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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen Jun 2019

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen

Zea E-Books

This book surveys Wyoming’s mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian faunas. In addition to introducing the state’s geography, geology, climate, and major ecosystems, it provides 65 biological profiles of 72 mammal species, 195 profiles of 196 birds, 9 profiles of 12 reptiles, and 6 profiles of 9 amphibians. There are also species lists of Wyoming’s 117 mammals, 445 birds, 22 reptiles, and 12 amphibians. Also included are descriptions of nearly 50 national and state properties, including parks, forests, preserves, and other public-access natural areas in Wyoming. The book includes a text of more than 150,000 words, nearly ...


Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson Jun 2019

Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson

Learning Communities Research and Practice

At Humboldt State University (HSU), location is everything. Students are as drawn to our spectacular natural setting as they are to the unique majors in the natural resource sciences that the university has to offer. However, the isolation that nurtures the pristine natural beauty of the area presents a difficult reality for students who are accustomed to more densely populated environments. With the large majority of our incoming students coming from distant cities, we set out to cultivate a “home away from home” by connecting first-year students majoring in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to the communities and local ...


Aquatic Invasive Species Change Ecosystem Services From The World's Largest Wild Sockeye Salmon Fisheries In Alaska, Tobias Schwoerer, Joseph M. Little, Milo D. Adkison Jun 2019

Aquatic Invasive Species Change Ecosystem Services From The World's Largest Wild Sockeye Salmon Fisheries In Alaska, Tobias Schwoerer, Joseph M. Little, Milo D. Adkison

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This study combines a multi-method approach to structured expert judgment with market valuation to forecast fisheries damages from introduced invasive species. The method is applied to a case study of Alaska’s first submersed aquatic invasive plant, Elodea spp., threatening Alaska’s salmon fisheries. Assuming that Elodea spp. remains unmanaged, estimated mean damages to commercial sockeye fisheries aggregated across Alaska amount to a potential $159 million annually with a 5% chance of exceeding $577 million annually ($2015 USD). The associated mean loss of natural capital amounts to $5.1 billion cumulatively over the next 100 years reaching $400 million after ...


Any Port In A Storm: Vessel Activity And The Risk Of Iuu-Caught Fish Passing Through The World’S Most Important Fishing Ports, Gilles Hosch, Bradley Soule, Max Schofield, Trevor Thomas, Charles Kilgour, Tim Huntington Jun 2019

Any Port In A Storm: Vessel Activity And The Risk Of Iuu-Caught Fish Passing Through The World’S Most Important Fishing Ports, Gilles Hosch, Bradley Soule, Max Schofield, Trevor Thomas, Charles Kilgour, Tim Huntington

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This study assesses the risk of fish from illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) sources passing through the world’s most important fishing ports and explores the drivers of this risk.

Like previous studies it has attempted to rank ports and States based on landings and vessel visits reported by governments by using Automatic Identification System (AIS) positional data transmitted by fishing and fish carrier vessels to identify the locations of ports and rank them based on the frequency of visits by foreign-flagged and domestic-flagged vessels. It advances our thinking in that (i) the analysis includes an estimation of the hold ...


Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee May 2019

Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Hydrological changes attributable to global warming increase the severity and frequency of droughts, which in turn affect agriculture. Hence, we proposed the Standardized Agricultural Drought Index (SADI), which is a new drought index specialized for agriculture and crops, and evaluated current and expected droughts in the Korean Peninsula. The SADI applies crop phenology to the hydrological cycle, which is a basic element that assesses drought. The SADI of rice and maize was calculated using representative hydrological variables (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the crop growing season. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of SADI, the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index, which ...


Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese May 2019

Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese

Stephen J Dinsmore

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is the focus of large-scale habitat restoration efforts because of recent population declines. From 2006-2017 we monitored monarchs at >400 sites throughout Iowa to link site occupancy and colonization/extinction dynamics to the presence of milkweed, site-specific habitat metrics, and landscape context at differing spatial scales. We used a robust design occupancy model in Program MARK and a hierarchical model selection approach to estimate site occupancy, extinction and colonization probabilities, and detection probability. Occupancy models revealed that monarchs responded differently to landscape features, environmental conditions, and local habitat conditions for site occupancy, extinction, and colonization ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias May 2019

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver May 2019

Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver

Lisa A. Schulte Moore

We conducted a designed experiment to test whether having a thermal‐imaging camera available affected researchers’ nest detection rates when searching for bird nests in cropland and grassland habitat in an agricultural landscape of Iowa, USA, in 2016. With known active nests present, naïve observers searched for nests with and without a thermal imager available. We did not find a difference in detection probabilities, although only a large difference would have been detectable with our sample size. Extraneous heat signatures from reflected solar radiation and dense vegetation were key factors limiting the usefulness of thermal imagers for locating nests.


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith May 2019

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan May 2019

Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...


Stand Location Variance As An Indicator Of Disturbance Regime In A Monotypic Tsuga Canadensis Forest, Cole J. Doolittle May 2019

Stand Location Variance As An Indicator Of Disturbance Regime In A Monotypic Tsuga Canadensis Forest, Cole J. Doolittle

Honors Program Projects

Disturbance regimes, which are critical components of forest ecosystems, influence forest morphology, biodiversity, and regeneration. The heterogeneity of disturbance regimes are not well understood on small scales. In this study I analyzed tree cores from five sites within a Tsuga canadensis (Eastern hemlock) forest in northern Wisconsin to investigate disturbance regimes through mean growth release criteria. This study investigated the following questions: 1) Are disturbance regimes in T. canadensis stand level or site specific? 2) If disturbances are site specific, is site location an indicator of disturbance regime? 3) Do site characteristics such as density and tree diameter at breast ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu May 2019

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang May 2019

Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

To accurately assess how increased global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission has affected the climate system requires a robust estimation of the preindustrial N2O emissions since only the difference between current and preindustrial emissions represents net drivers of anthropogenic climate change. However, large uncertainty exists in previous estimates of preindustrial N2O emissions from the land biosphere, while preindustrial N2O emissions on the finer scales, such as regional, biome, or sector scales, have not been well quantified yet. In this study, we applied a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of preindustrial N2O fluxes at ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan May 2019

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite‐derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 ...


Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao May 2019

Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since ...


Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu May 2019

Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

A tremendous amount of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been applied to agricultural lands to promote crop production in the US since the 1850s. However, inappropriate N management practices have caused numerous ecological and environmental problems which are difficult to quantify due to the paucity of spatially explicit time-series fertilizer use maps. Understanding and assessing N fertilizer management history could provide important implications for enhancing N use efficiency and reducing N loss. In this study, we therefore developed long-term gridded maps to depict crop-specific N fertilizer use rates, application timing, and the fractions of ammonium N (NH+ 4 -N) and ...


A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu May 2019

A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Fine-resolution satellite observations show great potential for characterizing seasonal and annual dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains, from local to regional and global scales. However, most previous studies were conducted using coarse or moderate resolution data, which are inadequate for characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains. In this study, we produced an annual vegetation phenology dataset in urban ecosystems for the conterminous United States (US), using all available Landsat images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. First, we characterized the long-term mean seasonal pattern of phenology indicators of the start of season (SOS) and ...


Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan May 2019

Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the important role of nitrogen input from livestock systems in terrestrial nutrient cycles and the atmospheric chemical composition, it is vital to have a robust estimation of the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation in manure nitrogen production and its application to cropland across the globe. In this study, we used the dataset from the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) in conjunction with country-specific annual livestock populations to reconstruct the manure nitrogen production during 1860–2014. The estimated manure nitrogen production increased from 21.4TgNyr−1 in 1860 to 131.0TgNyr−1 in 2014 with a significant annual increasing trend ...


Integrating Herbivore Population Dynamics Into A Global Land Biosphere Model: Plugging Animals Into The Earth System, Shree R.S. Dangal, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jia Yang, Nicola Di Cosmo, Amy Hessl May 2019

Integrating Herbivore Population Dynamics Into A Global Land Biosphere Model: Plugging Animals Into The Earth System, Shree R.S. Dangal, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jia Yang, Nicola Di Cosmo, Amy Hessl

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Mammalian herbivores are an essential component of grassland and savanna ecosystems, and with feedbacks to the climate system. To date, the response and feedbacks of mammalian herbivores to changes in both abiotic and biotic factors are poorly quantified and not adequately represented in the current global land surface modeling framework. In this study, we coupled herbivore population dynamics in a global land model (the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, DLEM 3.0) to simulate populations of horses, cattle, sheep, and goats, and their responses to changes in multiple environmental factors at the site level across different continents during 1980–2010. Simulated ...


Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian May 2019

Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

In addition to enhancing agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically alters global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedback to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system and land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use oversimplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long periods. In this study, we therefore develop global time series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in agricultural lands ...


Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir May 2019

Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nitrate (NO3−N) export from row crop agricultural systems with subsurface tile drainage continues to be a major water quality concern. Woodchip bioreactors are an effective edge-of-field practice designed to remove NO3−N from tile drainage. The NO3−N removal rate of woodchip bioreactors can be impacted by several factors, including hydraulic residence time(HRT). This study examined the impact of three HRTs, 2 h, 8 h, and 16 h, on NO3−N removal in a set of nine pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors in Central Iowa. NO3−N concentration reduction from the inlet to the outlet was significantly different for all ...


Implementing The North American Bat Monitoring Program In Nebraska: An Assessment Of Nebraska Bats With An Emphasis On Citizen Science, Baxter Seguin May 2019

Implementing The North American Bat Monitoring Program In Nebraska: An Assessment Of Nebraska Bats With An Emphasis On Citizen Science, Baxter Seguin

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Over the past decade bat species in North America have been under immense stress due to anthropogenic activities throughout the continent along with severe declines from foreign invaders. Though many specific anthropogenic related activities such as deforestation, land-use alteration, and hibernacula disturbance/modification were the primary culprits of negative impacts on bat species in the past, they pale in comparison to the threats bats face today. White nose syndrome a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans and wind energy development have caused declines and disruptions to the bat populations of North America at an unprecedented rate.

Due to the ...


Soil Capability Assessment For Expanding Irrigated Agriculture In The Irwin Focus Area And Surrounding Lands, Edward (Ted) Arnold Griffin, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter Tille May 2019

Soil Capability Assessment For Expanding Irrigated Agriculture In The Irwin Focus Area And Surrounding Lands, Edward (Ted) Arnold Griffin, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter Tille

Resource management technical reports

The Midlands groundwater and land assessment is a $4.7 million Water for Food project using Royalties for Regions funding. It is seeking to confirm groundwater availability in focus areas that may form precincts of 2000–3000ha suitable for intensive irrigated horticulture. Irwin is one of these.

The Department of Water identified the Irwin focus area for investigation for irrigated agriculture potential. It covers almost 7000ha to the east of Dongara in the Mid West region of Western Australia.

This report provides the land assessment for the Irwin area. We expanded the investigation to include land outside of the focus ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2019

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2018, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 23-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner May 2019

Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In boreal regions, increased precipitation events have been linked to increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however less is known about the extent and implications of these events on lakes. We assessed the effects of precipitation events on six drinking water lakes in Maine, USA to better understand how DOC concentration and quality change in response to precipitation events. Our results revealed three types of responses: (1) an initial spike in DOC concentrations and quality metrics; (2) a sustained increase in DOC concentrations and quality metrics and; (3) no change during all sampling periods. Lake residence time was a ...


Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese May 2019

Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is the focus of large-scale habitat restoration efforts because of recent population declines. From 2006-2017 we monitored monarchs at >400 sites throughout Iowa to link site occupancy and colonization/extinction dynamics to the presence of milkweed, site-specific habitat metrics, and landscape context at differing spatial scales. We used a robust design occupancy model in Program MARK and a hierarchical model selection approach to estimate site occupancy, extinction and colonization probabilities, and detection probability. Occupancy models revealed that monarchs responded differently to landscape features, environmental conditions, and local habitat conditions for site occupancy, extinction, and colonization ...


Design Implications For Surveys To Monitor Monarch Butterfly Population Trends, Karen E. Kinkead, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese, Kevin T. Murphy May 2019

Design Implications For Surveys To Monitor Monarch Butterfly Population Trends, Karen E. Kinkead, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese, Kevin T. Murphy

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The Iowa Multiple Species Inventory and Monitoring (MSIM) Program includes a protocol for monitoring butterfly density on conservation lands using transects. Most data are collected from sites chosen randomly; additional sites are chosen non-randomly for other reasons. We analyzed a 12-year dataset for monarchs to address how density (per 50 m2 transect section) responded to site selection (random vs. non-random), latitude, and measures of the amount of milkweed and canopy cover on survey transects. Between 2006 and 2017, we conducted 2,328 surveys on 420 sites and detected a total of 2,757 adult monarchs. Monarch densities peaked in 2010 ...


Assessing The Influence Of Salt Marsh Enhancement On Nekton Communities, Evan Thomas Kwityn May 2019

Assessing The Influence Of Salt Marsh Enhancement On Nekton Communities, Evan Thomas Kwityn

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Resiliency projects are being implemented throughout coastal communities with the intention of reducing the loss of salt marsh habitat. Salt marsh enhancement projects may have the benefit of minimizing physical coastal impacts, but enhancement activities are not fully understood as a result of potential impacts on salt marsh ecosystems, particularly nekton or fish and decapod communities. Questions involving salt marsh enhancement remain in regard to negative impacts on nekton communities and hydrologic habitat connectivity. To evaluate the impacts of salt marsh enhancement in reference to nekton community structures, I compared nekton density in restored and non-restored locations on two salt ...


Amphibian And Reptile Community Responses To Forest And Riparian Disturbance, Jacquelyn Christine Guzy May 2019

Amphibian And Reptile Community Responses To Forest And Riparian Disturbance, Jacquelyn Christine Guzy

Theses and Dissertations

Riparian zones are transitional, semi-terrestrial areas regularly influenced by freshwater. These areas serve as dispersal corridors for many animal and plant species and ultimately function as important reservoirs of biodiversity in altered landscapes. While much of the riparian habitat in the United States has been affected by anthropogenic activities, management actions may mitigate potentially negative influences of these activities. For example, Streamside Management Zones (i.e., riparian buffers; SMZs) are commonly implemented within managed forests to protect water quality, but may also provide habitat for riparian-associated wildlife. Yet, little research has rigorously addressed the value of SMZs for wildlife, particularly ...


The Interaction Of Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae Koch, With Cry Protein Production And Predation By Amblyseius Andersoni (Chant) In Cry1ac/Cry2ab Cotton And Cry1f Maize, Yan-Yan Guo, Jun-Ce Tian, Wang-Peng Shi, Xue-Hui Dong, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton Apr 2019

The Interaction Of Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae Koch, With Cry Protein Production And Predation By Amblyseius Andersoni (Chant) In Cry1ac/Cry2ab Cotton And Cry1f Maize, Yan-Yan Guo, Jun-Ce Tian, Wang-Peng Shi, Xue-Hui Dong, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton

Richard L Hellmich

Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time ...