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Environmental Sciences

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 353

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Lamprey Watershed Education And Outreach, Lamprey River Watershed Association, Dawn Genes, Lamprey River Watershed Association. Lamprey River Nominating Committee Dec 2010

Lamprey Watershed Education And Outreach, Lamprey River Watershed Association, Dawn Genes, Lamprey River Watershed Association. Lamprey River Nominating Committee

PREP Reports & Publications

The Lamprey River Nomination Committee sought the assistance of the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) to complete an extensive and detailed information package to nominate the Lamprey River and its major tributaries to the NH Rivers Management and Protection Program. The nomination package was due at DES on June 1, 2010, was reviewed and accepted by the State Rivers Management Committee in September and forwarded to the Commissioner of DES. The nomination is now working through the NH legislature with hearings anticipated during the spring 2011 session. If passed, the bill should be signed by Governor Lynch in July of ...


Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Final Report, Scott R. Abella Dec 2010

Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Final Report, Scott R. Abella

Fire Science

Species selection can make the difference between successful revegetation projects and costly failures. Candidate native species for revegetating burned arid lands in the southwestern United States must meet at least two criteria. These species must: (1) be competitive in postfire environments typically dominated by exotic grasses, and (2) be able to become established reliably by seeding or planting. In response to Manager’s Request Task 3 (reestablishment of native vegetation after fires on arid lands) in the 2006 JFS announcement for proposals, this research tackled the problem of selecting native species with the greatest chance of revegetation success by conducting ...


Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2010, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2010

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2010, Margaret N. Rees

Wildlife Monitoring

Project 1. Relict Leopard Frog Monitoring, Management, and Research

  • Final milestones and deliverables for this project were completed this quarter.
  • Fall monitoring surveys were completed at all sites.
  • Habitat actions to improve breeding pools were conducted at one site.
  • Data and associated metadata were compiled and quality assured.
  • Final and annual reports were written and submitted in required formats for Clark County

and the Relict Leopard Frog Conservation Team.

Project 2. Bald Eagle Winter Monitoring and Evaluation

  • This project was previously completed and all associated deliverables met.
  • Efforts were provided this quarter in support of the 2011 winter count.

Project ...


Soil Organic Carbon Content And Quality In Post-Agricultural Northern Hardwood Forests, John D. Clark Dec 2010

Soil Organic Carbon Content And Quality In Post-Agricultural Northern Hardwood Forests, John D. Clark

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Agricultural practices are known to diminish soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and alter carbon quality. We surveyed a diverse set of sites in heterogeneous landscapes to determine past land use histories and ages of agricultural abandonment in order to examine changes to and spatial controls on soil carbon pools. Soils were sampled using quantitatively excavated pits, to the extent of the rooting zone. Three regions (i. western New England (WNE); ii. southern Wisconsin; iii. northern Wisconsin) of northern hardwood forests with different patterns of agriculture abandonment, varying soil types and properties, and differing climates were examined. Carbon (C) and nitrogen ...


Radiative Forcing Over The Conterminous United States Due To Contemporary Land Cover Use Change And Sensitivity To Snow And Interannual Albedo Variability, Christoper A. Barnes, David P. Roy Dec 2010

Radiative Forcing Over The Conterminous United States Due To Contemporary Land Cover Use Change And Sensitivity To Snow And Interannual Albedo Variability, Christoper A. Barnes, David P. Roy

GSCE Faculty Publications

Satellite‐derived land cover land use (LCLU), snow and albedo data, and incoming surface solar radiation reanalysis data were used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 58 ecoregions covering 69% of the conterminous United States. A net positive surface radiative forcing (i.e., warming) of 0.029 Wm−2 due to LCLU albedo change from 1973 to 2000 was estimated. The forcings for individual ecoregions were similar in magnitude to current global forcing estimates, with the most negative forcing (as low as −0.367 Wm−2) due to ...


Watershed Survey And Pilot Lcc Project, Norman Turgeon, Three Ponds Protective Association Dec 2010

Watershed Survey And Pilot Lcc Project, Norman Turgeon, Three Ponds Protective Association

PREP Reports & Publications

This describes two projects accomplished in 2010 by the Three Ponds Protective Association (TPPA) and several partners to identify and reduce soil erosion due to storm water runoff into the Milton Three Ponds


When Curiosity Kills More Than The Cat: The Perils Of Unchecked Scientific Inquiry, Jamie Shannon Dec 2010

When Curiosity Kills More Than The Cat: The Perils Of Unchecked Scientific Inquiry, Jamie Shannon

Pomona Senior Theses

This work analyzes the ecological, physical, emotional and health impacts of the US nuclear testing done in the Marshall Islands in the mid-20th century.


The River Discontinuum: Applying Beaver Modifications To Baseline Conditions For Restoration Of Forested Headwaters, Denise Burchsted, Melinda Daniels, Robert Thorson, Jason Vokoun Dec 2010

The River Discontinuum: Applying Beaver Modifications To Baseline Conditions For Restoration Of Forested Headwaters, Denise Burchsted, Melinda Daniels, Robert Thorson, Jason Vokoun

Center for Integrative Geosciences

Billions of dollars are being spent in the United States to restore rivers to a desired, yet often unknown, reference condition. In lieu of a known reference, practitioners typically assume the paradigm of a connected watercourse. Geological and ecological processes, however, create patchy and discontinuous fluvial systems. One of these processes, dam building by North American beavers (Castor canadensis), generated discontinuities throughout precolonial river systems of northern North America. Under modern conditions, beaver dams create dynamic sequences of ponds and wet meadows among free-flowing segments. One beaver impoundment alone can exceed 1000 meters along the river, flood the valley laterally ...


Strategies For Nitrate Reduction: The Cedar River Case Study, Matthew J. Helmers, James L. Baker Dec 2010

Strategies For Nitrate Reduction: The Cedar River Case Study, Matthew J. Helmers, James L. Baker

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Streams in agricultural areas are vulnerable to nutrient contamination where subsurface tile drains and ditches quickly transport excess precipitation from field to stream such as in the Eastern Iowa Basins. Some of the streams in this region are the direct or indirect source for drinking water supplies. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in these streams can exceed the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg L-1. Nitrogen is also a major pollutant of estuarine and marine ecosystems. Oxygen depletion in these ecosystems, known as hypoxia, occurs when dissolved oxygen concentrations in shallow waters decrease below the level required for aquatic organisms to ...


Applied Ecosystem Services In Working Forests: A Direct Market Valuation, Darin Stuart Hale Dec 2010

Applied Ecosystem Services In Working Forests: A Direct Market Valuation, Darin Stuart Hale

Masters Theses

Ecosystem services, or the benefits humans obtain from natural ecosystems, have long been recognized as critical to human health. Efforts have been taken by many to determine the non-market values of these services but few have offered a direct market valuation. Increasing awareness, scarcity, and regulation have fostered transactions, and markets are emerging that can allow for direct valuation and could provide landowners the opportunity to merchandise this natural capital. This paper provides a valuation and comparison, as a case study, of a traditional management scheme, including the marketing of fiber and recreational leases, and an ecosystem services management scheme ...


How Market Efficiency And The Theory Of Storage Link Corn And Ethanol Markets, Mindy L. Mallory, Dermot J. Hayes, Scott Alan Irwin Dec 2010

How Market Efficiency And The Theory Of Storage Link Corn And Ethanol Markets, Mindy L. Mallory, Dermot J. Hayes, Scott Alan Irwin

CARD Working Papers

In this article we use the theories of market efficiency and supply of storage to develop a conceptual link between the corn and ethanol markets and explore statistical evidence for the link. We propose that a long-run no-profit condition is established in distant futures markets for ethanol, corn, and natural gas and then use the theory of storage to define an inter-temporal equilibrium among these prices. The relationship shows that under certain conditions, future price expectations will influence current spot prices and that a short-term relationship between input and output prices will exist. This short-term relationship will contain fixed costs ...


Farmers' Markets In Kentucky: A Geospatial, Statistical, And Cultural Analysis, Elizabeth Ann Schmitz Dec 2010

Farmers' Markets In Kentucky: A Geospatial, Statistical, And Cultural Analysis, Elizabeth Ann Schmitz

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

To assess what factors are driving the exponential growth of farmers’ markets in Kentucky, geospatial and statistical analysis of a database of 121 farmers’ markets was conducted. A statewide survey of market leaders and a case study of a single farmers’ market both identified reasons for growing support of farmers’ markets in Kentucky.

Market distribution, vendor levels, and gross sales were mapped against a backdrop of county urban classification, median household income, and education levels. Kruskal-Wallace analysis was used to identify if Kentucky’s rural, micropolitan, and metropolitan markets differ significantly in terms of their age, number of vendors, and ...


Thermal Acclimation Of Heart Rates In Reptilian Embryos, Wei-Guo Du, Hua Ye, Bo Zhao, Daniel A. Warner, Richard Shine Dec 2010

Thermal Acclimation Of Heart Rates In Reptilian Embryos, Wei-Guo Du, Hua Ye, Bo Zhao, Daniel A. Warner, Richard Shine

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

In many reptiles, the thermal regimes experienced by eggs in natural nests vary as a function of ambient weather and location, and this variation has important impacts on patterns of embryonic development. Recent advances in non-invasive measurement of embryonic heart rates allow us to answer a long-standing puzzle in reptilian developmental biology: Do the metabolic and developmental rates of embryos acclimate to local incubation regimes, as occurs for metabolic acclimation by post-hatching reptiles? Based on a strong correlation between embryonic heart rate and oxygen consumption, we used heart rates as a measure of metabolic rate. We demonstrate acclimation of heart ...


Fertilizer And Stormwater Runoff Outreach Program In Newcastle, Nh, David Anderson Dec 2010

Fertilizer And Stormwater Runoff Outreach Program In Newcastle, Nh, David Anderson

PREP Reports & Publications

The New Hampshire Coastal Protection Partnership (NH Coast) implemented a year long pilot public education and outreach program in the Town of New Castle aimed at reducing nitrogen pollution from lawn fertilizers and promoting rain gardens as a solution to storm water runoff and nonpoint source pollution. A total of 77 landowners representing 138 acres of land pledged to either not use lawn fertilizers or use only low phosphorus, slow release nitrogen brands. The program also resulted in the installation of New Castle’s first demonstration rain garden.


Salmon For Terrestrial Protected Areas, Chris T. Darimont, Heather M. Bryan, Stephanie M. Carlson, Morgan D. Hocking, Misty Macduffee, Paul C. Paquet, Michael H. H. Price, Thomas E. Reimchen, John D. Reynolds, Christopher C. Wilmers Dec 2010

Salmon For Terrestrial Protected Areas, Chris T. Darimont, Heather M. Bryan, Stephanie M. Carlson, Morgan D. Hocking, Misty Macduffee, Paul C. Paquet, Michael H. H. Price, Thomas E. Reimchen, John D. Reynolds, Christopher C. Wilmers

Environment and Nature Conservation Collection

Although managers safeguard protected areas for migratory species, little consideration has been given to how migratory species might benefit parks. Additionally, whereas land‐sea connections are considered in management of protected areas, most effort has focused on reducing negative “downstream” processes. Here, we offer a proposal to promote positive “upstream” processes by safeguarding the seasonal pulse of marine nutrients imported into freshwater and riparian ecosystems by spawning migrations of Pacific salmon. Currently, high rates of fishing limit this important contribution to species and processes that terrestrial parks were designed to protect. Accordingly, we propose limiting exploitation in areas and periods ...


Aflatoxin B1 Albumin Adducts In Plasma And Aflatoxin M1 In Urine Are Associated With Plasma Concentrations Of Vitamins A And E, Francis A. Obuseh, Pauline E. Jolly, Yi Jiang, Faisal M. B. Shuaib, John Waterbor, William O. Ellis, Chandrika J. Piyathilake, Renee A. Desmond, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Timothy D. Phillips Dec 2010

Aflatoxin B1 Albumin Adducts In Plasma And Aflatoxin M1 In Urine Are Associated With Plasma Concentrations Of Vitamins A And E, Francis A. Obuseh, Pauline E. Jolly, Yi Jiang, Faisal M. B. Shuaib, John Waterbor, William O. Ellis, Chandrika J. Piyathilake, Renee A. Desmond, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Timothy D. Phillips

Evans Afriyie-Gyawu

Background: Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans.
Objective: To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels.
Results: Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (≥ 0.80 ...


Is Orthoptera Abundance And Distribution Across A Small Grassland Area Affected By Plant Biomass, Plant Species Richness, And Plant Quality?, Caitlin Falcone Dec 2010

Is Orthoptera Abundance And Distribution Across A Small Grassland Area Affected By Plant Biomass, Plant Species Richness, And Plant Quality?, Caitlin Falcone

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

The choice of a specific microhabitat represents a compromise among a number of different factors organisms use to monitor habitat suitability. Grassland vegetation structure can vary widely along environmental gradients over a relatively small area. This vegetation structure can have a large influence on habitat selection by grasshoppers (Orthoptera). However, it is not clear which vegetation characteristics are most important in determining grasshopper abundance. We found that plant biomass, plant species richness, and plant quality all have an effect on grasshopper abundance and distribution. We observe that these affects vary both within and among the two years of data collection ...


How Are The Torres Strait Islander's Traditional Hunting Practices Affected By The Current Rate Of Decline In Dugong And Sea Turtle Populations And The Australian Government's Co-Management Policies On Marine Preservation?, Katilyn Price Dec 2010

How Are The Torres Strait Islander's Traditional Hunting Practices Affected By The Current Rate Of Decline In Dugong And Sea Turtle Populations And The Australian Government's Co-Management Policies On Marine Preservation?, Katilyn Price

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

This paper will attempt to identify the extent to which the Torres Strait Islanders traditional hunting practices have been disrupted by the overall decline in dugong and sea turtle populations, which has directly correlated to an increase in hunting restrictions put in place by the Australian Government. The traditional hunting of dugongs and sea turtles provides not only a food source, but brings prestige to the men who catch them and serves as an educational platform to teach the younger generations about their culture. There are many environmental threats that impact the populations of sea turtles and dugongs though the ...


Communication For Mate Selection In Anurans: Dominant Frequency Versus Snout-Vent-Length, Shari Jean Kunert Dec 2010

Communication For Mate Selection In Anurans: Dominant Frequency Versus Snout-Vent-Length, Shari Jean Kunert

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

No abstract provided.


Design Standards Within Constructed Wetlands For The Reduction Of Mosquito Populations In Clark County, Nevada, Phillip C. Bondurant Dec 2010

Design Standards Within Constructed Wetlands For The Reduction Of Mosquito Populations In Clark County, Nevada, Phillip C. Bondurant

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Wetlands are considered one of the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide many benefits to the environment. However, the slow moving and sometimes stagnant water created by the vegetation in the wetland creates an ideal environment for the proliferation of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are the most important insect disease vector worldwide. The presence of mosquitoes within wetlands increases the risk of disease transmission among workers and visitors creating a public health concern. Effective design standards aimed at reducing mosquito breeding habitat should be implemented during the construction and planning phase of wetland development to effectively reduce the mosquito populations ...


Factors That Influence The Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Programs In Northwest Arkansas, Edison Anthony Froelich Dec 2010

Factors That Influence The Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Programs In Northwest Arkansas, Edison Anthony Froelich

Theses and Dissertations

A survey was developed and administered to agricultural producers in Northwest Arkansas in order to better understand producer awareness of, application for and participation in six federal and state conservation programs available in Arkansas: the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, the Arkansas Revolving Loan Program, the Arkansas Nonpoint Pollution Management Program , the Arkansas Soil Nutrient and Poultry Litter Application and Management Program, and the Surplus Poultry Litter Removal Incentives Cost Share Program. Survey results found that less than half of the sample was aware of any one of the programs. A logit model was developed to ...


Pervasive Thermal Consequences Of Stream-Lake Interactions In Small Rocky Mountain Watersheds, Usa, Jessica D. Garrett Dec 2010

Pervasive Thermal Consequences Of Stream-Lake Interactions In Small Rocky Mountain Watersheds, Usa, Jessica D. Garrett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Limnologists and stream ecologists acknowledge the fundamental importance of temperature for regulating many ecological, biological, chemical, and physical processes. I investigated how water temperatures were affected by hydrologic linkages between streams and lakes at various positions along surface water networks throughout several headwater basins in the Sawtooth and White Cloud Mountains of Idaho (USA). Temperatures of streams and lakes were measured for up to 27 months in seven 6 – 41 km2 watersheds, with a range of lake influence. When they were ice-free, warming in lakes resulted in dramatically warmer temperatures at lake outflows compared to inflow streams (midsummer average ...


Assessing Linkages Among Landscape Characteristics, Stream Habitat, And Macroinvertebrate Communities In The Idaho Batholith Ecoregion, Andrew C. Hill Dec 2010

Assessing Linkages Among Landscape Characteristics, Stream Habitat, And Macroinvertebrate Communities In The Idaho Batholith Ecoregion, Andrew C. Hill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the composition of lotic communities and the landscape processes and habitat characteristics that shape them is one of the main challenges confronting stream ecologists. In order to better understand the linkages among landscape processes, stream habitat, and biological communities and to understand how accurately our measurements represent important factors influencing biological communities, it is important to test explicit hypotheses regarding these linkages. Increasing our understanding of aquatic communities in a hierarchical context and recognizing how well our measurements represent factors structuring aquatic communities will help managers better evaluate the influence of land management practices on aquatic ecosystems, direct conservation ...


Effect Of Spatial And Temporal Variability Of Antecedent Moisture Content On Model-Generated Runoff From An Arid Watershed, William J. Meyer Dec 2010

Effect Of Spatial And Temporal Variability Of Antecedent Moisture Content On Model-Generated Runoff From An Arid Watershed, William J. Meyer

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Streams in the arid southwest are typically ephemeral, and stream gages are not commonly available. Consequently, runoff data from storm events is not available, and flood control facility design or other water resource related decisions are based on synthetic hydrographs. In the Mojave Desert region of Southern Nevada, the duration of storm used to develop these synthetic hydrographs is the 6 hour storm. The 6 hour storm is used to simulate high intensity summer storms. Additionally, soils information used in the calculations for these synthetic hydrographs is taken from maps that are generally developed for a broad range of issues ...


Interclonal Variation Of Primary And Secondary Chemistry In Western Quaking Aspen And Its Influence On Ungulate Selection, Damon A. Winter Dec 2010

Interclonal Variation Of Primary And Secondary Chemistry In Western Quaking Aspen And Its Influence On Ungulate Selection, Damon A. Winter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones within close proximity to one another can exhibit drastically different levels of browsing by ungulates. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine interclonal differences in plant chemistry between adjacent clones exhibiting different degrees of herbivory which may influence the browsing behavior and patterns of ungulates, and (2) determine if correlation exists in the levels of salicortin and tremulacin between current year's suckers and current year's growth on older trees. This second objective was meant to indicate a protocol for land managers for identifying clones meriting increased protection from herbivory after treatment ...


Book Review Of "Natural Climate Variability And Global Warming: A Holocene Perspective" Edited By Richard W. Battarbee And Heather A. Binney, Shaily Menon Nov 2010

Book Review Of "Natural Climate Variability And Global Warming: A Holocene Perspective" Edited By Richard W. Battarbee And Heather A. Binney, Shaily Menon

Shaily Menon

No abstract provided.


University Of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (Ifpr) Technology Research, Hemant P. Pendse Nov 2010

University Of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (Ifpr) Technology Research, Hemant P. Pendse

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town, ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new' owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led ...


Phenotypic Leaf Variation In Avicennia Marina In Tropical Australia: Can Discrete Subpopulations Be Recognised In The Field?, Peter Saenger, Lyndon O. Brooks Nov 2010

Phenotypic Leaf Variation In Avicennia Marina In Tropical Australia: Can Discrete Subpopulations Be Recognised In The Field?, Peter Saenger, Lyndon O. Brooks

Dr Lyndon O Brooks

The geographic patterns of phenotypic variation in leaf morphology traits were studied in the mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. in tropical Queensland, Australia, to determine whether discrete subpopulations could be recognised in the field. Significant differences in the various leaf characters occurred among the sites, which were not explained by longitude or latitude, nor by inter-site distances. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the estimated site means showed no coherent geographical groupings of the sites, suggesting that site populations do not follow a differentiation by distance model. Principal component analysis showed that site groupings with consistent leaf morphological characteristics could be identified ...


Surprisingly Rapid Nitrogen Cycling In Tropical Forest Plantations On Volcanically Derived Soils, James W. Raich, Ann E. Russell Nov 2010

Surprisingly Rapid Nitrogen Cycling In Tropical Forest Plantations On Volcanically Derived Soils, James W. Raich, Ann E. Russell

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Secondary forests and young forest plantations frequently have high rates of tree growth and NPP – higher even than mature forests in similar situations. The nutrients required to sustain this rapid growth are derived from the soil and by external inputs such as rainfall or, in the case of nitrogen, by biological N fixation. In our study of the effects of tree species within replicated experimental plantations in a moist, lowland tropical environment in Costa Rica, high rates of biomass accumulation and productivity were coupled with high rates of N accumulation and cycling. We applied extensive sampling through time within a ...


Impact On Ethanol, Corn, And Livestock From Imminent U.S. Ethanol Policy Decisions, Bruce A. Babcock Nov 2010

Impact On Ethanol, Corn, And Livestock From Imminent U.S. Ethanol Policy Decisions, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Policy Briefs

The next few weeks should bring some clarity to the future of the 45-cent-per-gallon ethanol tax credit and the 54-cent-per-gallon import tariff because both are scheduled to expire on December 31. Although the arguments in support of and against their extension have changed little since the summer, the economic situation in the corn, livestock, and ethanol industries has changed dramatically.