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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Found World: The Role Of Findability In The History Of Botany, Douglas Tuers May 2020

The Found World: The Role Of Findability In The History Of Botany, Douglas Tuers

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

This study will investigate how a community of botanists used the findability inherent in botanical localities to rediscover species that were previously lost to botany. This article will look at the literature that announced the rediscovery of three species in the vicinity of White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. These species are Heuchera hispida, Phlox buckleyi, and Gaylussacia brachycera. These three plants were rediscovered over a short period of time, about 13 years from 1919 to 1932. This study will draw from the announcement of these rediscoveries. In each of these cases there was a surrounding literature that preceded or followed ...


Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel May 2020

Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

With commercialization of multiple herbicide-resistant corn and soybean cultivars, producers have new management options for controlling herbicide-resistant weeds and volunteer corn. Corn-on-corn production systems are common in irrigated fields in southcentral Nebraska which can create issues with volunteer corn management in corn fields. Enlist corn contains a new multiple herbicide-resistant trait providing resistance to 2,4-D choline, glyphosate, and the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (FOPs). Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 at South Central Agricultural Laboratory near Clay Center, Nebraska with the objective to evaluate ACCase-inhibiting herbicides and herbicide application timing on volunteer corn control, Enlist corn injury, and yield. Glyphosate ...


A Floristic Survey Of Andalusia: A Historic Preservation Site In Baldwin County, Georgia, William Pharr May 2020

A Floristic Survey Of Andalusia: A Historic Preservation Site In Baldwin County, Georgia, William Pharr

Biology Theses

A survey of the vascular plants of Andalusia, a historic preservation site located along Highway 441 north of Milledgeville in Baldwin County, Georgia, was conducted between August 2018 and February 2020. The site was the late home of esteemed author, Flannery O’Connor, and resides along the Georgia fall line, making it a historically significant area that could yield a unique plant community convergence, as well as rare endemic species. This floristic inventory provides baseline data on the species and plant communities of Andalusia for use in future studies regarding the flora of this area. A total of 191 vascular ...


Wearable Life: Translating Medicinal Plant Properties In Jewelry, Lucas White May 2020

Wearable Life: Translating Medicinal Plant Properties In Jewelry, Lucas White

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

The fields of art and science have always been in a tempestuous relationship, sometimes inspiring one another, other times completely opposing the other. Botanical knowledge of native plant species is disappearing as human development expands, and how this knowledge is obtained is just as equally becoming scarce. With the combination of jewelry-making techniques and plant identification, the properties of native Virginia plants and what medicinal benefits those plants have on the human body are showcased through aesthetic pieces of jewelry and botanical imagery that correspond to specific points on the human form. These pieces include each plant's anatomy that ...


A List Of The Poisonous And Injurious Vascular Plants Of The United States, James P. Smith Jr May 2020

A List Of The Poisonous And Injurious Vascular Plants Of The United States, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Poisonous And Injurious Plants Of The United States: A Bibliography, James P. Smith Jr. May 2020

Poisonous And Injurious Plants Of The United States: A Bibliography, James P. Smith Jr.

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian Apr 2020

Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian

The Downtown Review

This paper explores invasive species Ficaria verna (Lesser celandine) and the effects of temperature on its growth. Trials were completed with two treatments, 13OC cold temperature and 20OC ambient temperature. Germinated bulbils of Lesser celandine were planted on February 15, 2017 and placed in their respective growing chambers. The plants were watered weekly and monitored for growth until harvest on March 29, 2017. Upon harvest, the plants’ height, largest leaf diameter and biomass were measured after extraction from soil and the removal of the leftover soil debris. Average height was found to be 11.66cm for the cold treatment and ...


Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall Apr 2020

Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Buffalograss [Buchloë dactylodes (Nutt.) Engelm. syn. Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus] is a low input alternative turfgrass for the Great Plains region. Buffalograss is a dioecious stoloniferous warm season grass with wide variation of valuable traits and is well adapted for use in minimal maintenance landscapes. The obligate outcrossing nature of the species and wide variation of potentially valuable traits make buffalograss a prime candidate for cultivar improvement and genetic study. Limited information is available regarding buffalograss genetics. In effort to expand genetic resources around buffalograss, we developed buffalograss derived simple sequence repeat markers from previously available transcriptomes of buffalograss cultivars ...


A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels Apr 2020

A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise

The ability to sequence genome‐scale data from herbarium specimens would allow for the economical development of data sets with broad taxonomic and geographic sampling that would otherwise not be possible. Here, we evaluate the utility of a basic double‐digest restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol using DNAs from four genera extracted from both silica‐dried and herbarium tissue.

Methods

DNAs from Draba, Boechera, Solidago, and Ilex were processed with a ddRADseq protocol. The effects of DNA degradation, taxon, and specimen age were assessed.

Results

Although taxon, preservation method, and specimen age affected data recovery, large phylogenetically ...


Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales Apr 2020

Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a major disease of common and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide (Stavely, 1984). Although host resistance is an important component of rust management (Mmbaga et al., 1996), populations of the rust pathogen comprise an extensive and shifting virulence diversity that could render susceptible all known rust resistance genes in common bean. Conversely, it has been suggested that certain tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) accessions are broadly resistant to bean rust (Miklas & Stavely, 1998). The objectives of this study were to verify if tepary beans are resistant to eight races of the bean rust pathogen ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell Apr 2020

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


Florida Mangroves Show No Evidence Of Thermal Acclimation Of Leaf Respiration: Implications For Coastal Carbon Cycling And Future Climate, Kylie Harris, Jeff Chieppa, Matt Sturchio Apr 2020

Florida Mangroves Show No Evidence Of Thermal Acclimation Of Leaf Respiration: Implications For Coastal Carbon Cycling And Future Climate, Kylie Harris, Jeff Chieppa, Matt Sturchio

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Temperature controls of physiological processes that regulate C cycling in mangrove ecosystems remain understudied. New studies that investigate mangrove sensitivity to temperature could improve representation of coastal C cycling in global scale models. Respiration represents the second largest C flux between vegetation and the atmosphere, and roughly 50% of plant respiration comes from leaves. Leaf respiration increases with temperature, but thermal acclimation can dampen this response, and mitigate the positive feedback between temperature, respiration, and atmospheric CO2. We tested whether thermal acclimation of leaf respiration (R) to seasonal temperature changes and experimental warming is similar among three common mangrove species ...


Difficult Creek, Difficult Management Choices, W. John Hayden Apr 2020

Difficult Creek, Difficult Management Choices, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Virginia is blessed with many botanical wonderlands; see Chapter 4 of the Flora of Virginia (Weakley et al. 2012) for thumbnail sketches describing 50 of these special places. One such treasure, Difficult Creek Natural Area Preserve, is home to a thriving population of the 2019 VNPS Wildflower of the year, Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey Tea). Paradoxically, however, our featured wildflower of last year is inextricably linked to a difficult conservation management decision.


Wildflower Of The Year—Cymes, Not Corymbs!, W. John Hayden Apr 2020

Wildflower Of The Year—Cymes, Not Corymbs!, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

I hit a snag while composing the text for this year’s wildflower of the year brochure on Wild Geranium, Geranium maculatum. The problem concerned the proper descriptive term for its inflorescence, i.e., the pattern in which its flowers are grouped. In more than one source, I read that, for the family Geraniaceae, inflorescences are cymes (Figures 1 and 2), but those same sources indicated that inflorescences of Geranium maculatum are corymbs (Figure 4). That conflict caused me to scratch my head because cymes and corymbs are fundamentally different kinds of inflorescences.


Assessment Of Pollinator Preference Of Native And Nonnative Perennial Flowering Plants In South Dakota’S Grasslands, Bryanna Chipley Apr 2020

Assessment Of Pollinator Preference Of Native And Nonnative Perennial Flowering Plants In South Dakota’S Grasslands, Bryanna Chipley

Schultz-Werth Award Papers

With global pollinator decline continually worsening as a result of human action, concerned citizens and scientists alike have been looking for answers as to what can be done to help, and the question of whether native or non-native plants provide more benefit to pollinating insects has been long discussed in the scientific community. This research is intended to help answer that question by attempting to determine whether pollinators have a distinct preference between native and non-native plants when presented with both options. The hypothesis at outset of this project was that native plants would provide greater benefit to pollinators, whom ...


Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman Apr 2020

Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Off-target herbicide injury from dicamba and 2,4-D is an increasingly common problem for specialty crop growers in the Midwest U.S. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a common specialty crops grown in Nebraska, but proximity to corn and soybean production leaves growers vulnerable to crop injury and significant economic loss. The goal of this study was to quantify crop injury and yield loss in greenhouse grown lettuce after exposure to simulated sub-lethal drift rates of 2,4-D and dicamba. Sublethal doses were determined based on a percentage of the maximum labeled rate and ranged from 25% to 0.01 ...


Great Bay Estuary Intertidal Seaweed Plot Photographs 2019, David M. Burdick Apr 2020

Great Bay Estuary Intertidal Seaweed Plot Photographs 2019, David M. Burdick

Jackson Estuarine Laboratory

Records of photographs of intertidal seaweed sampling plots for cover (50 by 50 cm) and biomass (25 by 25 cm) collected by Jackson Estuarine Laboratory staff and volunteers in June, August and October 2019. Many of the photos were taken by Coastal Research Volunteers, a SeaGrant Extension project led by Wells Costello.


Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson Apr 2020

Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

• Subirrigated meadows are a valuable forage resource to ranching operations in the Nebraska Sandhills, being used for both hay production and livestock grazing. • The water table of these meadows is within one meter of the soil surface during the growing season. • In some years, wet conditions hinder meadow utilization, resulting in a buildup of standing dead and litter plant material which can lower forage production.

• Investigate if burning and mowing are effective strategies to remove dead plant material from meadows • Determine if burning or mowing interact with grazing to influence end of season forage production

Burning or mowing effectively removes ...


Vegetative Community And Health Assessment Of A Constructed Juncus-Dominated Salt Marsh In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Nickolas R. Murphy Apr 2020

Vegetative Community And Health Assessment Of A Constructed Juncus-Dominated Salt Marsh In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Nickolas R. Murphy

Master's Theses

Deer Island is a coastal habitat which provides a buffer from storm and flood damage as well as shore-line stabilization to the mainland of Biloxi, Mississippi. A third of the land has been lost since 1850, largely driven by tropical storm and hurricane impacts as well as sea level rise. The United States Army Corps of Engineers and Mississippi Department of Marine Resources have targeted the shores of the island as sites for restoration using beneficial use dredged material, and two sites of differing age have since been planted with Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemerianus, Uniola paniculata, S. patens, and Panicum ...


Great Bay Estuary Subtidal Seaweed And Seagrass Sampling Photographs 2019, David M. Burdick, Gregg Moore Apr 2020

Great Bay Estuary Subtidal Seaweed And Seagrass Sampling Photographs 2019, David M. Burdick, Gregg Moore

Jackson Estuarine Laboratory

Led by Dr. Gregg Moore, cover of sub-tidal seaweed and eelgrass was sampled using remote video. Nine images were clipped for each of three sample areas (replicates) for four locations around Great Bay and herein is a record of the photographs.


Diversity And Ethnobotanical Importance Of Pine Species From Sub-Tropical Forests, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Kishwar Sultana, Sher Wali Khan, Safdar Ali Shah Mar 2020

Diversity And Ethnobotanical Importance Of Pine Species From Sub-Tropical Forests, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Kishwar Sultana, Sher Wali Khan, Safdar Ali Shah

Journal of Bioresource Management

A general investigation of sub-tropical forests, from Pir Chinasi National Park, Tolipir National Park, Dhirkot Nature Reserve and Banjosa Game Reserve was carried out during different months from February 2008 to May 2010. The relative abundance of species was calculated using line transects of 50m. A total of five different species (Abies pindrow. Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburgii and Picea smithiana) from the Pinaceae family were recorded. The main reported use of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana by the local people was for furniture and construction purposes. Pinus wallichiana was observed as the dominant species from all the selected ...


De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian Mar 2020

De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Salvia hispanica (commonly known as chia) is gaining popularity worldwide as a healthy food supplement due to its low saturated fatty acid and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, in addition to being rich in protein, fiber, and antioxidants. Chia leaves contain plethora of secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. In this study, we sequenced chia leaf and root transcriptomes using the Illumina platform. The short reads were assembled into contigs using the Trinity software and annotated against the Uniprot database. The reads were de novo assembled into 103,367 contigs, which represented 92.8% transcriptome completeness and a diverse set of ...


A Checklist Of Vascular Plants Endemic To California, James P. Smith Jr Mar 2020

A Checklist Of Vascular Plants Endemic To California, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


A History Of Zinnias: Flower For The Ages, Eric Grissell Mar 2020

A History Of Zinnias: Flower For The Ages, Eric Grissell

Purdue University Press Book Previews

A History of Zinnias brings forward the fascinating adventure of zinnias and the spirit of civilization. With colorful illustrations, this book is a cultural and horticultural history documenting the development of garden zinnias—one of the top ten garden annuals grown in the United States today.

The deep and exciting history of garden zinnias pieces together a tale involving Aztecs, Spanish conquistadors, people of faith, people of medicine, explorers, scientists, writers, botanists, painters, and gardeners. The trail leads from the halls of Moctezuma to a cliff-diving prime minister; from Handel, Mozart, and Rossini to Gilbert and Sullivan; from a little-known ...


Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2019, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson Mar 2020

Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2019, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson

Research Series

The primary goal of the Arkansas Cotton Variety Test is to provide unbiased data regarding the agronomic performance of cotton varieties and advanced breeding lines in the major cotton-growing areas of Arkansas. This information helps seed companies establish marketing strategies and assists producers in choosing varieties to plant. These annual evaluations will then facilitate the inclusion of new, improved genetic material in Arkansas cotton production. Adaptation of varieties is determined by evaluating the lines at five University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture research sites (Manila, Keiser, Judd Hill, Marianna, and Rohwer). Entries in the 2019 Arkansas Cotton Variety Test ...


Vascular Plant Families Of The United States (With Common Names And Numerical Summary), James P. Smith Feb 2020

Vascular Plant Families Of The United States (With Common Names And Numerical Summary), James P. Smith

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Impacts Of Invasive Rats On Hawaiian Cave Resources, Francis G. Howarth, Fred D. Stone Feb 2020

Impacts Of Invasive Rats On Hawaiian Cave Resources, Francis G. Howarth, Fred D. Stone

International Journal of Speleology

Although there are no published studies and limited data documenting damage by rodents in Hawaiian caves, our incidental observations during more than 40 years of surveying caves indicate that introduced rodents, especially the roof rat, Rattus rattus, pose significant threats to vulnerable cave resources. Caves, with their nearly constant and predictable physical environment often house important natural and cultural features including biological, paleontological, geological, climatic, mineralogical, cultural, and archaeological resources. All four invasive rodents in Hawai‘i commonly nest in cave entrances and rock shelters, but only the roof rat (Rattus rattus) habitually enters caves and utilizes areas in total ...


Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins Feb 2020

Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The rising demand for soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] taken in consideration with current climatic trends accentuates the importance of improving soybean seed yield response per unit water (WP). To further our understanding of the quantitative WP trait, a multi-omic approach was implemented for improved trait identification and predictive modeling opportunities. Through the evaluation of two recombinant inbred line populations jointly totaling 439 lines subjected to contrasting irrigation treatments, informative agronomic, phenomic, and genomic associations were identified. Across both populations, relationships were identified between lodging at maturity (r = -0.58, H = 0.86), canopy to air temperature differential at the ...


Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa Jan 2020

Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Genomic selection (GS) is an emerging methodology that helps select superior lines among experimental cultivars in plant breeding programs. It offers the opportunity to increase the productivity of cultivars by delivering increased genetic gains and reducing the breeding cycles. This methodology requires inexpensive and sufficiently dense marker information to be successful, and with whole genome sequencing, it has become an important tool in many crops. The recent assembly of the pearl millet genome has made it possible to employ GS models to improve the selection procedure in pearl millet breeding programs. Here, three GS models were implemented and compared using ...


A List Of The Rare, Endangered, & Threatened Vascular Plants Of California, James P. Smith Jan 2020

A List Of The Rare, Endangered, & Threatened Vascular Plants Of California, James P. Smith

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.