorzano

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Minimizing the impact of climate change on farmer livelihoods is crucial, but adaptation efforts may have unintended consequences for ecosystems, with potential impacts on farmers’ welfare. Unintended outcomes of climate adaptation strategies have been widely discussed, however, empirical exploration has been neglected. Grounded in scholarship on climate adaptation, environmental governance, social–ecological systems, and land-use change, this paper studies whether farmers’ climate adaptation contributes to deforestation or forest conservation. The paper draws on interviews with 353 farmers from 46 communities in Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Mexico and Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala. Farmers in the area of study have implemented ...


Benthic And Pelagic Pathways Of Methylmercury Bioaccumulation In Estuarine Food Webs Of The Northeast United States, Celia Y. Chen, Mark E. Borsuk, Deenie M. Bugge, Terill Hollweg Jan 2014

Benthic And Pelagic Pathways Of Methylmercury Bioaccumulation In Estuarine Food Webs Of The Northeast United States, Celia Y. Chen, Mark E. Borsuk, Deenie M. Bugge, Terill Hollweg

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine). MeHg concentrations ...


Soil Seed Banks Of Fringing Salt Lake Vegetation In Arid Western Australia - Density, Composition And Implications For Postmine Restoration Using Topsoil, Eddie J. Van Etten, Brett Neasham, Sarah Dalgleish Jan 2014

Soil Seed Banks Of Fringing Salt Lake Vegetation In Arid Western Australia - Density, Composition And Implications For Postmine Restoration Using Topsoil, Eddie J. Van Etten, Brett Neasham, Sarah Dalgleish

ECU Publications Post 2013

Although studies of seed banks in arid ecosystems are commonplace, they are lacking for the large arid zone of Western Australia. Across the six major plant communities fringing a large salt lake within this zone, topsoil (0-5 cm depth) was collected from 12 to 36 sites per community. Samples were dried, spread out on a bed of vermiculite in seedling trays and placed in a well-watered glasshouse to determine the readily germinable component of the soil seed bank. Subsamples of topsoil were treated with smoke water, hot water or flooding to help determine seed bank of species with dormancy mechanisms ...


A Critical Review Of Habitat Use By Feral Cats And Key Directions For Future Research And Management, Tim S. Doherty, Andrew J. Bengsen, Robert A. Davis Jan 2014

A Critical Review Of Habitat Use By Feral Cats And Key Directions For Future Research And Management, Tim S. Doherty, Andrew J. Bengsen, Robert A. Davis

ECU Publications Post 2013

Feral cats (Felis catus) have a wide global distribution and cause significant damage to native fauna. Reducing their impacts requires an understanding of how they use habitat and which parts of the landscape should be the focus of management. We reviewed 27 experimental and observational studies conducted around the world over the last 35 years that aimed to examine habitat use by feral and unowned cats. Our aims were to: (1) summarise the current body of literature on habitat use by feral and unowned cats in the context of applicable ecological theory (i.e. habitat selection, foraging theory); (2) develop ...


Virginia Coastal And Ocean Resource Issues, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 2014

Virginia Coastal And Ocean Resource Issues, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Fisheries, aquaculture and marine recreation in Chesapeake Bay and the coastal ocean are important economic engines adding greatly to the economy of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Virginia’s commercial harvest ranks 3rd largest and 7th in total value nationwide. Research at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) shows that Virginia’s water-dependent resource-based industries, including commercial and recreational fisheries, shellfish aquaculture and recreational boating, annually generate $2.53 billion in sales and approximately $1.25–$1.5 billion in income, supporting over 20,000 jobs. . . .


Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa Dec 2013

Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa

Teshome H. Regassa

No abstract provided.


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Dec 2013

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...