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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir Dec 2019

Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A long-term poultry manure fertilizer study was initiated in 1998 and continued until 2009 under corn-soybean (CS) rotation. To match changing landscape trends, the plots were switched to continuous corn (CC) from 2010 to 2017. In both CS and CC phases, poultry manure (PM) was applied at the crop rotation recommended agronomic N rate and either half (CC phase) or double (CS phase) the recommended rate. Urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to comparison plots at the crop recommended application rate (168 kg N ha−1 and 224 kg N ha−1 for the CS and CC phases, respectively) throughout the ...


The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff Oct 2019

The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff

Jason Holderieath

BACKGROUND: Blackbird (Icteridae) damage to ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been a persistent economic issue in the USA for the last five decades. To quantify losses, we surveyed blackbird damage from 2001 to 2013 (excluding 2004) to physiologically mature sunflower in eight states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Kansas, and Vermont.

RESULTS:We pooled data gathered during the most recent 5 years (2009 to 2013) of the survey and found losses averaged $US2.5 million and $US11.3 million for confectionery and oilseed hybrids, respectively. Three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, had sufficient acreage ...


Dental And Mandibular Anomalies In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Central Georgia, Patrick M. Powers, Alfred J. Mead Oct 2019

Dental And Mandibular Anomalies In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Central Georgia, Patrick M. Powers, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

The frequency of dental and mandibular anomalies in free-ranging white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States is not well documented. Characteristic irregularities include supernumerary and missing teeth, malocclusion, root abscesses due to bacterial infections, and tooth or bone damage due to trauma. In the present study, we examined 778 white-tailed deer dentaries collected from the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia. All dentaries were inspected for lesions, tooth irregularities, developmental anomalies, and other pathologies. Thirty-two dentaries (4.1%) displayed signs of dental or bone abnormalities. More abnormalities were associated with infection or injury (22/778, 2.8%) compared to ...


Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’An Shao Oct 2019

Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’An Shao

Agronomy Publications

Water stored in the vadose (unsaturated) zone provides the majority of water required by plants and buffers water resources; thus, it is central to understanding ecological and hydrological processes in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) with its thick loess deposits. We used multisource data on soil water content (SWC) and vadose zone thickness, combined with a spatial interpolation method, to quantify the vadose zone water and further deduce the water resource composition in the CLP. Vadose zone water is approximately 3.1 × 1012 m3 (±27.5%) in the CLP, 92.4% of which is stored in the deep ...


Future Importance Of Healthy Oceans: Ecosystem Functions And Biodiversity, Marine Pollution, Carbon Sequestration, Ecosystem Goods And Services, Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain Oct 2019

Future Importance Of Healthy Oceans: Ecosystem Functions And Biodiversity, Marine Pollution, Carbon Sequestration, Ecosystem Goods And Services, Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The chapter provides a review the current status of ecosystem and resource extraction to provide a series of thoughts related to the future challenges in maintaining the health of the Marine and coastal ecosystems at the Bay of Bengal. The chapter highlighted the challenges current efforts and future interventions necessary to keep the Bay of Bengal large marine ecosystem healthy. They are mainly linked to climate change, environmental pollution from different sources, biodiversity conservation, sediment movement. marine spatial planning and adoption of protected area concept to design marine reserve, fish sanctuary and ecological critical areas in the coastal zone were ...


Food, Fuel, And Freeways: An Iowa Perspective On How Far Food Travels, Fuel Usage, And Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Rich S. Pirog, Timothy Van Pelt, Kamyar Enshayan, Ellen Cook Oct 2019

Food, Fuel, And Freeways: An Iowa Perspective On How Far Food Travels, Fuel Usage, And Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Rich S. Pirog, Timothy Van Pelt, Kamyar Enshayan, Ellen Cook

Kamyar Enshayan

Most consumers do not understand today’s highly complex global food system. Much of the food production and processing occurs far away from where they live and buy groceries. External environmental and community costs related to the production, processing, storage, and transportation of the food are seldom accounted for in the food’s price, nor are consumers made aware of these external costs. Examples of external environmental costs are the increased amount of fossil fuel used to transport food long distances, and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the burning of these fuels.


Community And Economic Regeneration Through Strengthening The Local Food Economy, Kamyar Enshayan Oct 2019

Community And Economic Regeneration Through Strengthening The Local Food Economy, Kamyar Enshayan

Kamyar Enshayan

The goal of this project was to work with institutional food buyers to explore and implement ways that would help them purchase a greater portion of their food supply from local/regional farmers and processors.


An Internship Program To Help Institutional Food Buyers Develop Links To Local Farms In Northeast Iowa, Kamyar Enshayan Oct 2019

An Internship Program To Help Institutional Food Buyers Develop Links To Local Farms In Northeast Iowa, Kamyar Enshayan

Kamyar Enshayan

Iowa college interns worked with the UNI Local Food Project, food buyers, and farmers to improve local food purchasing processes.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: A Floral Resource Index To Assess Pollinator Habitat Quality In Eastern Iowa Prairies, Gabrielle Brown, Laura L. Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: A Floral Resource Index To Assess Pollinator Habitat Quality In Eastern Iowa Prairies, Gabrielle Brown, Laura L. Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Report of an investigation on the impact of biodiversity on the habitat for native pollinators and European honey bees.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: Factors Affecting Cirsium Arvense Density In Eastern Iowa Conservation Reserve Program Fields, Esther Edgerton, Laura Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: Factors Affecting Cirsium Arvense Density In Eastern Iowa Conservation Reserve Program Fields, Esther Edgerton, Laura Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Results of an investigation into the Canada thistle density in prairie restorations.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: Effects Of Planting Time And Grass-Forb Seeding Ration On Establishment In Crp Pollinator Habitat, Kylie Jonas, Laura L. Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: Effects Of Planting Time And Grass-Forb Seeding Ration On Establishment In Crp Pollinator Habitat, Kylie Jonas, Laura L. Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Results of an investigation on the creation of habitat for insect pollinators in eastern Iowa.


Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh Oct 2019

Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh

Open Educational Resources

Organic chemistry is a two-semester course (Organic Chemistry I, SCC 251 and Organic Chemistry II, SCC 252) required for majors in Biology. The SCC 251 course has been designated for the Integrative Learning Core Competency as well the Digital Communication Ability. This course emphasizes the synthesis, structure, reactivity, and mechanisms of reaction of organic compounds. Laboratory stresses various organic synthetic and analytic techniques (distillation, extraction, chromatography and spectroscopy).

This lab provided an opportunity for students to go deeper with the chemistry content by correlating to the concepts they learned in General Chemistry courses such as Valence shell electron pair repulsion ...


Titration Of A Newtown Creek Environmental Water Sample To Determine The Amount Of Chloride Ions [Chemistry], Kevin Mark Oct 2019

Titration Of A Newtown Creek Environmental Water Sample To Determine The Amount Of Chloride Ions [Chemistry], Kevin Mark

Open Educational Resources

Main Course Learning Objectives:

The General Chemistry 1 (SCC 201) course has multiple course learning objectives, which articulate key introductory chemistry concepts that all STEM students should possess. In particular, the Newtown Creek titration experiment aligns with SCC 201 learning objectives of:

  1. Demonstrate an appreciation of the role of chemistry in various aspects of life
  2. Perform basic laboratory skills such as the proper execution of titration techniques
  3. Describe and explain the fundamental chemistry concept of solution concentration
  4. Analyze and represent experimental data in tables and graphs, interpret experimental results and write laboratory reports

In the SCC 201 laboratory, students are ...


Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar Oct 2019

Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Societies around the world are at a critical juncture. As the planetary population grows, there are increasing demands for expanding available food, more nutritious and healthy foods, and contemporaneously the need for greater efficiencies and decreased impacts upon the environment.

The sustainability of food production systems is a complex issue that requires a global and multidisciplinary approach, combining not only agronomy, ecology, nutrition, epidemiology, processing, energy use, but also marketing and sociology. It is within this context that this special issue aims to illustrate, through review articles, case studies, as well as modeling and simulation studies, some means of understanding ...


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Michelle L. Soupir

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich Sep 2019

Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich

James W. Raich

Humid tropical forests are major players in the global carbon cycle, despite evidence that cations (rock‐derived, positively charged ions) can limit or co‐limit net primary productivity (NPP). In mature forests, tight cation cycling, i.e., without leaching losses, could maintain cation stocks on site. That mechanism does not explain how regenerating tropical secondary forest trees start from seeds and accrue large cation stocks in biomass, when growing on soils depleted in available cations. We propose a new mechanism that links tree species’ traits to soil cation availability via impacts on soil pH, a master biogeochemical driver. We tested ...


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Adina Howe

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Ann E. Russell

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich Sep 2019

Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich

Ann E. Russell

Humid tropical forests are major players in the global carbon cycle, despite evidence that cations (rock‐derived, positively charged ions) can limit or co‐limit net primary productivity (NPP). In mature forests, tight cation cycling, i.e., without leaching losses, could maintain cation stocks on site. That mechanism does not explain how regenerating tropical secondary forest trees start from seeds and accrue large cation stocks in biomass, when growing on soils depleted in available cations. We propose a new mechanism that links tree species’ traits to soil cation availability via impacts on soil pH, a master biogeochemical driver. We tested ...


Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally Sep 2019

Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Cover crops are widely viewed by the soil and water conservation community to be an effective means for reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss and increasing soil health, yet relatively few farmers have adopted the practice. Despite the widespread recognition of cover crops' benefits and increased promotional efforts, there have been very few peer-reviewed studies focused on farmer perspectives on or adoption of cover crops. This study, which analyzed data from a survey and in-depth interviews with Iowa farmers, examined the roles that perceived practice characteristics, perspectives on potential facilitating factors, and crop and livestock diversity play in cover crop ...


Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh Sep 2019

Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This is a comprehensive review of all published, quantitative studies focused on adoption of agricultural conservation practices in the United States between 1982 and 2017. This review finds that, taken as a whole, few independent variables have a consistent statistically significant relationship with adoption. Analyses showed that variables positively associated with adoption include the farmer self-identifying primarily as stewardship motivated or otherwise nonfinancially motivated, environmental attitudes, a positive attitude toward the particular program or practice, previous adoption of other conservation practices, seeking and using information, awareness of programs or practices, vulnerable land, greater farm size, higher levels of income and ...


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


A Food Web Modeling Assessment Of Asian Carp Impacts In The Middle And Upper Mississippi River, Usa, Nicholas W. Kramer, Quinton E. Phelps, Clay L. Pierce, Michael E. Colvin Sep 2019

A Food Web Modeling Assessment Of Asian Carp Impacts In The Middle And Upper Mississippi River, Usa, Nicholas W. Kramer, Quinton E. Phelps, Clay L. Pierce, Michael E. Colvin

Clay L. Pierce

The invasion of non-native fishes has caused a great detriment to many of our native fishes. Since the introduction of invasive carps, such as Silver, Bighead, Common and Grass Carp, managers and researcher have been struggling to remove these species while also hypothesizing the detriment of further invasion. This study developed a food web model of four locations on the Mississippi River and used those models to assess the impacts of two scenarios: carp removal and carp invasion. In the Middle Mississippi River where these invasive carps are already present, the models found that it would take a sustained exploitation ...


Environmentally Responsible Land Use, Spring/Summer 2010, Issue 22 Sep 2019

Environmentally Responsible Land Use, Spring/Summer 2010, Issue 22

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Communities, Fall/Winter 2010, Issue 21 Sep 2019

Sustainable Communities, Fall/Winter 2010, Issue 21

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Building, Spring/Summer 2009, Issue 20 Sep 2019

Sustainable Building, Spring/Summer 2009, Issue 20

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Environmental History, Fall/Winter 2009, Issue 19 Sep 2019

Environmental History, Fall/Winter 2009, Issue 19

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Student Research, Spring/Summer 2008, Issue 18 Sep 2019

Student Research, Spring/Summer 2008, Issue 18

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Evolving Pollution Prevention, Fall/Winter 2008, Issue 17 Sep 2019

Evolving Pollution Prevention, Fall/Winter 2008, Issue 17

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16 Sep 2019

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.