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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson Oct 2019

Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This report presents the results of a web-based survey of certified crop advisers (CCAs) conducted as part of the Integrated Management of Oomycete Diseases of Soybean and other Crop Plants Project funded by USDA-NIFA. The survey is part of a project-long effort to engage members of the Certified Crop Adviser program of the American Society of Agronomy and other crop advisers in educational and extension activities to improve their ability to accurately diagnose and manage soybean seedling and root diseases, particularly those caused by oomycetes. The report consists of three sections. This first section describes the survey’s objectives and ...


Volatile Prices And Profi T Margins, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz Oct 2019

Volatile Prices And Profi T Margins, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Lee Schulz

THE CALENDAR year 2019 has been interesting for agricultural markets. We began the year with record supplies for all of Iowa’s major commodities. However, trade disputes have cast a cloud over growth in crop and livestock usage and weather events and foreign disease outbreaks have sparked quick reversals in commodity prices. Since the first of the year, corn prices have fluctuated by $1.10 per bushel, soybeans by $1.55 per bushel, hogs by $28 per hundredweight, and cattle by $16 per hundredweight. And we’re still only halfway through the year.


World’S Largest Pork Producer In Crisis: China’S African Swine Fever Outbreak, Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Yongjie Ji, Dermot J. Hayes Sep 2019

World’S Largest Pork Producer In Crisis: China’S African Swine Fever Outbreak, Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Yongjie Ji, Dermot J. Hayes

Wendong Zhang

AFTER SUFFERING a major blow from trade disruptions with China and Mexico, US pork producers are keeping close watch on African Swine Fever (ASF) in China and other countries. The βirst case of ASF in China was conβirmed August 2, 2018 in the northeastern city of Shenyang. According to our information, by the end of October 2018, there were 45 cases of ASF in China with 5,439 pigs infected and 3,841 pigs dead (download the ASF cases in China as an Excel βile ).


Lessons From Previous U.S.-China Trade Disputes, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Chad Hart Sep 2019

Lessons From Previous U.S.-China Trade Disputes, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Chad Hart

Wendong Zhang

TRADE ISSUES have recently erupted between the United States and China and the battle over newly announced tariffs has escalated quickly. At the beginning of 2018, the United States imposed tariffs on imported solar panels and washing machines, and China responded by initiating an anti-dumping investigation into US sorghum. In early March, President Trump announced steel and aluminum tariffs with China being one of the primary targets. Within two weeks, China responded by announcing a list of 128 US products that are the targets of retaliatory tariffs effective on April 2, 2018. The list included pork products and ethanol, which ...


China’S New Nationwide E10 Ethanol Mandate And Its Global Implications, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Riley Arthur, Tantao Yang, Xiudong Wang Sep 2019

China’S New Nationwide E10 Ethanol Mandate And Its Global Implications, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Riley Arthur, Tantao Yang, Xiudong Wang

Wendong Zhang

IN SEPTEMBER 2017, the Chinese government announced a new nationwide ethanol mandate (NEA 2017) that expands the mandatory use of E10 fuel (gasoline containing 10 percent ethanol) from 11 trial provinces to the entire country by 2020. This measure would require ethanol consumption in China, the largest motor vehicle market in the world, to at least quadruple within the next three years. For US producers, this recent development fuels interest in whether China is going to import ethanol and/or corn (the main feedstock for ethanol production in China) to meet the mandate.


African Swine Fever In China: An Update, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Yongjie Ji, Minghao Li, Tao Zlong Sep 2019

African Swine Fever In China: An Update, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Yongjie Ji, Minghao Li, Tao Zlong

Wendong Zhang

LAST NOVEMBER, we wrote an article (Shao et al. 2018) documenting the development of African Swine Fever (ASF) in China and its impacts on regional hog and pork prices. Since then, ASF has continued to ravage China’s hog industry with 62 new cases from November 1, 2018 to March 27, 2019, resulting in a total of 114 cases. The total inventory of hog factories with ASF outbreaks has increased from 61,214 to 319,726 (click here to see an animated map of ASF cases in China). The pace of the outbreaks has somewhat slowed down from more than ...


Can China’S Rural Land Policy Reforms Solve Its Farmland Dilemma?, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes Sep 2019

Can China’S Rural Land Policy Reforms Solve Its Farmland Dilemma?, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes

Wendong Zhang

THE SCARCITY of arable land is a deβining feature of Chinese agriculture (Zhang and Li 2018). In 2015, China fed 18.9 percent of the world’s population with only 8.5 percent of the world’s arable land. Furthermore, the limited agricultural land resource in China is distributed to 231 million households, resulting in an average farm size of only 0.96 acres per household (China Agricultural Development Report 2016), and even such small farms are usually scattered in several separate plots. Therefore, China faces two challenges: ( a ) preserving the quantity and quality of its arable land amid rapid ...


Four Reasons Why We Aren’T Likely To See A Replay Of The 1980’S Farm Crisis, Wendong Zhang Sep 2019

Four Reasons Why We Aren’T Likely To See A Replay Of The 1980’S Farm Crisis, Wendong Zhang

Wendong Zhang

T HERE ARE plenty of alarming signs indicating a possible farm crisis: current corn prices are half the 2013 peak level of US $7/bushel; farm income has declined for major commodities (corn, wheat, cattle), falling from the previous year to levels well below recent years; weak farm income and worsening credit conditions continue to trim farmland values, which are expected to trend lower in the months ahead, thus weakening the equity position of producers and the collateral value for lenders. Given the heightening farm βinancial crisis, many agricultural lenders, academics, and other stakeholders in the US farm sector worry ...


Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally Sep 2019

Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Cover crops are widely viewed by the soil and water conservation community to be an effective means for reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss and increasing soil health, yet relatively few farmers have adopted the practice. Despite the widespread recognition of cover crops' benefits and increased promotional efforts, there have been very few peer-reviewed studies focused on farmer perspectives on or adoption of cover crops. This study, which analyzed data from a survey and in-depth interviews with Iowa farmers, examined the roles that perceived practice characteristics, perspectives on potential facilitating factors, and crop and livestock diversity play in cover crop ...


Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette Aug 2019

Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette

Douglas L Karlen

Harvesting fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop has been suggested as a method to increase producer revenue and biofuel feedstock production, but drainage N loss impacts are currently unknown. Using the tested Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) across several N rates, spring application of 120 kg N ha-1 prior to winter rye harvest reduced drainage N loss by 54% compared with no cover crop and by 18% compared with planted rye that was neither fertilized nor harvested. Estimates of producer revenue and net energy were also positive, with 8.3 Mg ha-1 of harvested rye biomass ...


2019 Prevent Plant Impacts To South Dakota Grain Crop Value, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott Aug 2019

2019 Prevent Plant Impacts To South Dakota Grain Crop Value, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott

Matthew Elliott

The 2019 crop year has presented various challenges to South Dakota grain crop producers. A record number of prevented planting acres, late planted crops, and trade disputes are expected to significantly lower the value of grain crop production in South Dakota. Preliminary estimates of impact are outlined in the presentation.


Declining Liquidity In Iowa Farms: 2014–2017, Alejandro Plastina Aug 2019

Declining Liquidity In Iowa Farms: 2014–2017, Alejandro Plastina

Alejandro Plastina

The goal of the present study is to describe the evolution of financial liquidity in Iowa farms for 2014–2017, using a unique panel of 220 mid-scale commercial farms. Farms with vulnerable liquidity ratings increased from 33.2 percent in December 2014 to 45.0 percent in December 2017. On average, farms lost $244 of working capital per acre over that period, but farms with vulnerable liquidity ratings in December 2017 lost almost 60 percent more than that, or $388. Average farm size, machinery investment per acre, farm net worth per acre, debt-to-asset ratio, and age of operator were not ...


Meandering Water In The Prairie Pothole Region Of South Dakota, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang Aug 2019

Meandering Water In The Prairie Pothole Region Of South Dakota, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang

Matthew Elliott

This study estimates the agricultural economic impact of the land use changes in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of South Dakota.  The flooding of wetlands has been documented in this region after 1993. At the same time, the conversion of non-cropland to croplands has been observed.  Concerns have been raised if conversions to cropland are conducted on marginal acres that are susceptible to additional flooding.  We found that approximately 140,000 acres of agricultural land have been inundated.  We also found that the new areas of cropland are less prone to flooding than areas that were lost.


Meandering Water Dataset, Matthew Elliott Aug 2019

Meandering Water Dataset, Matthew Elliott

Matthew Elliott

Areas of land use changes in South Dakota's PPR region and associated soil and agriculture economic attributes.


Cover Crop Adoption Decisions In Iowa: Insights From An In-Person Survey, M. Jimena Gonzalez-Ramirez, Catherine Kling, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton, Jean Mcguire, Jamie Benning Aug 2019

Cover Crop Adoption Decisions In Iowa: Insights From An In-Person Survey, M. Jimena Gonzalez-Ramirez, Catherine Kling, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton, Jean Mcguire, Jamie Benning

J. Gordon Arbuckle

CURRENT NITROGEN and phosphorus applications in the Midwest have been connected to increasing water quality problems.


A Change In Highest And Best Use Policy In South Dakota Shows A Sizable Impact To Agricultural Land Assessments, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang Jul 2019

A Change In Highest And Best Use Policy In South Dakota Shows A Sizable Impact To Agricultural Land Assessments, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang

Matthew Elliott

South Dakota is currently revisiting the Highest and Best Use (HBU) Policy for Determining Agricultural Land Assessments. We examine the impact on statewide assessments if the HBU policy was switched to an actual use policy or a most likely use policy.


Divergence Of Usda Trade Payments For Corn, Soybean, And Wheat Producers And ‘Nowcasts’ Of Tariff Impacts, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott Jun 2019

Divergence Of Usda Trade Payments For Corn, Soybean, And Wheat Producers And ‘Nowcasts’ Of Tariff Impacts, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott

Matthew Elliott

No abstract provided.


Do Cover Crops Pay? Net Returns To Corn/Soybean Farmers In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina Jun 2019

Do Cover Crops Pay? Net Returns To Corn/Soybean Farmers In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina

Alejandro Plastina

COVER CROPS, which are planted on approximately 700,000 of Iowa’s 30 million acres of farmland, have been found to have varying net returns based on several factors— cover c rop species, planting technique, termination method, tillage practices, following cash crop, and the farmer’s years of experience with cover crops.


Is Arc-Co Acting As A Safety Net Program? Evidence From Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart Jun 2019

Is Arc-Co Acting As A Safety Net Program? Evidence From Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart

Alejandro Plastina

THE AGRICULTURAL Act of 2014, referred to as the 2014 Farm Bill, is the legislative backbone of federal farm income support programs and agricultural disaster assistance programs. These programs, combined with federal crop insurance, are what is typically referred to as the farm safety net. As the debate has begun for the next version of the Farm Bill, policy discussions have centered on improving the effectiveness of the safety net. However, in previous Farm Bills, there had been a concerted effort to utilize decoupled agricultural support to ensure that US farm programs would meet World Trade Organization (WTO) standards. The ...


New Generation Grain Contracts In Corn And Soybean Commodity Markets, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Chad Te Slaa, Zhiguang Wang May 2019

New Generation Grain Contracts In Corn And Soybean Commodity Markets, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Chad Te Slaa, Zhiguang Wang

Matthew Elliott

This research quantifies the risk reduction and price received when agricultural producers adopt new generation grain contracts (NGGCs) to hedge corn and soybean production. We explore the Accumulator, Average Price, Price Plus, Minimum Price, and Price Protection contracts and compare the performance measures of the average bushel price that would be received by the producer, the change in daily value of the portfolio and the Sharpe ratio. Specific to the Accumulator contract, we quantify the bushels accumulated during the contract period. We find that the Price Plus contracts performed best overall during the 2008-2017 period, obtaining the highest bushel price ...


Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White May 2019

Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White

Madhav Nepal

In this lesson, students will learn about sustainability, where farmers/agriculturists can meet the needs of food, fiber, and fuel for the growing population. Students learn about growing population, its growth rate, major food source, sustainability barrel, potential ripple effects of positive impacts as well as the food waste and its effects.


Limiting Nutrients For Bean Production On Contrasting Soil Types Of Lake Victoria Crescent Of Uganda, P. Kyomuhendo, M. M. Tenywa, O. Semalulu, A. W. Lenssen, R. S. Yost, R. E. Mazur, S. Kyebogola, L. H. Goettsch Jan 2019

Limiting Nutrients For Bean Production On Contrasting Soil Types Of Lake Victoria Crescent Of Uganda, P. Kyomuhendo, M. M. Tenywa, O. Semalulu, A. W. Lenssen, R. S. Yost, R. E. Mazur, S. Kyebogola, L. H. Goettsch

Andrew W. Lenssen

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legumes in East Africa, but its yield has remained below the genetic potential. Declining soil fertility is among the primary constraints to bean production in most East African bean producing regions. Often existing recommendations are generic and inept to guide farm level decision making on nutrient replenishment. A greenhouse nutrient omission study was conducted to determine the limiting nutrients in three soils of Masaka District, commonly cropped to beans: “Liddugavu” a Phaeozem, “Limyufumyufu” a Cambisol and “Luyinjayinga” an Umbrisol soil. Nine treatments; (i) complete nutrient treatment, (ii) N ...


Farmer Decision Making Strategies For Improved Soil Fertility Management In Maize-Bean Production Systems, Robert Mazur, Moses Tenywa, Richard Miiro, Onesmus Semalulu, Ricardo Maria, Sostino Mocumbe, Eric Abbott, Andrew Lenssen, Ebby Luvaga, Bradley Miller, Lee Burras, Russell Yost, Julia Bello-Bravo, Barry Pittendrigh Jan 2019

Farmer Decision Making Strategies For Improved Soil Fertility Management In Maize-Bean Production Systems, Robert Mazur, Moses Tenywa, Richard Miiro, Onesmus Semalulu, Ricardo Maria, Sostino Mocumbe, Eric Abbott, Andrew Lenssen, Ebby Luvaga, Bradley Miller, Lee Burras, Russell Yost, Julia Bello-Bravo, Barry Pittendrigh

Andrew W. Lenssen

Following completion of research experiments on common bean in Uganda, five rainy seasons of community-based field trials enabled farmers to learn about and evaluate improved management practices and technologies for adoption. A multistakeholder bean Innovation Platform continues to develop in membership size, diversity, enthusiasm and capability, with 10 value chain member organizations and 1000+ farmers. In Mozambique, field experiments were completed mid-2017 by IIAM. Two SAWBO video animations were released on research-based farmer-validated bean production recommendations in Uganda and Mozambique and one on jerry can storage for Mozambique. IIAM created and is field testing its first App, focused on bean ...


Highest And Best Use Determinations In Agricultural Land Assessments, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang Nov 2018

Highest And Best Use Determinations In Agricultural Land Assessments, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang

Matthew Elliott

Determining highest and best of use (HBU) is necessary for supportable Ag land assessments. In this study,
we determine HBU and most probable use (MPU) of South Dakota Ag land as either cropland or grassland.
To determine HBU, we simulate net returns for cropland and grassland for every possible combination of
the productivity and legal dimensions using the APEX model and copula approach. To determine MPU,
we use random forest classification given net returns, risk, topography, and soil productivity ratings. We
discuss the impacts of using MPU, HBU, and soil ratings for determining use for Ag land property
assessments.


Uncertainty Undermines Area-Wide Pest Management For Citrus Greening In Florida, Ariel Singerman, Sergio H. Lence, Pilar Useche Nov 2018

Uncertainty Undermines Area-Wide Pest Management For Citrus Greening In Florida, Ariel Singerman, Sergio H. Lence, Pilar Useche

Sergio H. Lence

Area-wide pest management targets the pest population of an entire area rather than a single farm. Such collective efforts are more efficient in the use of pest-control inputs and therefore have more lasting effects relative to individual (uncoordinated) farm sprays when pest populations are highly mobile. Coordinated sprays may also help reduce pesticide resistance (Vreysen, Robinson, and Hendrichs, 2007). From an economic standpoint, growers are expected to join an area-wide management group and coordinate pest management practices whenever the benefits outweigh the costs.

Remarkably, Florida citrus growers’ participation in area-wide pest management has not been commensurate with evidence regarding its ...


Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, John C. Tyndall, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., David E. James, Randall K. Kalka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Gary Van Ryswyk, Christopher C. Witte Mar 2018

Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, John C. Tyndall, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., David E. James, Randall K. Kalka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Gary Van Ryswyk, Christopher C. Witte

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with ...


Books Published By Métallurgie Extractive Québec, Fathi Habashi Mar 2018

Books Published By Métallurgie Extractive Québec, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

A condensed catalog of books published by Métallurgie Extractive Québec - - a non-profit publisher devoted to the diffusion of extractive metallurgy literature.


The Shellfish Corner: Cap And Trade Systems With Shellfish May Be Good For The Economic Bottom Line, Michael A. Rice Dec 2017

The Shellfish Corner: Cap And Trade Systems With Shellfish May Be Good For The Economic Bottom Line, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

The development of a traditional form of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) in the Dagupan City Estuary system in the Philippines is based upon different producers each focusing on individual species rather than individual producers producing multiple species with very different market values. The long-term success of such a system requires attention to local marine spatial planning and enforcement of caps on forms of feed-based (net pen or fish cage) aquaculture systems.


Valuing Ecosystem Service Benefits From Green Pollution Control Infrastructure: Evidence From Riparian Shading Programs In The Tualatin Watershed, Oregon, Sahan T.M. Dissanayake Dec 2017

Valuing Ecosystem Service Benefits From Green Pollution Control Infrastructure: Evidence From Riparian Shading Programs In The Tualatin Watershed, Oregon, Sahan T.M. Dissanayake

Sahan Dissanayake

Scientific research and policy initiatives on using green infrastructure for pollution control are expanding. Potential cost-savings are often a prime motivation. However, environmental co-benefits may also ensue from such approaches. State of the science valuation methods, such as choice experiment surveys, are necessary to capture the full range and values of such benefits. We present a case study of this for the case of installing riparian shade corridors to meet temperature standards in an urban-rural fringe Oregon watershed. We use a primary survey, administered to a sample of 800 waste water treatment utility customers in the Tualatin river basin. Our ...


Valuing Restoration Of Ancient Irrigation Systems: A Choice Experiment On Small Tank Cascade Restoration In Sri Lanka, Sahan T.M. Dissanayake Dec 2017

Valuing Restoration Of Ancient Irrigation Systems: A Choice Experiment On Small Tank Cascade Restoration In Sri Lanka, Sahan T.M. Dissanayake

Sahan Dissanayake

Cascading Tank Systems are an ancient irrigation system in South Asia developed to support agriculture and population expansion to arid areas by collecting rainwater during the wet season for use in the dry season. The tanks are created by blocking the natural drainage system in a watershed using earth bunds in selected locations to enable storing of water and forming a series of tanks that allows the water to cascade from tank to tank. This man-made socio-ecological system, which has parallels to the Japanese land use system of Satoyama, was established and fostered by ruling kings and is regarded as ...