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Articles 1 - 30 of 206837

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Growth, Lipid Production And Biodiesel Potential Of Chromulina Freiburgensis Dofl., An Acidophilic Chrysophyte Isolated From Berkeley Pit Lake, June E. Mohler Mitman Mar 2109

Growth, Lipid Production And Biodiesel Potential Of Chromulina Freiburgensis Dofl., An Acidophilic Chrysophyte Isolated From Berkeley Pit Lake, June E. Mohler Mitman

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Microalgae remain a promising, but underdeveloped source of lipids for sustainable biodiesel. Some of the obstacles to cost-effective commercial-scale production have been culture contamination and expensive harvest methods. A chrysophyte isolated from Berkeley Pit Lake and identified as Chromulina freiburgensis, was found to grow rapidly in a pH 2.5 liquid medium and to amass numerous intracellular lipid bodies. This research addresses the scarcity of published knowledge on the topic of chrysophyte species as potential lipid sources for biodiesel. It investigates how growth phase, culture conditions, and harvest timing influence the quantity and composition of lipids produced by this alga ...


Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski Jul 2105

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

We provide an overview of the distribution of lowland and otherwise isolated populations of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) in the Los Angeles area of southern California, an area that has experienced a recent and ongoing invasion by the non-native eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), an urban-adapted species introduced a century ago. Away from its strongholds in the western Santa Monica Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, and Santa Ana Mountains, the western gray squirrel is resident locally in both the Santa Susana and the Verdugo Mountains, in Griffith Park, in low hills at the eastern periphery of the San Gabriel ...


An Orange Fluorescent Protein Tagging System For Real-Time Pollen Tracking, J. Rice, R. Mundell, R. Millwood, O. Chambers, L. Abercrombie, H. Davies, C. Stewart Dec 2102

An Orange Fluorescent Protein Tagging System For Real-Time Pollen Tracking, J. Rice, R. Mundell, R. Millwood, O. Chambers, L. Abercrombie, H. Davies, C. Stewart

C. Neal Stewart Jr.

Background Monitoring gene flow could be important for future transgenic crops, such as those producing plant-made-pharmaceuticals (PMPs) in open field production. A Nicotiana hybrid (Nicotiana. tabacum × Nicotiana glauca) shows limited male fertility and could be used as a bioconfined PMP platform. Effective assessment of gene flow from these plants is augmented with methods that utilize fluorescent proteins for transgenic pollen identification. Results We report the generation of a pollen tagging system utilizing an orange fluorescent protein to monitor pollen flow and as a visual assessment of transgene zygosity of the parent plant. This system was created to generate a tagged ...


Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi Sep 2099

Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, d50 and d99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


The Effects Of Increasing Running Speed On Vgrf And Asymmetry, Kaela M. Hierholzer Aug 2020

The Effects Of Increasing Running Speed On Vgrf And Asymmetry, Kaela M. Hierholzer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomechanical and physiological parameters related to running performance are usually studied separately. However, evaluating both aspects together could be beneficial in improving athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the change in peak vGRF and asymmetry as speed increases, while observing physiological responses during a O2maxtest. Data from athlete monitoring of 12 cross-country and triathlon athletes were analyzed. The athlete monitoring protocol included three unweighted countermovement jumps and a O2maxtest performed by the athletes. The athletes had an average O2maxof 53.4 ± 7.7 mL/kg/min, while their average vGRF ...


Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou May 2020

Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou May 2020

Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers May 2020

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney Jan 2020

Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Ground dwelling birds must scale all kinds of complex terrain in order to survive in their natural environments. For instance, Alectoris chukar live on steep hillsides with slopes of up to 60° or 172.3% slope. We undertook the present study to improve understanding of how birds successfully traverse such complex terrain. Using a high speed camera, we analyzed the hind limb kinematics of chukars during normal locomotion on a 10° and 35° incline, decline, and level slope. We compared the data collected from the video recordings, which we had used to identify and digitize the bony landmarks, between all ...


The Biased Media And Their Utilization Of Propaganda: The True Obstructionists Of World Events And Our Minds, David B. Ross, Gina Peyton, Melissa Tara Sasso, Rande Matteson, Cortney Matteson Dec 2019

The Biased Media And Their Utilization Of Propaganda: The True Obstructionists Of World Events And Our Minds, David B. Ross, Gina Peyton, Melissa Tara Sasso, Rande Matteson, Cortney Matteson

Dr. Melissa Tara Sasso

Propaganda is a widely controversial issue, especially when it collides with the media and politicians. This complex system creates tension between those who have a personal agenda to disseminate false statements to advance their plan to manipulate the minds of the public. Based upon 24/7 cable news and social media, there seems to be a miscommunication and disconnect from the truth regarding how the media reports world events, politics, environment, and how politicians were elected to help their constituents, not their own personal agendas. This chapter will address the concern for a better system of reporting the facts and ...


Jual Obat Aborsi Ponorogo >>085624642095>> Alamat Obat Cytotec Penggugur Janin Di Ponorogo, Mega Marshella1 Dec 2019

Jual Obat Aborsi Ponorogo >>085624642095>> Alamat Obat Cytotec Penggugur Janin Di Ponorogo, Mega Marshella1

mega marshella1

penyedia jasa jual obat aborsi di ponorogo yang beredar di internet, dengan berbagai penawar yang sangat menggiurkan, namun sangat sedikit pedagang obat aborsi online di ponorogo yang bisa di percaya. karena kelangkaan obat cytotec asli di ponorogo sangatlah sulit di dapat apalagi mendapatkan obat aborsi asli dengan kualiatas yang terbaik, oleh karena itu alangkah baiknya lebih berhati-hati sebelum menentukan proses jual beli obat aborsi di ponorogo.
Cara menggunakan obat aborsi cytotec atau klinik aborsi sendiri dari usia 1 hingga 6 bulan. Dengan produk pil asli ampuh dan disini kami akan menjelaskan secara jelas efek samping dari obat cytotec atau gastrul ...


Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir Dec 2019

Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A long-term poultry manure fertilizer study was initiated in 1998 and continued until 2009 under corn-soybean (CS) rotation. To match changing landscape trends, the plots were switched to continuous corn (CC) from 2010 to 2017. In both CS and CC phases, poultry manure (PM) was applied at the crop rotation recommended agronomic N rate and either half (CC phase) or double (CS phase) the recommended rate. Urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to comparison plots at the crop recommended application rate (168 kg N ha−1 and 224 kg N ha−1 for the CS and CC phases, respectively) throughout the ...


Radical Botany: Plants And Speculative Fiction [Table Of Contents], Natania Meeker, Antónia Szabari Dec 2019

Radical Botany: Plants And Speculative Fiction [Table Of Contents], Natania Meeker, Antónia Szabari

Literature

No abstract provided.


Máy Lọc Nước Điện Giải Kangen Leveluk K8 Nhật Bản Chính Hãng, Nhung Seven Dec 2019

Máy Lọc Nước Điện Giải Kangen Leveluk K8 Nhật Bản Chính Hãng, Nhung Seven

Nhung Seven

Giới thiệu sản phẩm máy lọc nước điện giải kangen leveluk k8 Nhật Bản chính hãng đến từ thương hiệu kangen water (Enagic). Máy điện giải leveluk k8 (Kangen 8) là loại máy chống oxy hóa mạnh mẽ nhất của Enagic – có 8 tấm titan platin nhúng để cải thiện ion hóa nước và tăng khả năng sản xuất chất chống oxy hoá.

Máy kangen k8 là sản phẩm được nhiều người quan tâm nhất trong thời gian hiện tại với khả năng điện phân cao nhất mang lại nguồn nước sạch dinh dưỡng đảm bảo sức khỏe người dùng ...


Polyhistidine Facilitates Direct Membrane Translocation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Into Cells, Han-Jung Lee, Yue-Wern Huang, Shiow-Her Chiou, Robert Aronstam Dec 2019

Polyhistidine Facilitates Direct Membrane Translocation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Into Cells, Han-Jung Lee, Yue-Wern Huang, Shiow-Her Chiou, Robert Aronstam

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

The bovine lactoferricin L6 (RRWQWR) has been previously identified as a novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that is able to efficiently internalize into human cells. L6 interacts with quantum dots (QDs) noncovalently to generate stable L6/QD complexes that enter cells by endocytosis. In this study, we demonstrate a modified L6 (HL6; CHHHHHRRWQWRHHHHHC), in which short polyhistidine peptides are introduced into both flanks of L6, has enhanced cell-penetrating ability in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma A549 cells. The mechanism of cellular uptake of HL6/QD complexes is primarily direct membrane translocation rather than endocytosis. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), but not pyrenebutyrate (PB), ethanol, oleic ...


Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez Dec 2019

Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez

Honors Theses

The success of certain ant species in urban areas is largely unknown. Available food in the environment could affect the composition of ants in urban areas due to a possible relationship between ant physiology and diet. I tested the oil preference of ants as a function of available arthropod prey in urban environments. I hypothesized that as arthropod diversity decreased, ant abundance at oil baits would decrease. Oil is an important nutrient that can affect ant body functions and activities. Ant foraging activities have been found to be affected by lipid depletion. A food source where ants can obtain oil ...


Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Locally Controls Anterior-Posterior Patterning Of The Axial Skeleton., Joonho Suh, Je-Hyun Eom, Na-Kyung Kim, Kyung Mi Woo, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Se-Jin Lee, Yun-Sil Lee Dec 2019

Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Locally Controls Anterior-Posterior Patterning Of The Axial Skeleton., Joonho Suh, Je-Hyun Eom, Na-Kyung Kim, Kyung Mi Woo, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Se-Jin Lee, Yun-Sil Lee

Faculty Research 2019

Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a transforming growth factor β family member that has been identified as the central player of anterior-posterior (A-P) axial skeletal patterning. Mice homozygous for Gdf11 deletion exhibit severe anterior homeotic transformations of the vertebrae and craniofacial defects. During early embryogenesis, Gdf11 is expressed predominantly in the primitive streak and tail bud regions, where new mesodermal cells arise. On the basis of this expression pattern of Gdf11 and the phenotype of Gdf11 mutant mice, it has been suggested that GDF11 acts to specify positional identity along the A-P axis either by local changes in ...


Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil Dec 2019

Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions of people each year. While research has been dedicated to determining the mechanical properties of the uninjured brain, there has been a lack of investigation on the mechanical properties of the brain after experiencing a primary blast-induced TBI. In this paper, whole porcine brains were exposed to a shock wave to simulate blast-induced TBI. First, ten (10) brains were subjected to unconfined compression experiments immediately following shock wave exposure. In addition, 22 brains exposed to a shock wave were placed in saline solution and refrigerated between 30 minutes and 6.0 hours before undergoing ...


The Response Of Utah Lake's Plant And Algal Community Structure To Cultural Eutrophication, Leighton R. King Dec 2019

The Response Of Utah Lake's Plant And Algal Community Structure To Cultural Eutrophication, Leighton R. King

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human activities have long had a negative impact on the water quality of freshwater lakes around the world. Utah Lake, located in north-central Utah, has been a subject of such impacts, as the lake experiences recurrent harmful algal blooms during the summer months. Lake warnings and closures have made the public increasingly aware of the ecological and economic impact of these blooms. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare historical and present-day water quality and ecosystem conditions using environmental data contained in sediment cores, 2) identify whether, and when, Utah Lake transitioned from clearwater to turbid conditions, and ...


Comparison Of Morphological Traits In Cowpea Pod Length, Seed Number Per Pod, Seed Weight, Seed Color And Seed Density In Usda Germplasm Accessions And Arkansas Breeding Lines, Sora Imamura Dec 2019

Comparison Of Morphological Traits In Cowpea Pod Length, Seed Number Per Pod, Seed Weight, Seed Color And Seed Density In Usda Germplasm Accessions And Arkansas Breeding Lines, Sora Imamura

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of the study was to compare and correlate the Arkansas cowpea breeding lines to the USDA cowpea germplasm accessions on the following morphological traits: seed color, pod length, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, and seed density. The seed density is defined as the weight of seed in gram per centimeter of pod length. Three hundred seventeen cowpea genotypes were used in this experiment. Out of the 317, 285 germplasm accessions were from the USDA GRIN and 32 lines were from the Arkansas breeding program.

T-test between Arkansas breeding lines and USDA germplasm accessions were done ...


Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner Dec 2019

Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner

Agronomy Publications

Sustainable agriculture describes crop management approaches that address the interdependent goals of increasing or at least maintaining yield while protecting the environment, conserving natural resources, and slowing climate change. Numerous authors have espoused limiting synthetic fertilizer and pesticides and promoting organic agriculture (Lechenet et al., 2014; Martinez-Alcantara et al., 2016; Muller at al. 2017), less meat consumption (West et al., 2014; Poore and Nemecek, 2018; Springmann et al., 2018), or combinations of these strategies as viable solutions to achieve those goals, thereby improving agricultural sustainability.


Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington Dec 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


Jual Obat Aborsi Malang 082242266717 Toko Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Acep Shop Nov 2019

Jual Obat Aborsi Malang 082242266717 Toko Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Acep Shop

acep shop

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What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen Nov 2019

What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Long-term studies have been crucial to the advancement of population biology, especially our understanding of population dynamics. We argue that this progress arises from three key characteristics of long-term research. First, long-term data are necessary to observe the heterogeneity that drives most population processes. Second, long-term studies often inherently lead to novel insights. Finally, long-term field studies can serve as model systems for population biology, allowing for theory and methods to be tested under well-characterized conditions. We illustrate these ideas in three long-term field systems that have made outsized contributions to our understanding of population ecology, evolution, and conservation biology ...


Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And The Evolution Of Multivariate Phenotypes, Dean C. Adams, Michael L. Collyer Nov 2019

Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And The Evolution Of Multivariate Phenotypes, Dean C. Adams, Michael L. Collyer

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Evolutionary biology is multivariate, and advances in phylogenetic comparative methods for multivariate phenotypes have surged to accommodate this fact. Evolutionary trends in multivariate phenotypes are derived from distances and directions between species in a multivariate phenotype space. For these patterns to be interpretable, phenotypes should be characterized by traits in commensurate units and scale. Visualizing such trends, as is achieved with phylomorphospaces, should continue to play a prominent role in macroevolutionary analyses. Evaluating phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) models (e.g., phylogenetic analysis of variance and regression) is valuable, but using parametric procedures is limited to only a few phenotypic ...


P-12 Characterization Of Cgx Tautomerase And Mutants With Acetylenecarboxylic Acid, Daniel Chi, Karen Draths, Amaya Sirinimal Oct 2019

P-12 Characterization Of Cgx Tautomerase And Mutants With Acetylenecarboxylic Acid, Daniel Chi, Karen Draths, Amaya Sirinimal

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

In the production of commodity chemicals through microbial synthesis, the use of renewable sugars as a raw material is increasingly common. However, this generates competition between its use in the chemical industry and the food industry. Therefore, developing alternative biosynthetic pathways involving other renewable feedstocks to replace starch-derived feedstocks is crucial. CgX, a tautomerase native to Corynebacterium glutamicum, catalyzes the hydration and subsequent decarboxylation of acetylenecarboxylic acid (ACA), a compound that can be produced from methane gas and carbon dioxide, both abundant greenhouse gases. The products formed from the CgX (wild-type)-catalyzed reaction of ACA results in a mixture of ...


Depaul Digest Oct 2019

Depaul Digest

DePaul Magazine

DePaulia Fantasy Football League; Democratizing Medicine; Campus/Alumni Calendar of Events; Regional Chapters; Musings: DePaul FEST; Milestones; Student Profile: Gabby Henderson; Master Class: The Perniciousness of "Ethical Decision-Making"


Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez Oct 2019

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


The Efficacy Of Applied Behavior Analysis On The Quality Of Critical Life Skills In Autistic Youth, Olukayode A. Akinsola Jr, Denah Appelt Oct 2019

The Efficacy Of Applied Behavior Analysis On The Quality Of Critical Life Skills In Autistic Youth, Olukayode A. Akinsola Jr, Denah Appelt

Denah Appelt

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, social communication, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, and interest or activities. As of 2013, ASD is no longer an individual entity but rather an umbrella term encompassing other distinctive developmental disorders. Signs and symptoms of ASD can appear anywhere from birth to three years of life. Various behavioral modalities exist for the treatment of ASD, which is considered to be the gold standard of care. One of the newest behavioral modalities is applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy. The general purpose of ABA therapy is the ...