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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, Xiuhong Cai Jun 2020

Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, Xiuhong Cai

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO), is the terminal electron acceptor in the membrane bound aerobic respiratory chain. It reduces O2 to water. The energy released by this reaction is stored by pumping protons from the high pH, N-side of the membrane to the low pH, P-side. The generated proton gradient provides the motive force for synthesis of ATP by the ATP synthase.

Building a proton gradient across the membrane requires that proton transport must occur along controllable proton pathways to prevent proton leakage to the N-side. It has been suggested that CcO function requires proton transfer channels in both the ...


Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh Jun 2020

Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial to many cellular processes. Many of these processes are regulated by extracellular signaling cues, which direct changes in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in changes to cellular morphology, and directed motility. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as a simple model system to study the translation of extracellular signals to the actin cytoskeleton. When starved, these unicellular amoebae undergo a multicellular developmental process characterized by a tightly regulated sequence of signaling events. This results in chemotaxis and formation of a multicellular aggregate, and ultimately cell differentiation and the formation of a fruiting ...


Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D May 2020

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D

2020 Symposium Posters

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...


Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg May 2020

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg

Statistics Publications

Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas ...


Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao May 2020

Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao

2020 Symposium Posters

Bordetella Type III Secretion System Effector A (BteA) is a virulence protein found in members of the genus Bordetella which include important pathogens of humans and other mammals. Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of the whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous, and sometimes deadly, for infants. The BteA protein appears to be an important factor in the ability of these pathogens to cause disease, as it leads to rapid killing of a wide range of mammalian cells. The aim of this project is to determine which regions of the DNA are important for mediating ...


Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, Philip C. Nelson May 2020

Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Brief Contents; Detailed Contents; To the Student; To the Instructor


Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson May 2020

Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Chapter 1: What the Ancients Knew


Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, Aulane Mpouli May 2020

Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, Aulane Mpouli

2020 Symposium Posters

Inosine Triphosphatase (ITPA) is an enzymatic molecule that works to prevent the amassed of an intermediate in the formation of purine nucleotides, Inosine Triphosphate (ITP). DNA consists of purine nucleotides, and its metabolic pathway includes the formation of this intermediate. Overpopulation of ITP causes mutations of DNA leading to cancers, increased Inosine levels in DNA and other immunodeficiencies. In order to regulate the ITP concentration, ITPA binds ITP creating a substrate/enzyme complex. In this study, we used computational docking to explore bound conformation and energy of the binding of ITP to ITPA protein. The docking results reveal how ITPA ...


Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison May 2020

Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip May 2020

The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip

Open Access Articles

Tight junctions in mammals and septate junctions in insects are essential for epithelial integrity. We show here that, in the Drosophila intestine, smooth septate junction proteins provide barrier and signaling functions. During an RNAi screen for genes that regulate adult midgut tissue growth, we found that loss of two smooth septate junction components, Snakeskin and Mesh, caused a hyperproliferation phenotype. By examining epitope-tagged endogenous Snakeskin and Mesh, we demonstrate that the two proteins are present in the cytoplasm of differentiating enteroblasts and in cytoplasm and septate junctions of mature enterocytes. In both enteroblasts and enterocytes, loss of Snakeskin and Mesh ...


Testing Kalanchoe Laxiflora U6 Promoters For Optimal Sgrna Expression In Tobacco, Marlee E. Jones May 2020

Testing Kalanchoe Laxiflora U6 Promoters For Optimal Sgrna Expression In Tobacco, Marlee E. Jones

Honors Thesis

Within studies of plant genome modification there is a method of gene alteration which involves using CRISPR/Cas systems in order to target specific gene loci and implement the intended modification. This process is driven by the ability of a single guide RNA (sgRNA) to find this target location within the plant’s genome. This sgRNA strand is expressed due to the presence of a proper RNA promoter. In an effort to understand the effect of an endogenous RNA promoter’s sequence on the successful expression of a sgRNA strand, an experiment was developed involving twelve U6 promoter sequences from ...


The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, Christopher Dorroh May 2020

The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, Christopher Dorroh

Honors Theses

Diabetes is a major health concern in the United States, with 1.5 million new cases diagnosed each year. Patients who suffer from diabetes have an increased risk of developing heart failure, a form of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure has been shown to result from increased left ventricular stiffness, which in turn is caused by increased remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This increase in ECM remodeling is a result of AGE/RAGE signaling, which occurs at a heightened level in the cardiac fibroblast cells of diabetics. Studies have shown that diabetics have elevated levels of AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-Products ...


Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell May 2020

Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell

Honors Theses

Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer related deaths. In breast cancer the lungs and bones are the major sites for metastasis. Previous studies used the metastatic aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line to isolate sub-clones that preferentially invade the lungs (LM line) or bones (BoM line). While genes associated with the tissue specific metastasis have been identified, it is unknown if metabolic adaptations contribute to the growth of the LM and BoM lines in their respective organs. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the LM and BoM lines exhibit differences in glucose and glutamine ...


Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, Addison Roush May 2020

Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, Addison Roush

Honors Theses

Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) coupled to mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for the analysis of protein topography as it generates covalent mass labels that can survive downstream sample handling, and it is sensitive to the solvent accessibility of amino acid sidechains. Of the multiple platforms for HRPF, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) utilizes a pulsed 248 nm KrF excimer laser to label proteins by photolyzing hydrogen peroxide. FPOP is the most widely used HRPF platform because it labels proteins faster than unfolding can occur. Variations in FPOP sample conditions make it difficult to compare results between experiments ...


Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz May 2020

Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz

Honors Theses

Malignant breast cancers exhibit preferential metastasis to bone and lung (1). While changes in gene expression in lung-specific (LM) and bone-specific metastasis (BoM) lines derived from the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line have been identified, few metabolic genes are differentially expressed; thus it is unknown if tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming occurs. Two hallmarks of cancer cells are an altered metabolic phenotype characterized by enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate in spite of adequate oxygen availability for complete mitochondrial oxidation of this substrate (referred to as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect) and a greater dependence on glutamine. These changes in primary tumor ...


Crystallization Efforts For An Engineered Nickel-Binding Protein, Gold-Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoclusters, And An Artificial De Novo Tetramer Hydrogenase Mimic, Skyler Crane May 2020

Crystallization Efforts For An Engineered Nickel-Binding Protein, Gold-Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoclusters, And An Artificial De Novo Tetramer Hydrogenase Mimic, Skyler Crane

Honors Theses

Protein crystallization is fundamental to modern research efforts given its ability to determine a protein’s structure as well as the interactions that structure allows and relies upon. This process, though lacking direct application, provides necessary information for subsequent research efforts for which applicationsmay be explored. As such, efforts were taken to crystallize nickel-binding protein (NBP) reengineered from Copper Storage Protein 1 (Csp1) in its apo and metal bound form, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in its apo and gold bound form (Au-BSA), and an artificial de novo tetramer hydrogenase mimic peptide to better inform future research actions for these respective ...


The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan May 2020

The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays an integral role in bone and tissue growth and development. Inhibition of this hormone is known to disrupt the chemistry of the brain, resulting in cognitive impairments such as those seen in many common neurodegenerative diseases. While much research has been conducted on neurons and their relation with IGF-1, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes are affected as a result of IGF-1 regulation. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and in ...


Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds May 2020

Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds

Honors Theses

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease in which the myocardium becomes hypertrophied, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. HCM is commonly caused by a mutation in the β-cardiac myosin II heavy chain. Myosin is a motor protein that facilitates muscle contraction by converting chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work and concomitantly moving along actin filaments. Optical tweezers have been used previously to analyze single myosin biophysical properties; however, myosin does not work as a single unit within the heart. Multiple myosin interacts to displace actin filaments and do not have the same properties ...


Studies Of Salvinorin-Based Antagonists To Elucidate Pertinent Interactions For Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism, Madeline Keane May 2020

Studies Of Salvinorin-Based Antagonists To Elucidate Pertinent Interactions For Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism, Madeline Keane

Honors Theses

Opioid abuse, leading to addiction and related deaths, has created a chronic epidemic in the United States for the past 30 years. This crisis has sprung from reliance on the prescription of opioid analgesics as the primary method for the management of pain in the 1990s. At that time, these drugs, specifically Purdue Pharma’s OxyContin, were marketed as non-addictive. Due to this systemic minimization of the addictive properties of opioid analgesics, as prescription rates increased, opioid-related mortality rates climbed. This epidemic continues to be pervasive, as opioid-related overdose resulted in 47,600 deaths in 2017. In addition to the ...


The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul May 2020

The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul

Honors Theses

The raphe-hippocampal tract links the raphe nuclei to the hippocampus and is responsible for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The hippocampus is key in regulating emotional and stress responses. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging which uses Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to provide scans of the brain for analyzing differences in the raphe-hippocampal tract as one ages. In this specific study, 491 samples were visually analyzed to gather data about the fractional anisotropy of the raphe nuclei in both male and female brains ranging from 6 to 85 years old. Through the ranking of images, some were discarded, and ...


Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou May 2020

Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou May 2020

Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


Cell Proliferation And Viability Inhibition By Resveratrol On Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Kyle Ford Gordon Jr May 2020

Cell Proliferation And Viability Inhibition By Resveratrol On Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Kyle Ford Gordon Jr

Honors Theses

Antioxidants are well-known for their various health benefits. They are able to protect cells from being damaged by free radicals that are produced by vital biochemical processes. It has long been known that antioxidants are important in our everyday health, but their potential as disease preventers and potential therapeutic agents is a relatively new field of study. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol and well-known antioxidant, is found in plants, fruits, and products derived from them, like red wine. Resveratrol has been shown to have various properties, including antiaging, anti-aggregation of platelets, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Because of their many health benefits ...


The Effects Of Largazole, A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, On Breast Cancer Cell Viability And Metastasis, Hannah Mccowan May 2020

The Effects Of Largazole, A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, On Breast Cancer Cell Viability And Metastasis, Hannah Mccowan

Honors Theses

Histone deacetylase enzymes modify epigenetic characteristics of a genome by removing acetyl groups from histone proteins in chromatin. Histone deacetylase inhibitors work by stopping this activity which can have various results in a cell including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and migration. The purpose of these experiments was to see how largazole, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, affected cell viability for breast cancer and associated metastatic cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The experiment was completed by setting up two 96-well plates with varying concentrations of largazole and conducting a sulforhodamine viability assay. The specific cell lines used in ...


Characterizing The Long-Range And Short-Range Interactions Stabilizing A Model Sh3 Recognition Complex, Colin Mcclure May 2020

Characterizing The Long-Range And Short-Range Interactions Stabilizing A Model Sh3 Recognition Complex, Colin Mcclure

Chemistry Senior Theses

SH3 domains are common recognition domains found in many protein complexes of all eukaryotes. Their regulatory functions are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeleton modification and are vital for cellular communication. We have used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to computationally model a common interaction between the AbpSH3 domain and the intrinsically disordered peptide, ArkA. This work is in collaboration with and in support of previous experimental studies of the complex aimed to characterize the binding pathway including NMR, ITC, and chemical denaturation. Specifically, my work focuses on the long-range electrostatic interactions involved in stabilizing the bound AbpSH3- ArkA complex. Previous ...


Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech May 2020

Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The “browning” of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) through increased abundance of thermogenic beige/brite adipocytes is induced by cold exposure and many other perturbations in association with beneficial systemic metabolic effects. Adipose browning is reported to require activation of sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF), aided by alternately activated macrophages within iWAT. Here we demonstrate the first example of a non-cell autonomous pathway for iWAT browning that is fully independent of SNF activity. Thus, the strong induction of thermogenic adipocytes prompted by deletion of adipocyte fatty acid synthase (iAdFASNKO mice) was unaffected by denervation or the deletion of SNF modulator Neuregulin-4 ...


Molecular Characterization Of A Gene Encoding Insulin-Like Peptide 5 (Ilp5) In Drosophila Virilis, Nikolas R. Likourentzos, Jae H. Park May 2020

Molecular Characterization Of A Gene Encoding Insulin-Like Peptide 5 (Ilp5) In Drosophila Virilis, Nikolas R. Likourentzos, Jae H. Park

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The study of the insulin-like peptides of Drosophila can provide insight of their similarities to mammalian insulin and their potential usage in treating human insulin-related diseases. In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNA encoding insulin-like peptide (ILP) 5 in D. virilis by using RNA purification, reverse transcription, and RACE protocols. Subsequently, various bioinformatic softwares were employed to predict peptide structure. The ILP5 gene (587 base pairs) codes for 121 amino acids that make up prepro-ILP5. After maturation, functional ILP5 is a peptide of two 25 amino acid chains, A- and B-chain, connected by two disulfide bonds. Sequencing genomic DNA ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes May 2020

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Chemical Tools For Residue-Specific And Secondary Amine Selective Petasis (Sasp) Bioconjugation Of Peptides And Proteins, Yonnette Sim May 2020

Chemical Tools For Residue-Specific And Secondary Amine Selective Petasis (Sasp) Bioconjugation Of Peptides And Proteins, Yonnette Sim

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Chemical protein synthesis is an invaluable tool that enables the construction of novel protein design, incorporation of non-native functionalities, elucidation of structure-function relationships and enable a wide diversity of modifications (such as Post Translation Modification) to study protein functions. Native Chemical Ligation (NCL) in conjunction with Fmoc Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) is the most used method for synthesis of functional peptides and proteins. The synthesis relies on the reaction of a C-terminal peptide thioester and a N-terminal cysteine peptide. Fmoc SPPS of peptide thioester for chemical protein synthesis via NCL is a challenge. Methods that exist for the synthesis ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko May 2020

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...