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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner Dec 2019

Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner

Agronomy Publications

Sustainable agriculture describes crop management approaches that address the interdependent goals of increasing or at least maintaining yield while protecting the environment, conserving natural resources, and slowing climate change. Numerous authors have espoused limiting synthetic fertilizer and pesticides and promoting organic agriculture (Lechenet et al., 2014; Martinez-Alcantara et al., 2016; Muller at al. 2017), less meat consumption (West et al., 2014; Poore and Nemecek, 2018; Springmann et al., 2018), or combinations of these strategies as viable solutions to achieve those goals, thereby improving agricultural sustainability.


Kc 4.2: “Principles Text” In Action In Outstanding And Ordinary Landscapes, Nora Mitchell Dr, Steve Brown Dr., Lionella Scazzosi Dr., Jane Lennon Dr., Brenda Barrett Oct 2019

Kc 4.2: “Principles Text” In Action In Outstanding And Ordinary Landscapes, Nora Mitchell Dr, Steve Brown Dr., Lionella Scazzosi Dr., Jane Lennon Dr., Brenda Barrett

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

In 2011, the ICOMOS-IFLA International Scientific Committee on Cultural Landscapes (ISCCL)began a cultural project, the World Rural LandscapesInitiative, with the goal of a wide and systematic approach to cultural heritage for rural areas both outstanding and ordinary) that has not been sufficiently developed in the past. A first goal has been achieved: “Principles Concerning Rural Landscape as Heritage” was adopted as a doctrinal text by ICOMOS (Delhi 2017) and translated in English, French, Chinese, Spanish and Arabian (worldrurallandscapes.org).

This Knowledge Café will focus on methods and case studies to implement the main premises and contents of the ...


Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson Oct 2019

Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This report presents the results of a web-based survey of certified crop advisers (CCAs) conducted as part of the Integrated Management of Oomycete Diseases of Soybean and other Crop Plants Project funded by USDA-NIFA. The survey is part of a project-long effort to engage members of the Certified Crop Adviser program of the American Society of Agronomy and other crop advisers in educational and extension activities to improve their ability to accurately diagnose and manage soybean seedling and root diseases, particularly those caused by oomycetes. The report consists of three sections. This first section describes the survey’s objectives and ...


Volatile Prices And Profi T Margins, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz Oct 2019

Volatile Prices And Profi T Margins, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Lee Schulz

THE CALENDAR year 2019 has been interesting for agricultural markets. We began the year with record supplies for all of Iowa’s major commodities. However, trade disputes have cast a cloud over growth in crop and livestock usage and weather events and foreign disease outbreaks have sparked quick reversals in commodity prices. Since the first of the year, corn prices have fluctuated by $1.10 per bushel, soybeans by $1.55 per bushel, hogs by $28 per hundredweight, and cattle by $16 per hundredweight. And we’re still only halfway through the year.


Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise Oct 2019

Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

Cette intervention fait référence au paragraphe de la résolution19GA 2017/30 du Conseil International des Monuments et des Sites indiquant que « la 19° Assemblée générale de l’ICOMOS… salue l’adoption de l’accord de Paris et encourage tous les membres de l’ICOMOS à renforcer leurs efforts pour appuyer sa mise en œuvre et identifier les réponses qui s’appuient sur le patrimoine ou les paysages culturels… ». Elle prend l’exemple de la façon dont les paysages de terrasses ont été abordés ces dernières années dans trois situations différentes : en France, dans le Guizhou en Chine et dans le ...


Toward Effective Rural Community Development In Black Belt Counties: Conceptual And Methodological Issues, Andrew Zekeri Oct 2019

Toward Effective Rural Community Development In Black Belt Counties: Conceptual And Methodological Issues, Andrew Zekeri

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

The objectives of this paper are to (1) specify what “rural”, “community”, and “development” mean, and (2) what should be the essential steps to be taken to achieve an effective rural community development. Rural is a territorial concept, and it means an extent of dispersion of people in a local ecology. Community is a natural disposition among people who interact with one another on different matters that compromise a common life. Development is an organized intentional effort of local people to work together towards a shared goal. Community development is building the capacity of community residents to act effectively ...


World’S Largest Pork Producer In Crisis: China’S African Swine Fever Outbreak, Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Yongjie Ji, Dermot J. Hayes Sep 2019

World’S Largest Pork Producer In Crisis: China’S African Swine Fever Outbreak, Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Yongjie Ji, Dermot J. Hayes

Wendong Zhang

AFTER SUFFERING a major blow from trade disruptions with China and Mexico, US pork producers are keeping close watch on African Swine Fever (ASF) in China and other countries. The βirst case of ASF in China was conβirmed August 2, 2018 in the northeastern city of Shenyang. According to our information, by the end of October 2018, there were 45 cases of ASF in China with 5,439 pigs infected and 3,841 pigs dead (download the ASF cases in China as an Excel βile ).


Lessons From Previous U.S.-China Trade Disputes, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Chad Hart Sep 2019

Lessons From Previous U.S.-China Trade Disputes, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Chad Hart

Wendong Zhang

TRADE ISSUES have recently erupted between the United States and China and the battle over newly announced tariffs has escalated quickly. At the beginning of 2018, the United States imposed tariffs on imported solar panels and washing machines, and China responded by initiating an anti-dumping investigation into US sorghum. In early March, President Trump announced steel and aluminum tariffs with China being one of the primary targets. Within two weeks, China responded by announcing a list of 128 US products that are the targets of retaliatory tariffs effective on April 2, 2018. The list included pork products and ethanol, which ...


China’S New Nationwide E10 Ethanol Mandate And Its Global Implications, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Riley Arthur, Tantao Yang, Xiudong Wang Sep 2019

China’S New Nationwide E10 Ethanol Mandate And Its Global Implications, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Riley Arthur, Tantao Yang, Xiudong Wang

Wendong Zhang

IN SEPTEMBER 2017, the Chinese government announced a new nationwide ethanol mandate (NEA 2017) that expands the mandatory use of E10 fuel (gasoline containing 10 percent ethanol) from 11 trial provinces to the entire country by 2020. This measure would require ethanol consumption in China, the largest motor vehicle market in the world, to at least quadruple within the next three years. For US producers, this recent development fuels interest in whether China is going to import ethanol and/or corn (the main feedstock for ethanol production in China) to meet the mandate.


African Swine Fever In China: An Update, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Yongjie Ji, Minghao Li, Tao Zlong Sep 2019

African Swine Fever In China: An Update, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Yongjie Ji, Minghao Li, Tao Zlong

Wendong Zhang

LAST NOVEMBER, we wrote an article (Shao et al. 2018) documenting the development of African Swine Fever (ASF) in China and its impacts on regional hog and pork prices. Since then, ASF has continued to ravage China’s hog industry with 62 new cases from November 1, 2018 to March 27, 2019, resulting in a total of 114 cases. The total inventory of hog factories with ASF outbreaks has increased from 61,214 to 319,726 (click here to see an animated map of ASF cases in China). The pace of the outbreaks has somewhat slowed down from more than ...


Can China’S Rural Land Policy Reforms Solve Its Farmland Dilemma?, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes Sep 2019

Can China’S Rural Land Policy Reforms Solve Its Farmland Dilemma?, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes

Wendong Zhang

THE SCARCITY of arable land is a deβining feature of Chinese agriculture (Zhang and Li 2018). In 2015, China fed 18.9 percent of the world’s population with only 8.5 percent of the world’s arable land. Furthermore, the limited agricultural land resource in China is distributed to 231 million households, resulting in an average farm size of only 0.96 acres per household (China Agricultural Development Report 2016), and even such small farms are usually scattered in several separate plots. Therefore, China faces two challenges: ( a ) preserving the quantity and quality of its arable land amid rapid ...


Four Reasons Why We Aren’T Likely To See A Replay Of The 1980’S Farm Crisis, Wendong Zhang Sep 2019

Four Reasons Why We Aren’T Likely To See A Replay Of The 1980’S Farm Crisis, Wendong Zhang

Wendong Zhang

T HERE ARE plenty of alarming signs indicating a possible farm crisis: current corn prices are half the 2013 peak level of US $7/bushel; farm income has declined for major commodities (corn, wheat, cattle), falling from the previous year to levels well below recent years; weak farm income and worsening credit conditions continue to trim farmland values, which are expected to trend lower in the months ahead, thus weakening the equity position of producers and the collateral value for lenders. Given the heightening farm βinancial crisis, many agricultural lenders, academics, and other stakeholders in the US farm sector worry ...


Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally Sep 2019

Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Cover crops are widely viewed by the soil and water conservation community to be an effective means for reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss and increasing soil health, yet relatively few farmers have adopted the practice. Despite the widespread recognition of cover crops' benefits and increased promotional efforts, there have been very few peer-reviewed studies focused on farmer perspectives on or adoption of cover crops. This study, which analyzed data from a survey and in-depth interviews with Iowa farmers, examined the roles that perceived practice characteristics, perspectives on potential facilitating factors, and crop and livestock diversity play in cover crop ...


Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette Aug 2019

Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette

Douglas L Karlen

Harvesting fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop has been suggested as a method to increase producer revenue and biofuel feedstock production, but drainage N loss impacts are currently unknown. Using the tested Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) across several N rates, spring application of 120 kg N ha-1 prior to winter rye harvest reduced drainage N loss by 54% compared with no cover crop and by 18% compared with planted rye that was neither fertilized nor harvested. Estimates of producer revenue and net energy were also positive, with 8.3 Mg ha-1 of harvested rye biomass ...


2019 Prevent Plant Impacts To South Dakota Grain Crop Value, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott Aug 2019

2019 Prevent Plant Impacts To South Dakota Grain Crop Value, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott

Matthew Elliott

The 2019 crop year has presented various challenges to South Dakota grain crop producers. A record number of prevented planting acres, late planted crops, and trade disputes are expected to significantly lower the value of grain crop production in South Dakota. Preliminary estimates of impact are outlined in the presentation.


Declining Liquidity In Iowa Farms: 2014–2017, Alejandro Plastina Aug 2019

Declining Liquidity In Iowa Farms: 2014–2017, Alejandro Plastina

Alejandro Plastina

The goal of the present study is to describe the evolution of financial liquidity in Iowa farms for 2014–2017, using a unique panel of 220 mid-scale commercial farms. Farms with vulnerable liquidity ratings increased from 33.2 percent in December 2014 to 45.0 percent in December 2017. On average, farms lost $244 of working capital per acre over that period, but farms with vulnerable liquidity ratings in December 2017 lost almost 60 percent more than that, or $388. Average farm size, machinery investment per acre, farm net worth per acre, debt-to-asset ratio, and age of operator were not ...


Meandering Water In The Prairie Pothole Region Of South Dakota, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang Aug 2019

Meandering Water In The Prairie Pothole Region Of South Dakota, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang

Matthew Elliott

This study estimates the agricultural economic impact of the land use changes in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of South Dakota.  The flooding of wetlands has been documented in this region after 1993. At the same time, the conversion of non-cropland to croplands has been observed.  Concerns have been raised if conversions to cropland are conducted on marginal acres that are susceptible to additional flooding.  We found that approximately 140,000 acres of agricultural land have been inundated.  We also found that the new areas of cropland are less prone to flooding than areas that were lost.


Meandering Water Dataset, Matthew Elliott Aug 2019

Meandering Water Dataset, Matthew Elliott

Matthew Elliott

Areas of land use changes in South Dakota's PPR region and associated soil and agriculture economic attributes.


Cover Crop Adoption Decisions In Iowa: Insights From An In-Person Survey, M. Jimena Gonzalez-Ramirez, Catherine Kling, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton, Jean Mcguire, Jamie Benning Aug 2019

Cover Crop Adoption Decisions In Iowa: Insights From An In-Person Survey, M. Jimena Gonzalez-Ramirez, Catherine Kling, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton, Jean Mcguire, Jamie Benning

J. Gordon Arbuckle

CURRENT NITROGEN and phosphorus applications in the Midwest have been connected to increasing water quality problems.


A Change In Highest And Best Use Policy In South Dakota Shows A Sizable Impact To Agricultural Land Assessments, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang Jul 2019

A Change In Highest And Best Use Policy In South Dakota Shows A Sizable Impact To Agricultural Land Assessments, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Tong Wang

Matthew Elliott

South Dakota is currently revisiting the Highest and Best Use (HBU) Policy for Determining Agricultural Land Assessments. We examine the impact on statewide assessments if the HBU policy was switched to an actual use policy or a most likely use policy.


Divergence Of Usda Trade Payments For Corn, Soybean, And Wheat Producers And ‘Nowcasts’ Of Tariff Impacts, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott Jun 2019

Divergence Of Usda Trade Payments For Corn, Soybean, And Wheat Producers And ‘Nowcasts’ Of Tariff Impacts, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott

Matthew Elliott

No abstract provided.


State Level Revenue Analysis Of The Market Facilitation Program, Anil Giri, Sankalp Sharma, Kyle Lovercamp, Iuliia Tetteh, Dhruba Dhakal, Rudra Baral Jun 2019

State Level Revenue Analysis Of The Market Facilitation Program, Anil Giri, Sankalp Sharma, Kyle Lovercamp, Iuliia Tetteh, Dhruba Dhakal, Rudra Baral

Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy

To compensate the US producers affected by the “trade war” with China, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) offered direct payments to producers using 2018 production levels under the Market Facilitation Program (MFP). Results of the revenue efficiency analysis of the MFP payments show the average producers in 12 out of 14 major corn and soybean producing states were compensated such that their 2018 per acre revenue was more than their 2017 per acre revenue. Conversely, an average producer in those states that experienced drought was under-compensated, as their total per acre revenue after the MFP payment was less ...


Do Cover Crops Pay? Net Returns To Corn/Soybean Farmers In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina Jun 2019

Do Cover Crops Pay? Net Returns To Corn/Soybean Farmers In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina

Alejandro Plastina

COVER CROPS, which are planted on approximately 700,000 of Iowa’s 30 million acres of farmland, have been found to have varying net returns based on several factors— cover c rop species, planting technique, termination method, tillage practices, following cash crop, and the farmer’s years of experience with cover crops.


Is Arc-Co Acting As A Safety Net Program? Evidence From Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart Jun 2019

Is Arc-Co Acting As A Safety Net Program? Evidence From Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart

Alejandro Plastina

THE AGRICULTURAL Act of 2014, referred to as the 2014 Farm Bill, is the legislative backbone of federal farm income support programs and agricultural disaster assistance programs. These programs, combined with federal crop insurance, are what is typically referred to as the farm safety net. As the debate has begun for the next version of the Farm Bill, policy discussions have centered on improving the effectiveness of the safety net. However, in previous Farm Bills, there had been a concerted effort to utilize decoupled agricultural support to ensure that US farm programs would meet World Trade Organization (WTO) standards. The ...


New Generation Grain Contracts In Corn And Soybean Commodity Markets, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Chad Te Slaa, Zhiguang Wang May 2019

New Generation Grain Contracts In Corn And Soybean Commodity Markets, Matthew Elliott, Lisa Elliott, Chad Te Slaa, Zhiguang Wang

Matthew Elliott

This research quantifies the risk reduction and price received when agricultural producers adopt new generation grain contracts (NGGCs) to hedge corn and soybean production. We explore the Accumulator, Average Price, Price Plus, Minimum Price, and Price Protection contracts and compare the performance measures of the average bushel price that would be received by the producer, the change in daily value of the portfolio and the Sharpe ratio. Specific to the Accumulator contract, we quantify the bushels accumulated during the contract period. We find that the Price Plus contracts performed best overall during the 2008-2017 period, obtaining the highest bushel price ...


Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White May 2019

Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White

Madhav Nepal

In this lesson, students will learn about sustainability, where farmers/agriculturists can meet the needs of food, fiber, and fuel for the growing population. Students learn about growing population, its growth rate, major food source, sustainability barrel, potential ripple effects of positive impacts as well as the food waste and its effects.


Rooted In Community: A Sustainable Facilities Design Project For A Universally Accessible Community Garden, Morgan A. Murray May 2019

Rooted In Community: A Sustainable Facilities Design Project For A Universally Accessible Community Garden, Morgan A. Murray

Senior Honors Theses

The idea of a place that is welcoming to all members in a community and creates a space where the collective mindset is elevated comes to life in a shared garden. This project is a proposal and design plan for a community garden to be implemented on The College at Brockport’s campus. The garden is rooted in the college’s values of community, engagement, excellence, and transformation. It inspires cohesion among all social groups and provides a space for quiet reflection. Carefully attention is paid attention to environmental aesthetics and how it influences both community cohesion and campus attachment ...


Rational Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management: An Application To The Gom Commercial Reef Fish Fishery, Quinn Weninger May 2019

Rational Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management: An Application To The Gom Commercial Reef Fish Fishery, Quinn Weninger

Economics Working Papers

Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) seeks to integrate the full complexity of real-world marine ecosystems into the design of fisheries management policies and regulations. EBFM is practiced currently with the help of complex ecosystem process models that track and simulate numerous ecosystem elements/organisms across space and time. For simplicity and to maintain tractability, the fishing sector component of process models maintain restrictive assumptions for harvesting technologies, fishing behavior, regulations, and fishing sector response to changing stock conditions. Predictions of fishing sector-ecosystem interaction obtained under these assumptions can grossly misinform EBFM policy design. An alternative rational fishing model is presented and ...


Neonicotinoids In U.S. Maize: Insecticide Substitution Effects And Environmental Risk, Edward D. Perry, Giancarlo Moschini May 2019

Neonicotinoids In U.S. Maize: Insecticide Substitution Effects And Environmental Risk, Edward D. Perry, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

This study exploits a novel dataset containing more than 89,000 farm-level surveys over a 17-year period to investigate how neonicotinoid seed treatments in maize, now ubiquitous, have affected the use of other insecticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides are the most used class of insecticides in the world, but they are controversial because of their high toxicity to honeybees. In the United States, maize production accounts for the majority of neonicotinoid use, mostly as seed treatments. We find that neonicotinoids substituted for other major insecticides: plots planted with neonicotinoid- treated seeds were 52% and 47% less likely to be treated with a ...


Food Insecurity Awareness, Acknowledgment, And Actions On A University Campus, Heather Adams Apr 2019

Food Insecurity Awareness, Acknowledgment, And Actions On A University Campus, Heather Adams

Undergraduate Research Conference

The purpose of this pilot study was to understand student awareness of food insecurities. Subjects for the study were students enrolled in a Foundations in Human Sciences course at a university located in East Texas (n=55). Students were asked to complete an online survey concerning knowledge of food insecurities, impacts of budgeting on food buying, previous personal food insecurity, skipped or had less nutritious meals due to the cost, and the food pantry on campus.