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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cryptic Herbivorous Invertebrates Restructure The Composition Of Degraded Coral Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Florida, Usa, Angelo Jason Spadaro Apr 2019

Cryptic Herbivorous Invertebrates Restructure The Composition Of Degraded Coral Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Florida, Usa, Angelo Jason Spadaro

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Coral reefs have been on a trajectory of decline for nearly a century due to a variety of factors that have contributed to the shift in these communities away from dominance by reef-building corals, with commensurate changes on community composition and function. Florida’s reefs are a compelling example of a degraded system that has undergone a phase shift, and thus offered an excellent model system for my study of the effects of grazing by cryptic herbivores on community composition and their potential restoration value. I had four major objectives: (1) determine the suitability of Maguimithrax spinosissimus for manipulating grazing ...


Does Helping-At-The-Nest Help? The Case Of The Acorn Woodpecker, Walter D. Koenig, Eric L. Walters, Sahas Barve Jan 2019

Does Helping-At-The-Nest Help? The Case Of The Acorn Woodpecker, Walter D. Koenig, Eric L. Walters, Sahas Barve

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cooperative breeding groups often involve "helpers-at-the-nest"; indeed, such behavior typically defines this intriguing breeding system. In few cases, however, has it been demonstrated that feeding nestlings by helpers, rather than some other behavior associated with helpers' presence, leads to greater reproductive success. One prediction of the hypothesis that feeding behavior per se is responsible for the fitness benefits conferred by helpers is that there should be close congruence between the patterns of helping-at-the-nest and the fitness effects of helpers. Here we look for such a relationship in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in order to begin to identify ...


Spatial Structuring And Life History Connectivity Of Antarctic Silverfish Along The Southern Continental Shelf Of The Weddell Sea, Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Julian R. Ashford, Svenja Ryan, Chiara Papetti, Michael Schröder, Lorenzo Zane Jan 2019

Spatial Structuring And Life History Connectivity Of Antarctic Silverfish Along The Southern Continental Shelf Of The Weddell Sea, Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Julian R. Ashford, Svenja Ryan, Chiara Papetti, Michael Schröder, Lorenzo Zane

OEAS Faculty Publications

A multi-disciplinary approach was employed to examine a physical-biological population hypothesis for a critical forage species, the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica. Caccavo et al. (2018; Sci Rep 8:17856) had shown strong gene flow along the westward Antarctic Slope Current, in addition to spatially recurring length modes that provided evidence for episodic connectivity. In this paper, otolith nucleus chemistry from a subset of fish collected in the southern Weddell Sea as part of a hydrographic survey of the Filchner Trough system was used to test between connectivity scenarios. Nucleus chemistry, which reflects environmental exposure during early life, showed significant spatial ...


Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Eat A Diet Of Certain Spiders, Regardless Of What's On The Menu, Marc A. Milne, Deborah A. Waller Nov 2018

Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Eat A Diet Of Certain Spiders, Regardless Of What's On The Menu, Marc A. Milne, Deborah A. Waller

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, is a low-lying carnivorous plant that uses pitcher-shaped leaves to catch arthropod prey for nutrition. Spiders make up a significant portion of these prey. To determine the tendency of specific spider taxa to be captured by the plant, we compared the composition (by taxonomic family) of three spider assemblages: those captured by the plant, those residing on or over the plant, and those found nearby in the local environment. Although there were some broad similarities within the three spider assemblages, significant differences existed when specific families and guilds were considered. While some families (e ...


Genetic Patterns In Peripheral Marine Populations Of The Fusilier Fish Caesio Cuning Within The Kuroshio Current, Amanda S. Ackiss, Christopher E. Bird, Yuichi Akita, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, Katsunori Tachihara, Kent E. Carpenter Sep 2018

Genetic Patterns In Peripheral Marine Populations Of The Fusilier Fish Caesio Cuning Within The Kuroshio Current, Amanda S. Ackiss, Christopher E. Bird, Yuichi Akita, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, Katsunori Tachihara, Kent E. Carpenter

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Aim: Mayr’s central‐peripheral population model (CCPM) describes the marked differences between central and peripheral populations in genetic diversity, gene flow, and census size. When isolation leads to genetic divergence, these peripheral populations have high evolutionary value and can influence biogeographic patterns. In tropical marine species with pelagic larvae, powerful western‐boundary currents have great potential to shape the genetic characteristics of peripheral populations at latitudinal extremes. We tested for the genetic patterns expected by the CCPM in peripheral populations that are located within the Kuroshio Current for the Indo‐Pacific reef fish, Caesio cuning.

Methods: We used a ...


Biotime: A Database Of Biodiversity Time Series For The Anthropocene, Maria Dornelas, Laura H. Antão, Faye Moyes, Amanda E. Bates, Anne E. Magurran, Dušan Adams, Asem A. Akhmetzhanova, Ward Appeltans, José Manuel Adam, Frank P. Day Jul 2018

Biotime: A Database Of Biodiversity Time Series For The Anthropocene, Maria Dornelas, Laura H. Antão, Faye Moyes, Amanda E. Bates, Anne E. Magurran, Dušan Adams, Asem A. Akhmetzhanova, Ward Appeltans, José Manuel Adam, Frank P. Day

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

Main types of variables included: The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the ...


Fisheries Bycatch Risk To Marine Megafauna Is Intensified In Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Kylie L. Scales, Elliot L. Hazen, Michael G. Jacox, Frederic Castruccio, Sara M. Maxwell, Rebecca L. Lewison, Steven J. Bograd Jul 2018

Fisheries Bycatch Risk To Marine Megafauna Is Intensified In Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Kylie L. Scales, Elliot L. Hazen, Michael G. Jacox, Frederic Castruccio, Sara M. Maxwell, Rebecca L. Lewison, Steven J. Bograd

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Incidental catch of nontarget species (bycatch) is a major barrier to ecological and economic sustainability in marine capture fisheries. Key to mitigating bycatch is an understanding of the habitat requirements of target and nontarget species and the influence of heterogeneity and variability in the dynamic marine environment. While patterns of overlap among marine capture fisheries and habitats of a taxonomically diverse range of marine vertebrates have been reported, a mechanistic understanding of the real-time physical drivers of bycatch events is lacking. Moving from describing patterns toward understanding processes, we apply a Lagrangian analysis to a high-resolution ocean model output to ...


Identifying Marine Key Biodiversity Areas In The Greater Caribbean Region, Michael S. Harvey Jul 2018

Identifying Marine Key Biodiversity Areas In The Greater Caribbean Region, Michael S. Harvey

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Anthropocene biodiversity extinction rates are increasing, suggesting a possible sixth global mass extinction event. Biological conservation planners are consequently seeking ways to more effectively protect species at national, regional and global scales. In 2010, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) issued a number of conservation goals (Aichi Targets), including the establishment of protected areas (PA) in terrestrial, freshwater and marine areas of eminent conservation concern by 2020 to reduce and eventually eliminate species’ extinctions, as well as preserve hotspots of biodiversity and dynamic ecosystems. While well-established, adequately enforced PAs increase the likelihood of preserving species and habitats most at risk ...


Potential Interaction Analysis Of Offshore Wind Energy Areas And Breeding Avian Species On The Us Mid-Atlantic Coast, Jeri Lynn Wisman Jul 2018

Potential Interaction Analysis Of Offshore Wind Energy Areas And Breeding Avian Species On The Us Mid-Atlantic Coast, Jeri Lynn Wisman

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Due to increasing US interest in developing wind energy sites in offshore waters, we synthesized existing data on colonial breeding seabird populations with the potential risk of interacting with lease areas in the mid-Atlantic. Previous efforts by BOEM and NOAA have predicted avian density using at-sea survey data; we seek to complement this work by focusing specifically on birds during the critical and energetically demanding breeding life history stage. We combined colony size and location for each species along the mid-Atlantic coast with buffers around the colonies that correlate with the species’ foraging range. We integrated population size, vulnerability to ...


Assessing Trade-Offs In Large Marine Protected Areas, Tammy E. Davies, Graham Epstein, Stacy E. Aguilera, Cassandra M. Brooks, Michael Cox, Louisa S. Evans, Sara M. Maxwell, Mateja Nenadovic, Natalie C. Ban Apr 2018

Assessing Trade-Offs In Large Marine Protected Areas, Tammy E. Davies, Graham Epstein, Stacy E. Aguilera, Cassandra M. Brooks, Michael Cox, Louisa S. Evans, Sara M. Maxwell, Mateja Nenadovic, Natalie C. Ban

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users ...


Global Conservation Status Of Marine Pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), Emilie Stump, Gina M. Ralph, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Keiichi Matsuura, Kent E. Carpenter Apr 2018

Global Conservation Status Of Marine Pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), Emilie Stump, Gina M. Ralph, Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Keiichi Matsuura, Kent E. Carpenter

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Puffers are biologically and ecologically fascinating fishes best known for their unique morphology and arsenal of defenses including inflation and bioaccumulation of deadly neurotoxins. These fishes are also commercially, culturally, and ecologically important in many regions. One-hundred-and-fifty-one species of marine puffers were assessed against the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Criteria at a 2011 workshop held in Xiamen, China. Here we present the first comprehensive review of puffer geographic and depth distribution, use and trade, and habitats and ecology and a summary of the global conservation status of marine puffers, determined by applying the International Union ...


Sea Turtles And Survivability In Demersal Trawl Fisheries: Do Comatose Olive Ridley Sea Turtles Survive Post-Release?, Sara M. Maxwell, Matthew J. Witt, Gaspard Abitsi, Marie Pierre Aboro, Pierre Didier Agamboue, Georges Mba Asseko, Francois Boussamba, Emmanuel Chartain, Micheline Schummer Gnandji, Brice Didier Koumba Mabert Jan 2018

Sea Turtles And Survivability In Demersal Trawl Fisheries: Do Comatose Olive Ridley Sea Turtles Survive Post-Release?, Sara M. Maxwell, Matthew J. Witt, Gaspard Abitsi, Marie Pierre Aboro, Pierre Didier Agamboue, Georges Mba Asseko, Francois Boussamba, Emmanuel Chartain, Micheline Schummer Gnandji, Brice Didier Koumba Mabert

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Incidental capture of air‑breathing species in fishing gear is a major source of mortality for many threatened populations. Even when individuals are discarded alive, they may not survive due to direct injury, or due to more cryptic internal physiological injury such as decompression sickness. Post‑release mortality, however, can be difficult to determine. In this pilot study, we deployed survivorship pop‑up archival tags (sPAT) (n = 3) for an air‑breathing species, the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), one of the first studies to do so. We found that at least two of the three turtles survived after ...


Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine Jan 2018

Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks are the major vectors of most disease-causing agents to humans, companion animals and wildlife. Moreover, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents than any other blood-feeding arthropod. Ticks have been expanding their geographic ranges in recent decades largely due to climate change. Furthermore, tick populations in many areas of their past and even newly established localities have increased in abundance. These dynamic changes present new and increasing severe public health threats to humans, livestock and companion animals in areas where they were previously unknown or were considered to be of minor importance. Here in this review, the geographic ...


Characterizing Habitat Suitability For A Central‐Place Forager In A Dynamic Marine Environment, Dana K. Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L. Scales, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Sara M. Maxwell, Elizabeth A. Mchuon, Patrick W. Robibson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P. Costa, Larry B. Crowder, Rebecca L. Lewison Jan 2018

Characterizing Habitat Suitability For A Central‐Place Forager In A Dynamic Marine Environment, Dana K. Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L. Scales, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Sara M. Maxwell, Elizabeth A. Mchuon, Patrick W. Robibson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P. Costa, Larry B. Crowder, Rebecca L. Lewison

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are central‐place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success. We explore how lactating females may select habitat and respond to environmental variability over broad spatial and temporal scales within the California Current System. We combine near‐real ...


High Frequency Temperature Variability Reduces The Risk Of Coral Bleaching, Aryan Safaie, Nyssa J. Silbiger, Timothy R. Mcclanahan, Geno Pawlak, Daniel J. Barshis, James L. Hench, Gareth J. Williams, Kristen A. Davis Jan 2018

High Frequency Temperature Variability Reduces The Risk Of Coral Bleaching, Aryan Safaie, Nyssa J. Silbiger, Timothy R. Mcclanahan, Geno Pawlak, Daniel J. Barshis, James L. Hench, Gareth J. Williams, Kristen A. Davis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coral bleaching is the detrimental expulsion of algal symbionts from their cnidarian hosts, and predominantly occurs when corals are exposed to thermal stress. The incidence and severity of bleaching is often spatially heterogeneous within reef-scales (<1 >km), and is therefore not predictable using conventional remote sensing products. Here, we systematically assess the relationship between in situ measurements of 20 environmental variables, along with seven remotely sensed SST thermal stress metrics, and 81 observed bleaching events at coral reef locations spanning five major reef regions globally. We find that high-frequency temperature variability (i.e., daily temperature range) was the most influential factor ...


The Spatial Context Of “Winning” In Mpa Network Design: Location Matters, Andrew S. Kough, Claire B. Paris, Mark J. Butler Iv Jan 2018

The Spatial Context Of “Winning” In Mpa Network Design: Location Matters, Andrew S. Kough, Claire B. Paris, Mark J. Butler Iv

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) Chollett et al. (2017) make the case that a local network of marine protected areas (MPAs) enhances fisheries for Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) off the coast of Honduras. However, their simulation focused on one ecoregion where self-recruitment is predicted to be among the highest in the Caribbean (Cowen, Paris, & Srinivasan, 2006). The shallow banks and scattered cays of the Honduran-Nicaraguan Rise, separating the Cayman and Colombian basins, create an obstacle to the powerful southern Caribbean jet (Richardson, 2005), fostering an ideal location for topographically steered eddies and larval retention. Local management,whether based on traditional techniques or ...


A Dynamic Ocean Management Tool To Reduce Bycatch And Support Sustainable Fisheries, Elliot L. Hazen, Kylie L. Scales, Sara M. Maxwell, Dana K. Briscoe, Heather Welch, Steven J. Bograd, Helen Bailey, Scott R. Benson, Tomo Eguchi, Heidi Dewar Jan 2018

A Dynamic Ocean Management Tool To Reduce Bycatch And Support Sustainable Fisheries, Elliot L. Hazen, Kylie L. Scales, Sara M. Maxwell, Dana K. Briscoe, Heather Welch, Steven J. Bograd, Helen Bailey, Scott R. Benson, Tomo Eguchi, Heidi Dewar

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Seafood is anessential sourceofprotein formore than3billionpeopleworldwide, yet bycatchof threatened species in capture fisheries remains a major impediment to fisheries sustainability. Management measures designed to reduce bycatch often result in significant economic losses and even fisheries closures. Static spatial management approaches can also be rendered ineffective by environmental variability and climate change, as productive habitats shift and introduce new interactions between human activities and protected species. We introduce a new multispecies and dynamic approach that uses daily satellite data to track ocean features and aligns scales of management, species movement, and fisheries. To accomplish this, we create species distribution models for ...


A Multi-Criteria And Dynamic Sustainability Assessment Of Crop Rotation Alternatives, Saturnina Fabian Nisperos Jan 2018

A Multi-Criteria And Dynamic Sustainability Assessment Of Crop Rotation Alternatives, Saturnina Fabian Nisperos

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

With the food security challenge faced by nations globally, agriculture sustainability has been a significant consideration for concerned agencies. Sustainability assessments are significant tools in providing support to stakeholders in their crop production planning. Agricultural sustainability assessment, however, is complex and it involves numerous criteria that can be conflicting. Limitations on crop rotation sustainability assessment methods include: non-dynamic assessment; lack of regard to cover crops and to the individual crop production preferences of farmers; and focused only on single-year and single-crop rotation. We sought to address these limitations by developing a multi-criteria and dynamic sustainability assessment model that considers the ...


Composition Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Pore Waters Of Anoxic Marine Sediments Analyzed By 1h Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Christina A. Fox, Hussain A. Abdulla, David J. Burdige, James P. Lewicki, Tomoko Komada Jan 2018

Composition Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Pore Waters Of Anoxic Marine Sediments Analyzed By 1h Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Christina A. Fox, Hussain A. Abdulla, David J. Burdige, James P. Lewicki, Tomoko Komada

OEAS Faculty Publications

Marine sediments are globally significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans, but the biogeochemical role of pore-water DOM in the benthic and marine carbon cycles remains unclear due to a lack of understanding about the molecular composition of DOM. To help fill this knowledge gap, we used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to examine depth variability in the composition of pore-water DOM in anoxic sediments of Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland. Proton detected spectra were acquired on whole samples without pre-concentration to avoid preclusion of any DOM components from the analytical window. Broad unresolved resonance (operationally ...


Blooms Of Dinoflagellate Mixotrophs In A Lower Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Carbon And Nitrogen Uptake Over Diurnal, Seasonal, And Interannual Timescales, Margaret R. Mulholland, Ryan Morse, Todd Egerton, Peter W. Bernhardt, K. C. Filippino Jan 2018

Blooms Of Dinoflagellate Mixotrophs In A Lower Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Carbon And Nitrogen Uptake Over Diurnal, Seasonal, And Interannual Timescales, Margaret R. Mulholland, Ryan Morse, Todd Egerton, Peter W. Bernhardt, K. C. Filippino

OEAS Faculty Publications

A multi-year study was conducted in the eutrophic Lafayette River, a sub-tributary of the lower Chesapeake Bay during which uptake of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) and C compounds was measured during multiple seasons and years when different dinoflagellate species were dominant. Seasonal dinoflagellate blooms included a variety of mixotrophic dinoflagellates including Heterocapsa triquetra in the late winter, Prorocentrum minimum in the spring, Akashiwo sanguinea in the early summer, and Scrippsiella trochoidea and Cochlodinium polykrikoides in late summer and fall. Results showed that no single N source fueled algal growth, rather rates of N and C uptake varied on seasonal ...


Distributions Of Krill And Antarctic Silverfish And Correlations With Environmental Variables In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, L. Brynn Davis, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Andrea Piñones, Michael S. Dinniman Dec 2017

Distributions Of Krill And Antarctic Silverfish And Correlations With Environmental Variables In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, L. Brynn Davis, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Andrea Piñones, Michael S. Dinniman

CCPO Publications

Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, crystal krill E. crystallorophias, and Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica are key mid-trophic level species in the Ross Sea, connecting primary production to the upper trophic levels. Distributions of these species were constructed from observations made in the western Ross Sea from 1988 to 2004. Distributions of environmental conditions were obtained from a 5-km resolution circulation model (temperature, mixed layer depth, surface speed) and satellite-derived observations (chlorophyll, sea ice cover). A hierarchy of statistical methods determined correlations and relationships between species and environmental conditions. Each species occupies a localized habitat defined by different environmental characteristics. Antarctic krill ...


The Effects Of Climate On Radial Growth Of Disjunct Northern White Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis L.) In Virginia, Joshua A. Kincaid Oct 2017

The Effects Of Climate On Radial Growth Of Disjunct Northern White Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis L.) In Virginia, Joshua A. Kincaid

Virginia Journal of Science

Understanding the geographic range and growth of species is essential for effective land management in a landscape affected by anthropogenic activity and climate change. Climate change is expected to alter the distribution and growth of many tree species in eastern North America, including northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.). This research examined the effects of climate on radial growth of T. occidentalis in disjunct populations south of its continuous range margin in eastern North America. A T. occidentalis tree-ring chronology was developed and examined for growth-climate interactions. Mean sensitivity of the T. occidentalis chronology was within the range of values ...


Population Structure Of Lethrinus Lentjan (Lethrinidae, Percoidei) Across The South China Sea And The Philippines Is Detected With Lane-Affected Radseq Data, Ellen E. Biesack Oct 2017

Population Structure Of Lethrinus Lentjan (Lethrinidae, Percoidei) Across The South China Sea And The Philippines Is Detected With Lane-Affected Radseq Data, Ellen E. Biesack

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Southeast Asia includes the Coral Triangle, a marine biodiversity hotspot that supports important fishery resources experiencing varied threats. Patterns of speciation and population structure in the Coral Triangle have been examined to test hypotheses relating to the historical geologic processes that may have influenced this biodiversity phenomenon. This study investigates the genetic population structure of the Pink-ear Emperor Snapper, Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède, 1802), across the Philippines and the South China Sea. The species is fished throughout the Coral Triangle by subsistence and commercial fishers and their landings have been in decline for several years, which could be indicative of depleted ...


Life History And Management Methods For Blueline Tilefish (Caulolatilus Microps) From The United States Mid-Atlantic Region, Michael A. Schmidtke Oct 2017

Life History And Management Methods For Blueline Tilefish (Caulolatilus Microps) From The United States Mid-Atlantic Region, Michael A. Schmidtke

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Blueline tilefish (Caulolatilus microps) have recently undergone an increase in landings from waters off the US Mid-Atlantic region (Virginia-Massachusetts). Currently, life history characteristics of blueline tilefish in this area are undescribed. Additionally, appropriate indices of population abundance are not available for this region, necessitating the use of data-limited management methods to set restrictions for harvest of blueline tilefish in this area. This dissertation describes growth and reproductive characteristics of blueline tilefish caught off the coast of Virginia and explores improvements of data-limited management methods that have been applied to blueline tilefish in the US Mid-Atlantic. Blueline tilefish from the US ...


Marine Reserves Promote Coral Reef Resilience By Mitigating Human Impacts Through The Restoration Of Parrotfish Populations, Increasing Their Reproductive Output And Seeding Neighboring Overfished Reefs, Brian L. Stockwell Oct 2017

Marine Reserves Promote Coral Reef Resilience By Mitigating Human Impacts Through The Restoration Of Parrotfish Populations, Increasing Their Reproductive Output And Seeding Neighboring Overfished Reefs, Brian L. Stockwell

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Coral reefs are some of the most productive ecosystems on the planet, providing fisheries resources for over a billion people with billions of dollars in revenue from tourism for developing nations. Coral reefs are under threat from overfishing and water pollution, resulting in less productive algae dominated reefs. Marine reserves are widely expected to promote the resilience of reefs by protecting and increasing the abundance of herbivorous fishes that can graze on algae, therefore directly or indirectly preventing coral to algal phase shifts. However, the ability of marine reserves to mitigate human impacts, restore herbivorous fish populations and seed nearby ...


A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann Sep 2017

A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

Increasing concern about the impacts of climate change on ecosystems is prompting ecologists and ecosystem managers to seek reliable projections of physical drivers of change. The use of global climate models in ecology is growing, although drawing ecologically meaningful conclusions can be problematic. The expertise required to access and interpret output from climate and earth system models is hampering progress in utilizing them most effectively to determine the wider implications of climate change. To address this issue, we present a joint approach between climate scientists and ecologists that explores key challenges and opportunities for progress. As an exemplar, our focus ...


Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, T. E. Davies, S. M. Maxwell, K. Kaschner, C. Garilao, N. C. Ban Aug 2017

Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, T. E. Davies, S. M. Maxwell, K. Kaschner, C. Garilao, N. C. Ban

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Large marine protected areas (>30,000 km2) have a high profile in marine conservation, yet their contribution to conservation is contested. Assessing the overlap of large marine protected areas with 14,172 species, we found large marine protected areas cover 4.4% of the ocean and at least some portion of the range of 83.3% of the species assessed. Of all species within large marine protected areas, 26.9% had at least 10% of their range represented, and this was projected to increase to 40.1% in 2100. Cumulative impacts were significantly higher within large marine protected areas ...


Determining Critical Internesting And Foraging Habitats For The Conservation Of Sea Turtles In Gabon, Africa Using Satellite Tracking And Stable Isotope Analysis, Tiffany M. Dawson Jul 2017

Determining Critical Internesting And Foraging Habitats For The Conservation Of Sea Turtles In Gabon, Africa Using Satellite Tracking And Stable Isotope Analysis, Tiffany M. Dawson

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Understanding the horizontal and vertical habitat of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), a threatened species, is critical for determining regions of protection that may effectively reduce bycatch, the largest threat to this species. Satellite transmitters were used to determine the movement and dive behavior of 21 female olive ridley turtles tagged in Pongara National Park, Gabon during the 2012, 2013, and 2015 nesting seasons. A switching state space model was used to filter the tracking data and categorize the internesting and post-nesting movements. Gridded utilization distribution (UD) home range analysis of tracking data revealed that the entire core habitat ...


Link Between Local Phenology And Climate Change, Blake Steiner, Tatyana Lobova Apr 2017

Link Between Local Phenology And Climate Change, Blake Steiner, Tatyana Lobova

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

The SouthEast Virginia Phenology Project was initiated as collaboration between Norfolk Botanical Garden and Old Dominion University in 2010 to document phenology of seven native plants and potential effects of the climate change on their life cycle. The air temperature in Norfolk has increased on average by 0.02ºC per year since 1980. Four out of seven of taxonomically diverse plant species (Mayapple, Flowering Dogwood, Highbush Blueberry, and Common ButtonBush) exhibited significant sensitivity to warming temperatures. Of these four, only Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) had shown significant phenophases shift. Specifically, first flowering and first fruiting dates had shifted 2.7 ...


Management Strategy Evaluation For The Atlantic Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima) Using A Spatially Explicit, Vessel-Based Fisheries Model, Kelsey M. Kuykendall, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klink, Paula T. Moreno, Robert T. Leaf Apr 2017

Management Strategy Evaluation For The Atlantic Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima) Using A Spatially Explicit, Vessel-Based Fisheries Model, Kelsey M. Kuykendall, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klink, Paula T. Moreno, Robert T. Leaf

CCPO Publications

The commercially valuable Atlantic surfclam (Spisula solidissima) is harvested along the northeastern continental shelf of the United States. Its range has contracted and shifted north, driven by warmer bottom water temperatures. Declining landings per unit of effort (LPUE) in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) is one result. Declining stock abundance and LPUE suggest that overfishing may be occurring off New Jersey. A management strategy evaluation (MSE) for the Atlantic surfclam is implemented to evaluate rotating closures to enhance Atlantic surfclam productivity and increase fishery viability in the MAB. Active agents of the MSE model are individual fishing vessels with performance and ...