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Environmental Sciences

1980

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Articles 1 - 30 of 46

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Methods For Biological, Chemical, And Physical Analyses In Reservoirs, Penelope E. Kellar, Sherell A. Paulson, Larry J. Paulson Dec 1980

Methods For Biological, Chemical, And Physical Analyses In Reservoirs, Penelope E. Kellar, Sherell A. Paulson, Larry J. Paulson

Publications (WR)

This manual contains detailed descriptions of biological, chemical and physical sampling and analytical procedures used at the Lake Mead Limnological Research Center. The manual was prepared in response to requests made by numerous individuals involved in the Las Vegas Valley Water Quality Program. This manual represents what we consider to be a reasonably complete compilation of methods useful in studying both general and specific limnological questions. While each section is sufficiently detailed to be of use to investigators with little experience in limnological methodology, the methods can be used on a wide variety of lakes and reservoirs, with relatively little ...


Small Family Farms In American Agriculture: Projected Incomes For North Central Iowa Small Farms, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Mark R. Drabenstott, Earl O. Heady Nov 1980

Small Family Farms In American Agriculture: Projected Incomes For North Central Iowa Small Farms, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Mark R. Drabenstott, Earl O. Heady

CARD Reports

This study hopes to provide sound, well-documented information on what current economic and farm trends mean for the survival of the small family farm. In addition, this research addresses some of the issues at the center of the dialogue on farm structure. By so doing, this study may contribute some helpful answers to these important farm structure questions.


Shoreline Erosion In Virginia, Scott Hardaway, Gary Anderson Oct 1980

Shoreline Erosion In Virginia, Scott Hardaway, Gary Anderson

Reports

Virginia has over 5,000 miles of tidal shoreline. Several different shore types occur in the Tidewater region including the low-lying barrier islands of the Eastern Shore, the ocean front headland-barrier spit of southeastern Virginia, and the shores of the Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries which range from high bluffs to tidal marshes. In order to put shore erosion in proper perspective as a natural phenomenon, one must examine the recent geologic history of the region.

Much of shoreline erosion is a direct product of high energy storms like hurricanes and northeasters. The rate and amount of erosion along a ...


An Econometric-Programming Model For Agricultural Policy Analysis, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Wen-Yuan Huang, Reuben N. Weisz, Earl O. Heady Sep 1980

An Econometric-Programming Model For Agricultural Policy Analysis, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Wen-Yuan Huang, Reuben N. Weisz, Earl O. Heady

CARD Reports

The U.S. Government plays an important role in national and regional agricultural production. The government uses production control programs, price supports, and loans to increase and stabilize national farm commodity prices and invests in research, development, and extension to promote national production. It has invested in various development projects, such as irrigation, to promote regional agricultural production or regulates land use to avoid permanent depletion of resources.


Mass Marking Of Mosquitofish: Preliminary Results, Bruce Vondracek, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Joseph J. Cech Jr. Sep 1980

Mass Marking Of Mosquitofish: Preliminary Results, Bruce Vondracek, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Joseph J. Cech Jr.

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Three marking techniques were tested to determine their applicability for mosquitofish. Tetracycline drugs and DC Ar administered in the diet successfully marked laboratory-cultured mosquitofish, but exposure to direct sunlight in outdoor tanks resulted in the rapid disappearance of the marks. Preliminary data on fluorescent marks from a polystyrene pigment in a melamine-sulfonamide-formaldehyde resin forced into the dermal ,tissue with compressed air are more promising.

A t an optimal deliver pressure of 7.3 m Hg (140 p.s.i.) and spraying time of 15 sec., marking percentage is maximized and fish mortality is minimized. Mark retention time was up to ...


Effect Of Fish Size On Prey Size Selection In Gambusia Affinis, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Joseph J. Cech Jr., James Compton Sep 1980

Effect Of Fish Size On Prey Size Selection In Gambusia Affinis, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Joseph J. Cech Jr., James Compton

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Food size selection of the mosquitofish , Gambusia affinis affinis. was measured in aquaria using juvenile stages of the mosquito, Clllex tarsalb;, as prey. Fish size varied from recently born fry to large adult females. Food size selection was positively correlated with fish size. Mosquitofish fry (6-8 111m standard length) attacked and ate primarily first and second instar larvae. Fry attacked larger instars, but attack success on these was low (0 - 50%). Fish larger than 20 mm attached primarily pupae and third and fourth instar larva. No first instar mosquitoes were eaten. Attack success for these fish was above 65'Yr ...


Increasing Endomycorrhizal Fungus Inoculum In Forest Nursery Soil With Cover Crops, Paul P. Kormanik, W. Craig Bryan, Richard C. Schultz Aug 1980

Increasing Endomycorrhizal Fungus Inoculum In Forest Nursery Soil With Cover Crops, Paul P. Kormanik, W. Craig Bryan, Richard C. Schultz

Forestry Publications

Corn, millet, sudex, and sorghum were all effective cover crops for increasing inoculum density of vesicular-arbuscular fungi (Glomus spp.) in nursery soils. Spore production was increased approximately 7 to 12 times, depending on the cover crop used. Sweetgum seedlings did not differ significantly in size on plots previously planted with any of the four cover crops. Eighty-nine percent of the sweetgum seedlings grown after cover cropping had root-collar diameters exceeding the minimum (0.25 inch) recommended for outplanting of this species.


Agenda: Federal Lands, Laws And Policies And The Development Of Natural Resources: A Short Course, University Of Colorado. School Of Law, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center Jul 1980

Agenda: Federal Lands, Laws And Policies And The Development Of Natural Resources: A Short Course, University Of Colorado. School Of Law, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center

Federal Lands, Laws and Policies and the Development of Natural Resources: A Short Course (Summer Conference, July 28-August 1)

Even before the [Natural Resources Law] Center was established [in the fall of 1981], the [University of Colorado] School of Law was organizing annual natural resources law summer short courses. To date four programs have been presented:

- July 1980: "Federal Lands, Laws and Policies and the Development of Natural Resources"

- June 1981: "Water Resources Allocation: Laws and Emerging Issues"

- June 1982: "New Sources of Water for Energy Development and Growth: lnterbasin Transfers"

- June 1983: "Groundwater: Allocation, Development and Pollution"

(Reprinted from Resource Law Notes, no. 1, Jan. 1984, at 1.)

Instructors for this conference included University of Colorado School of ...


The Public Lands: Development Of Federal Policy, Charles F. Wilkinson Jul 1980

The Public Lands: Development Of Federal Policy, Charles F. Wilkinson

Federal Lands, Laws and Policies and the Development of Natural Resources: A Short Course (Summer Conference, July 28-August 1)

9 pages.


National Forest Minerals Management [Outline], Jerry L. Haggard Jul 1980

National Forest Minerals Management [Outline], Jerry L. Haggard

Federal Lands, Laws and Policies and the Development of Natural Resources: A Short Course (Summer Conference, July 28-August 1)

3 pages.


Supply Control And U.S. Agriculture: An Analysis Of National And Regional Impacts Under Land And Fertilizer Restrictions, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Stanley A. Schraufnagel Jul 1980

Supply Control And U.S. Agriculture: An Analysis Of National And Regional Impacts Under Land And Fertilizer Restrictions, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Stanley A. Schraufnagel

CARD Reports

In 1973 the demand for United States farm commodities was at a record level. Stocks of grain, which had been built up over a number of years, were rapidly depleted by several factors including world demand, export subsidies, and devaluation of the dollar. In response to this abnormal situation, The Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 was enacted. This act, contrary to past legislation, emphasized the maintenance or increase of production. But the 1972 to 1974 per capita decline in world food production was shortlived, and output slowly returned to more normal levels. The Food and Agriculture Act of ...


Bulletin No. 25: Salt Marsh Plants Of Connecticut, William A. Niering, Scott Warren Jun 1980

Bulletin No. 25: Salt Marsh Plants Of Connecticut, William A. Niering, Scott Warren

Bulletins

32 pp. 1980. Illustrated guide to 22 plants which grow in our tidal wetlands.


An Analysis Of Selected Agricultural Policy Impacts On The U.S. Livestock Sector By An Econometric Simulation Model, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Roland K. Roberts, Earl O. Heady Jun 1980

An Analysis Of Selected Agricultural Policy Impacts On The U.S. Livestock Sector By An Econometric Simulation Model, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Roland K. Roberts, Earl O. Heady

CARD Reports

This study interfaces a U.S. livestock econometric model with a crop market econometric model and analyzes the impacts upon the livestock sector of various grain and livestock policy alternatives. The livestock model, which was developed at the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) by Roberts and Heady, consists of five livestock and poultry commodities: beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and turkey. The crop market model is an updated and revised version of the market sector of the CARD National Agricultural Simulation Model. The crop market model is composed of feed grain, wheat, soybean, and cotton submodels.


Influence Of Las Vegas Wash Density Current On Nutrient Availability And Phytoplankton Growth In Lake Mead, John R. Baker, Larry J. Paulson Jun 1980

Influence Of Las Vegas Wash Density Current On Nutrient Availability And Phytoplankton Growth In Lake Mead, John R. Baker, Larry J. Paulson

Publications (WR)

Density currents are commonly formed in reservoirs because of temperature or salinity induced density differences between inflowing and receiving waters. Anderson and Pritchard (1951) were among the first to demonstrate this in their investigations of density currents in Lake Mead. They found that the Colorado River formed an underflow in Lake Mead during the winter, an overflow in the spring and an interflow in the summer and fall. Wunderlich and Elder (1973) have since described the hydromechanics of these types of flow patterns, and density currents have been reported for several other large reservoirs (Carmack et al. 1979, Johnson and ...


Nutrient Interactions Among Reservoirs On The Colorado River, Larry J. Paulson, John R. Baker Jun 1980

Nutrient Interactions Among Reservoirs On The Colorado River, Larry J. Paulson, John R. Baker

Publications (WR)

Interactions among physical, chemical and biological processes in reservoirs can significantly alter the characteristics of the discharge (Neel 1963, Wright 1967, Hannan 1979) that, in turn, can influence the ecology of the river downstream .(Ward and Stanford 1979). Investigations of the Colorado River, system reveal that reservoir-induced changes in the river can also affect downstream reservoirs. The formation of Lake Powell, in 1963 was accompanied by reductions in suspended sediment and nutrient loading and changes in the seasonal temperature and discharge cycles of the Colorado River. In this paper, we evaluate how these changes have influenced the nutrient and trophic ...


Potential Effects Of Policy Alternatives On Regional And National Soil Loss, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, David R. Daines Jr., Earl O. Heady Jun 1980

Potential Effects Of Policy Alternatives On Regional And National Soil Loss, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, David R. Daines Jr., Earl O. Heady

CARD Reports

Agricultural soil erosion concerns many people in the United States. The depletion of topsoil and formation of gullies reduce the productivity of farmland, and farm family income, foreign trade income, and food production potential are threatened. Much of the soil eroded from farmland is carried by runoff water into the streams and reservoirs where it contributes to undesirable and even harmful environmental problems. These include reduced capacity of streams and reservoirs to supply water as well as increased flood danger, navigation obstacles, and water pollution with its many consequences.


Resource Partitioning In Breeding Populations Of Marsh Hawks And Short-Eared Owls, Susan C. Linner May 1980

Resource Partitioning In Breeding Populations Of Marsh Hawks And Short-Eared Owls, Susan C. Linner

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During the 1979 breeding season four pairs of northern harriers, or marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus) and four pairs of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus) were studied in Cache Valley, Utah. The study was concerned solely with diurnal resource utilization, and did not examine the owls' nocturnal activities. The home range of each harrier pair overlapped substantially with that of an owl pair. Percent habitat overlap for hawk-owl pairs varied from 39 percent to 72 percent. Observations were made to determine if differences existed in their utilization of habitat and food resources, or in their daily and seasonal activity patterns.

Both species ...


Production Of Mountain Whitefish (Prosopium Williamsoni) In Altered And Unaltered Reaches Of Two Intermountain Streams In Their Alluvial Flood Plains, Michael J. Ottenbacher May 1980

Production Of Mountain Whitefish (Prosopium Williamsoni) In Altered And Unaltered Reaches Of Two Intermountain Streams In Their Alluvial Flood Plains, Michael J. Ottenbacher

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Estimates of production and related parameters (growth rate, density, standing crop) were made for populations of mountain whitefish in altered and "unaltered" areas of the Glacksmith Fork and Logan River, UtJh from spring 1975 through summer 1976. Capture records of marked whitefish were also analyzed to describe fish movement and check on assumptions implicit in the population estimator.

Mean weights and instantaneous growth rates of whitefish were similar at all sites for comparable size/age groups. Among sites, differences in production per sampling interval and annual production were due mainly to differences in standing crop and/or age structure.

Estimates ...


An Analysis Of A Measure Of Productivity In Mule Deer Populations, Ronald J. Ryel May 1980

An Analysis Of A Measure Of Productivity In Mule Deer Populations, Ronald J. Ryel

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the fall proportion of fawns among fawns and does in a mule deer population and two measures of productivity, the spring recruitment rate and the reproductive performance as measured in the fall. The spring recruitment rate was defined to be the number of fawns per doe which were recruited into the population at 1 year of age. The reproductive performance was defined to be the number of fawns produced per doe 2 years or older which survive to a specified time. The relationships between these quantities were measured by ...


Effects Of Host Plant Patch Size And Surrounding Plant Type On Insect Population Dynamics, Lynn A. Maguire May 1980

Effects Of Host Plant Patch Size And Surrounding Plant Type On Insect Population Dynamics, Lynn A. Maguire

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate how plant spatial patterns and insect behavior interact to influence the population dynamics of insects using the plants. The study included three phases: l) field experiments using collards (Brassica oleracea) and the crucifer insect fauna; 2) simulation models representing the population dynamics of an insect herbivore as functions of insect dispersal behavior and host plant patch size; and 3) model-field syntheses integrating model predictions and field variability estimates to choose an appropriate spatial scale for future field experiments or applications.

In field experiments on surrounding plant type, collards were planted with ...


Chlorophyll Fluorescence Probe Of Ultraviolet-B Photoinhibition Of Primary Photoreactions In Intact Leaves, Robert S. Nowak May 1980

Chlorophyll Fluorescence Probe Of Ultraviolet-B Photoinhibition Of Primary Photoreactions In Intact Leaves, Robert S. Nowak

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Damage to primary photosynthetic reactions caused by environmental stress can be assessed by measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence induction in intact leaves. This approach was applied in studies of ultraviolet-B photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Pisum sativum L. and Rumex patientia L. leaves. At ultraviolet-B dose rates insufficient to cause inhibition of net photosynthesis, changes in the magnitude of fluorescence transients did occur, which suggested direct effects on chloroplast pigments in Pisum and inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport between the photosystems in both species. Leaves of these two species subjected to a much higher dose rate had a significant reduction of net ...


A Separable Programming Analysis Of U.S. Agricultural Export, Price And Income, And Soil Conservation Policies In 1985, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, William G. Boggess, Earl O. Heady Apr 1980

A Separable Programming Analysis Of U.S. Agricultural Export, Price And Income, And Soil Conservation Policies In 1985, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, William G. Boggess, Earl O. Heady

CARD Reports

The United States has long implemented supply control programs to reduce output and raise farm prices and incomes. The first supply control programs were created more than 45 years ago by the Agricultural Adjustment Act of l933. The nation also has long had a concern for conserving the land. In more recent times, the public has become concerned with maintaining and improving the environment. Soil conservation legislation dates from 1936 with passage of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. Supply control, soil conservation, and environmental programs generally have not been coordinated. Each program has been formulated to deal with ...


The Effects Of Low Level Sulfur Dioxide Emissions On The Mineral Content Of Pinus Ponderosa Dougl., Robert Marks Apr 1980

The Effects Of Low Level Sulfur Dioxide Emissions On The Mineral Content Of Pinus Ponderosa Dougl., Robert Marks

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A study was made to determine if there was a cause and effect relationship between the S02 emissions from the ASARCO smelter at East Helena, Montana and the mineral nutrient content of the native species ponderosa pine. While the study failed to prove conclusively that such a relationship exists it established the fact that the Prickley Pear Valley serves as a corridor for smelter stack emissions. Also discussed is the meaning of the unusual pattern of high Potassium and Zinc concentrations.


A Study Of The Effects Of Irrigation On Benthic Invertebrates In Duck Creek, Broadwater County, Montana, Rhonda Rieger Apr 1980

A Study Of The Effects Of Irrigation On Benthic Invertebrates In Duck Creek, Broadwater County, Montana, Rhonda Rieger

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Total number and generic diversity of benthic invertebrates in Duck Creek, Broadwater County, T8N R2E, Sections 3, 9 and 11 were investigated during June, July and August to see if irrigation systems affect them. Quantitative studies showed that irrigation systems have a definite effect on benthic invertebrates by changing their environments. Changes were caused from higher turbidity and temperature. The orders of invertebrates studied were: Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Plecoptera. Irrigation did not eliminate the stream of any one particular order as expected, but altered the generic diversity and density found in each order. Therefore, different genera and numbers ...


Developing Crab Creek : Fifteen Points Of View On Economy And Ecology In An Estuary : A Simulation For Advanced Students Exploring Coastal Resource Management Decisions In Virginia, Frances Lee Lawrence Apr 1980

Developing Crab Creek : Fifteen Points Of View On Economy And Ecology In An Estuary : A Simulation For Advanced Students Exploring Coastal Resource Management Decisions In Virginia, Frances Lee Lawrence

Reports

Crab Creek County is a hypothetical small Virginia county on. the Chesapeake Bay. This· simulation explores the coastal management issues involved in developing a point of land in Crab Creek County fronting on the Chesapeake Bay to the North, and Crab Creek to the South. The game is based on key Virginia and federal laws and agencies affecting coastal resources, and provides insights into the human and technical interactions involved in the "permitting" processes. Players fill fifteen roles representative of private interests as well as local, state, and federal activities. more...


Evaluation Of Impacts Associated With Reregulation Of Water Levels In Lake Mohave, Larry J. Paulson, John R. Baker, U.S. Water And Power Resources Service Mar 1980

Evaluation Of Impacts Associated With Reregulation Of Water Levels In Lake Mohave, Larry J. Paulson, John R. Baker, U.S. Water And Power Resources Service

Publications (WR)

The U.S. Water and Power Resources Service is considering reregulating Lake Mohave water levels to increase the net power benefit from Hoover Dam. Reregulation will not increase the generation capacity of the Hoover powerplant but it will enable the plant operation to be increased when the energy has greater monetary value. Energy generated at different times of the year has different market value, the highest being in January-March and July- September. By generating more power during these periods more net monetary benefit can be derived from Hoover Dam. The total volume of water released from Hoover Dam over an ...


A Guide To The Threatened And Endangered Vascular Plants Of The Lake Mead National Recreation Area, James S. Holland, Wesley E. Niles, Charles L. Douglas, Dennis R. Schramm Jan 1980

A Guide To The Threatened And Endangered Vascular Plants Of The Lake Mead National Recreation Area, James S. Holland, Wesley E. Niles, Charles L. Douglas, Dennis R. Schramm

Publications (WR)

This illustrated guide was prepared to provide the botanical community, land managers, and other interested persons with a reference that describes and locates the twelve plant taxa currently being considered by the Fish and Wildlife Service for threatened or endangered status in or around the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. The guide is intended to assist managers of government agencies in determining the presence of these species and in defining management programs for their protection. The guide should be consulted prior to any construction project. If a potential conflict is identified, an onsite evaluation should be conducted early in the ...


Influence Of Dredging And High Discharge On The Ecology Of Black Canyon, Larry J. Paulson, Theron G. Miller, John R. Baker, U.S. Water And Power Resources Service Jan 1980

Influence Of Dredging And High Discharge On The Ecology Of Black Canyon, Larry J. Paulson, Theron G. Miller, John R. Baker, U.S. Water And Power Resources Service

Publications (WR)

The Water and Power Resources Service is considering dredging in Black Canyon to create a larger forebay to accommodate higher peak discharges and reverse flows for proposed modifications to Hoover Dam.

The Black Canyon area from Hoover Dam to Willow Beach supports a heavily utilized trout fishery and is important habitat for the razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and possibly bonytail chub (Gila elegans).

The Water and Power Resources Service initiated this investigation to determine what effect dredging and higher peak-discharges would have on the ecology of Black Canyon.


Economic Feasibility Of Using Crop Residues To Generate Electricity In Iowa, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Burton C. English, Cameron C. Short, Earl O. Heady, Steven K. Johnson Jan 1980

Economic Feasibility Of Using Crop Residues To Generate Electricity In Iowa, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Burton C. English, Cameron C. Short, Earl O. Heady, Steven K. Johnson

CARD Reports

This study examines the economic feasibility of using Iowa's crop residues to generate electricity. Iowa was chosen because of the high crop residue densities and the dispersed nature of Iowa's power plants. If the use of crop residue is not economically feasible in Iowa, then it is likely that it will not be feasible elsewhere.


The Relationship Of Food Conversion Efficiency And Growth Potential In Juvenile Mosquitofish, Gambusia Affinis, Joseph J. Cech Jr., Michael J. Massingill, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1980

The Relationship Of Food Conversion Efficiency And Growth Potential In Juvenile Mosquitofish, Gambusia Affinis, Joseph J. Cech Jr., Michael J. Massingill, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

New information concerning respiratory metabolic rates of juvenile mosquitofish (i = 915 mg 02 kg-1 h-1 at 20° C) was applied to existing data on mosquitofish respiration and combined with findings on growth and food consumption rates to determine percentages of net ingested energy used for growth and respiration over a 10- 35° C temperature range. The energy percentage used by mosquitofish for respiration was minimized at 25-30° C while that used for growth (= food conversion efficiency) was maximized at the same temperature. A calculated growth potential index, derived from an overall energy balance equation, was also maximized at the 25 ...