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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle Dec 2014

An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Programme, chemical companies have volunteered to conduct screening-level toxicity tests on approximately 2800 widely-used industrial chemicals. Participating companies are committed to providing available toxicity information to the EPA and presenting testing proposals for review by the EPA and posting on the EPA Web site as public information. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and a coalition of animal protection organisations have reviewed all the test plans submitted by the participating chemical companies for compliance with the original HPV framework, as well as with animal welfare guidelines ...


A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann Dec 2014

A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann

Troy Seidle, PhD

The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation mandates testing and evaluation of approximately 30,000 existing substances within a short period of time, beginning with the most widely used “high production volume” (HPV) chemicals. REACH testing requirements for the roughly 3000 HPV chemicals specify three separate tests for reproductive toxicity: two developmental toxicity studies on different animal species (OECD Test Guideline 414) and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD TG 416). These studies are highly costly in both economic and animal welfare terms. OECD TG 416 is a fertility study intended to evaluate reproductive performance ...


Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds Dec 2014

Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish ...


Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

During offshore and onshore studies (2004 to 2009), the interactions between pair-trawls and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were studied to better understand the impact of bycatch. A ‘hotspot’ area where pair-trawls overlapped with high dolphin abundance was identified. We made comparisons between boat-based data collected in absence and presence of pair-trawlers. The relative abundance and group-size of dolphins was significantly higher in the presence of pair-trawlers. Dolphins were observed associating with towing and hauling procedures. Significantly, more carcasses occurred in areas with hauling-activity than those without. Body-temperatures obtained from carcasses found near operating pair-trawlers indicated that bycatch mostly occurred ...


The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis And Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental Driver Data, Y. Wei, S. Liu, D. N. Huntzinger, A. M. Michalak, N. Viovy, W. M. Post, C. R. Schwalm, K. Schaefer, A. R. Jacobson, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian, D. M. Ricciuto, R. B. Cook, J. Mao, X. Shi Dec 2014

The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis And Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental Driver Data, Y. Wei, S. Liu, D. N. Huntzinger, A. M. Michalak, N. Viovy, W. M. Post, C. R. Schwalm, K. Schaefer, A. R. Jacobson, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian, D. M. Ricciuto, R. B. Cook, J. Mao, X. Shi

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model–model and model–observation comparisons. This ...


Nantucket Shellfish Management Plan, Matthew Herr, Frank Dutra, Tara Riley, Sarah Oktay, Peter Boyce, Doug Smith, Carl Sjolund, Jake Kritzer, Cormac Collier, Dave Fronzuto, Kristin Uiterwyk, Jack Wiggin, Dale Leavitt, Steve Bliven, Allison Novelly, Dan Hellin Sep 2014

Nantucket Shellfish Management Plan, Matthew Herr, Frank Dutra, Tara Riley, Sarah Oktay, Peter Boyce, Doug Smith, Carl Sjolund, Jake Kritzer, Cormac Collier, Dave Fronzuto, Kristin Uiterwyk, Jack Wiggin, Dale Leavitt, Steve Bliven, Allison Novelly, Dan Hellin

Kristin Uiterwyk

Nantucket’s shellfisheries are significant both locally and nationally. Locally, commercial and recreational shellfishing are critical to the Island’s history, culture, and economy. Nationally, the Island’s largest commercial shellfishery — the Nantucket bay scallop fishery is one of the last wild-harvest bay scallop fisheries in the country, but there is growing concern over the health of the overall population and the sustainability of the fishery. Given the importance of the shellfisheries on Nantucket and the drastic decline of bay scallop populations elsewhere along the Atlantic coast, there is a compelling interest in ensuring that the Town’s shellfish are ...


Crop Decision-Making To Protect Soil And Water, David J. Muth Aug 2014

Crop Decision-Making To Protect Soil And Water, David J. Muth

David J. Muth

David Muth, a founding partner and senior vice president for analytics at AgSolver Inc., discusses crop decision making in the context of soil and water protection.


Evaluation Of Trophic Niche Overlap Between Native Fishes And Young-Of-The-Year Common Carp, Michael J. Weber, Jessica M. Howell, Michael L. Rown Jul 2014

Evaluation Of Trophic Niche Overlap Between Native Fishes And Young-Of-The-Year Common Carp, Michael J. Weber, Jessica M. Howell, Michael L. Rown

Michael J Weber Dr

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a ubiquitous invasive species that commonly imposes negative effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, research evaluating the effects of carp on native fishes is limited. Carp are highly fecund and larvae and juveniles can be abundant. If age-0 carp use similar prey resources as native fishes, they may compete if food becomes limited. We used traditional diet analysis for samples during Jul. and Aug. 2008 in Brant Lake. Stable sotopes were used for samples collected during Aug. and Sep. 2009 in Brant Lake and Lake Sinai to examine prey resource use by age-0 carp and four ...


Alternatives For Ecosystem Classification And Their Use In Developing Rangeland Inventory And Management Planning Approaches, Neil E. West Jun 2014

Alternatives For Ecosystem Classification And Their Use In Developing Rangeland Inventory And Management Planning Approaches, Neil E. West

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


Biomass And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Major Cold Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West Jun 2014

Biomass And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Major Cold Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


Phenology, Productivity And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Cool Desert Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West, Carol Gunn Jun 2014

Phenology, Productivity And Nutrient Dynamics Of Some Cool Desert Desert Shrubs, Neil E. West, Carol Gunn

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


The Application Of Ecosym Vegetation Classification To Rangelands Near Price, Utah, Don Shute, Neil E. West Jun 2014

The Application Of Ecosym Vegetation Classification To Rangelands Near Price, Utah, Don Shute, Neil E. West

Neil E. West

No abstract provided.


Science And The Storms: The Usgs Response To The Hurricanes Of 2005 - Chapter Six: Ecological Impacts, William Conner, Stephen Faulkner, Wylie Barrow, Brady Couvillion, Lori Randall, Michael Baldwin Jun 2014

Science And The Storms: The Usgs Response To The Hurricanes Of 2005 - Chapter Six: Ecological Impacts, William Conner, Stephen Faulkner, Wylie Barrow, Brady Couvillion, Lori Randall, Michael Baldwin

William Conner

Ecological impacts from the hurricanes of 2005 affected both vegetation and the animals that depend on coastal habits on land and in water. Discussed in this section are migratory birds, coastal marsh vegetation, chenier forests, coastal floodplain forests, mangrove forests, estuaries, and the endangered manatee.


Quantifying The Changes In Landscape Configuration Using Open Source Gis. Case Study: Bistrita Subcarpathian Valley, Dan A. Chelaru, Ana M. Oiste, Florin C. Mihai Jun 2014

Quantifying The Changes In Landscape Configuration Using Open Source Gis. Case Study: Bistrita Subcarpathian Valley, Dan A. Chelaru, Ana M. Oiste, Florin C. Mihai

Florin C MIHAI

Gradually, the study of the landscape became a core topic of enviromental studies, due to its interdisciplinary research methods, integrating both natural and socio-economic data. The goal of the study is to quantify the structural evolution of Bistrita subcarpathian valley landscape, by using several GIS applications, having an important role in highlighting its functionality. The applications were realized for the extended area limit of Bistrita subcarpathian valley, which presents a complex landscape morphology, with features ranging from forested mountains to densely populated lowlands. The analysis was based on the two land cover maps resulted from the extraction of the spatial ...


Modeled Impacts Of Cover Crops And Vegetative Barriers On Corn Stover Availability And Soil Quality, Ian J. Bonner, David J. Muth Jr., Joshua B. Koch, Douglas L. Karlen Jun 2014

Modeled Impacts Of Cover Crops And Vegetative Barriers On Corn Stover Availability And Soil Quality, Ian J. Bonner, David J. Muth Jr., Joshua B. Koch, Douglas L. Karlen

David J. Muth

Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion ...


Modeled Impacts Of Cover Crops And Vegetative Barriers On Corn Stover Availability And Soil Quality, Ian J. Bonner, David J. Muth Jr., Joshua B. Koch, Douglas L. Karlen May 2014

Modeled Impacts Of Cover Crops And Vegetative Barriers On Corn Stover Availability And Soil Quality, Ian J. Bonner, David J. Muth Jr., Joshua B. Koch, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion ...


The Public Health Impacts Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Local Communities, Michael Greger, Gowri Koneswaran May 2014

The Public Health Impacts Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Local Communities, Michael Greger, Gowri Koneswaran

Michael Greger, MD, FACLM

Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been welldocumented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs.


Study Targets Striped Bass, Catherine V. Schmitt Mar 2014

Study Targets Striped Bass, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

This article in the Bangor Daily News profiles the Sea Grant-funded research of Dr. Joe Zydlewski, who is studying the striped bass population in the Penobscot River. A must read for all striper fans.


Alewives: Feast Of The Season, Catherine V. Schmitt Mar 2014

Alewives: Feast Of The Season, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

Alewives are sea-run, or diadromous, fish that spend most of their lives in the Atlantic Ocean but return as adults to coastal rivers in spring to spawn in freshwater streams and ponds. This article in Maine Boats, Homes, & Harbors magazine discusses the natural and cultural history of Maine's native runs of alewives and other sea-run fish.


The Salters Of Stanley Brook, Catherine V. Schmitt Mar 2014

The Salters Of Stanley Brook, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

No abstract provided.


20 Things You Can Do To Conserve Energy In 2015, Lissa Coffey Feb 2014

20 Things You Can Do To Conserve Energy In 2015, Lissa Coffey

LissaCoffey

Energy is lost when air conditioners and hot-air furnaces have to work harder to draw air through dirty filters. Cleaning/replacing a dirty air conditioner filter can save 5 percent of the energy used. That could save 175 pounds of CO2.air filters can save your company up to 30% of your total HVAC energy spend and last twice as long as traditional air filters. Also your company will benefit from significantly reduced installation labor costs and waste disposal costs. In the average commercial building, 50% of the energy bill is for the HVAC system and 30% of that is ...


Changing Climate And The Altitudinal Range Of Avian Malaria In The Hawaiian Islands – An Ongoing Conservation Crisis On The Island Of Kaua`I, Carter T. Atkonson, Ruth B. Utzurrum, Dennis A. Lapointe, Richard J. Camp, Lisa H. Crampton, Jeffrey T. Foster, Thomas W. Giambelluca Jan 2014

Changing Climate And The Altitudinal Range Of Avian Malaria In The Hawaiian Islands – An Ongoing Conservation Crisis On The Island Of Kaua`I, Carter T. Atkonson, Ruth B. Utzurrum, Dennis A. Lapointe, Richard J. Camp, Lisa H. Crampton, Jeffrey T. Foster, Thomas W. Giambelluca

Richard J. Camp

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua’i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis ...


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Jan 2014

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

David J. Muth

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...


Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa Dec 2013

Sweet Sorghum As A Bioenergy Crop: Literature Review, Teshome Regassa

Teshome H. Regassa

No abstract provided.


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Dec 2013

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...