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Full-Text Articles in Law and Gender

Women And The Making Of The Tunisian Constitution, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Anware Mnasri, Estee Ward Jan 2017

Women And The Making Of The Tunisian Constitution, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Anware Mnasri, Estee Ward

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article attempts to glean from field interviews and secondary sources some of the sociopolitical complexities that underlay women’s engagement in Tunisia’s 2011-14 constitution-making process. Elucidating such complexities can provide further insight into how women’s engagement impacted the substance and enforceability of the constitution’s final text. We argue that, in spite of longstanding roadblocks to implement and enforce constitutional guarantees, the greater involvement of Tunisian women in the constitution drafting process did make a difference in the final gender provisions of Tunisia’s constitution. Although not all recommendations were adopted, Tunisian women were able to use ...


Foundling Fathers: (Non-)Marriage And Parental Rights In The Age Of Equality, Serena Mayeri Jun 2016

Foundling Fathers: (Non-)Marriage And Parental Rights In The Age Of Equality, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The twentieth-century equality revolution established the principle of sex neutrality in the law of marriage and divorce and eased the most severe legal disabilities traditionally imposed upon nonmarital children. Formal equality under the law eluded nonmarital parents, however. Although unwed fathers won unprecedented legal rights and recognition in a series of Supreme Court cases decided in the 1970s and 1980s, they failed to achieve constitutional parity with mothers or with married and divorced fathers. This Article excavates nonmarital fathers’ quest for equal rights, until now a mere footnote in the history of constitutional equality law.

Unmarried fathers lacked a social ...


Marriage (In)Equality And The Historical Legacies Of Feminism, Serena Mayeri Nov 2015

Marriage (In)Equality And The Historical Legacies Of Feminism, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this essay, I measure the majority’s opinion in Obergefell v. Hodges against two legacies of second-wave feminist legal advocacy: the largely successful campaign to make civil marriage formally gender-neutral; and the lesser-known struggle against laws and practices that penalized women who lived their lives outside of marriage. Obergefell obliquely acknowledges marriage equality’s debt to the first legacy without explicitly adopting sex equality arguments against same-sex marriage bans. The legacy of feminist campaigns for nonmarital equality, by contrast, is absent from Obergefell’s reasoning and belied by rhetoric that both glorifies marriage and implicitly disparages nonmarriage. Even so ...


Marital Supremacy And The Constitution Of The Nonmarital Family, Serena Mayeri Jan 2015

Marital Supremacy And The Constitution Of The Nonmarital Family, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Despite a transformative half century of social change, marital status still matters. The marriage equality movement has drawn attention to the many benefits conferred in law by marriage at a time when the “marriage gap” between affluent and poor Americans widens and rates of nonmarital childbearing soar. This Essay explores the contested history of marital supremacy—the legal privileging of marriage—through the lens of the “illegitimacy” cases of the 1960s and 1970s. Often remembered as a triumph for nonmarital families, these decisions defined the constitutional harm of illegitimacy classifications as the unjust punishment of innocent children for the “sins ...


Money, Sex, And Religion--The Supreme Court's Aca Sequel, George J. Annas, Theodore Ruger, Jennifer Prah Ruger Jan 2014

Money, Sex, And Religion--The Supreme Court's Aca Sequel, George J. Annas, Theodore Ruger, Jennifer Prah Ruger

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Supreme Court decision in the Hobby Lobby case is in many ways a sequel to the Court's 2012 decision on the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The majority decision, written by Justice Samuel Alito, is a setback for both the ACA's foundational goal of access to universal health care and for women's health care specifically. The Court's ruling can be viewed as a direct consequence of our fragmented health care system, in which fundamental duties are incrementally delegated and imposed on a range of public and private actors. Our incremental, fragmented, and incomplete ...


Veiled Women In The American Courtroom: Is The Niqab A Barrier To Justice?, Anita L. Allen Jan 2014

Veiled Women In The American Courtroom: Is The Niqab A Barrier To Justice?, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

U.S. courts and policy-makers have recently authorized laws and practices that interfere with the wearing of religious modesty attire that conceals the hair or face in contexts such as courtroom testimony or driver’s license issuance. For example, in response to a court’s dismissal of the case of a woman who refused to remove her niqab in the courtroom, the Michigan Supreme Court decided that judges can exercise “reasonable control” over the appearance of courtroom parties. But what degree of control over religious attire is reasonable? The Constitution will not allow a blanket niqab removal policy based on ...


First Amendment Privacy And The Battle For Progressively Liberal Social Change, Anita L. Allen Mar 2012

First Amendment Privacy And The Battle For Progressively Liberal Social Change, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Veiled Women In The American Courtroom: Is The Niqab A Barrier To Justice?, Anita L. Allen Sep 2010

Veiled Women In The American Courtroom: Is The Niqab A Barrier To Justice?, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

U.S. courts and policy-makers have recently authorized laws and practices that interfere with the wearing of religious modesty attire that conceals the hair or face in contexts such as courtroom testimony or driver’s license issuance. For example, in response to a court’s dismissal of the case of a woman who refused to remove her niqab in the courtroom, the Michigan Supreme Court decided that judges can exercise “reasonable control” over the appearance of courtroom parties. But what degree of control over religious attire is reasonable? The Constitution will not allow a blanket niqab removal policy based on ...


Race, Sex, And Rulemaking: Administrative Constitutionalism And The Workplace, 1960 To The Present, Sophia Z. Lee Jan 2010

Race, Sex, And Rulemaking: Administrative Constitutionalism And The Workplace, 1960 To The Present, Sophia Z. Lee

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


A New E.R.A. Or A New Era? Amendment Advocacy And The Reconstitution Of Feminism, Serena Mayeri Jan 2009

A New E.R.A. Or A New Era? Amendment Advocacy And The Reconstitution Of Feminism, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Scholars have largely treated the reintroduction of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) after its ratification failure in 1982 as a mere postscript to a long, hard-fought, and ultimately unsuccessful campaign to enshrine women’s legal equality in the federal constitution. This Article argues that “ERA II” was instead an important turning point in the history of legal feminism and of constitutional amendment advocacy. Whereas ERA I had once attracted broad bipartisan support, ERA II was a partisan political weapon exploited by advocates at both ends of the ideological spectrum. But ERA II also became a vehicle for feminist reinvention. Congressional ...


Reconstructing The Race-Sex Analogy, Serena Mayeri Jan 2008

Reconstructing The Race-Sex Analogy, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Atmospherics: Abortion Law And Philosophy, Anita L. Allen Nov 2007

Atmospherics: Abortion Law And Philosophy, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In 1934, Karl N. Llewellyn published a lively essay trumpeting the dawn of legal realism, “On Philosophy in American Law.” The charm of his defective little piece is its style and audacity. A philosopher might be seduced into reading Llewellyn’s essay by its title; but one soon learns that by “philosophy” Llewellyn only meant “atmosphere”. His concerns were the “general approaches” taken by practitioners, who may not even be aware of having general approaches. Llewellyn paired an anemic concept of philosophy with a pumped-up conception of law. Llewellyn’s “law” included anything that reflects the “ways of the law ...


Originalism And Its Discontents (Plus A Thought Or Two About Abortion), Mitchell N. Berman Jan 2007

Originalism And Its Discontents (Plus A Thought Or Two About Abortion), Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Strange Career Of Jane Crow: Sex Segregation And The Transformation Of Anti-Discrimination Discourse, Serena Mayeri Jan 2006

The Strange Career Of Jane Crow: Sex Segregation And The Transformation Of Anti-Discrimination Discourse, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article examines the causes and consequences of a transformation in anti-discrimination discourse between 1970 and 1977 that shapes our constitutional landscape to this day. Fears of cross-racial intimacy leading to interracial marriage galvanized many white Southerners to oppose school desegregation in the 1950s and 1960s. In the wake of Brown v. Board of Education, some commentators, politicians, and ordinary citizens proposed a solution: segregate the newly integrated schools by sex. When court-ordered desegregation became a reality in the late 1960s, a smattering of southern school districts implemented sex separation plans. As late as 1969, no one saw sex-segregated schools ...


Constitutional Choices: Legal Feminism And The Historical Dynamics Of Change, Serena Mayeri Jan 2004

Constitutional Choices: Legal Feminism And The Historical Dynamics Of Change, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


"A Common Fate Of Discrimination": Race-Gender Analogies In Legal And Historical Perpsective, Serena Mayeri Jan 2001

"A Common Fate Of Discrimination": Race-Gender Analogies In Legal And Historical Perpsective, Serena Mayeri

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Proposed Equal Protection Fix For Abortion Law: Reflections On Citizenship, Gender, And The Constitution, Anita L. Allen Jan 1995

The Proposed Equal Protection Fix For Abortion Law: Reflections On Citizenship, Gender, And The Constitution, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Only Good Poor Woman: Unconstitutional Conditions And Welfare, Dorothy E. Roberts Jan 1995

The Only Good Poor Woman: Unconstitutional Conditions And Welfare, Dorothy E. Roberts

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


"But Whoever Treasures Freedom...": The Right To Travel And Extraterritorial Abortions, Seth F. Kreimer Mar 1993

"But Whoever Treasures Freedom...": The Right To Travel And Extraterritorial Abortions, Seth F. Kreimer

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Rust V. Sullivan And The Control Of Knowledge, Dorothy E. Roberts Jan 1993

Rust V. Sullivan And The Control Of Knowledge, Dorothy E. Roberts

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Autonomy's Magic Wand: Abortion And Constitutional Interpretation, Anita L. Allen Jan 1992

Autonomy's Magic Wand: Abortion And Constitutional Interpretation, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Tribe's Judicious Feminism, Anita L. Allen Nov 1991

Tribe's Judicious Feminism, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Punishing Drug Addicts Who Have Babies: Women Of Color, Equality, And The Right Of Privacy, Dorothy E. Roberts Jan 1991

Punishing Drug Addicts Who Have Babies: Women Of Color, Equality, And The Right Of Privacy, Dorothy E. Roberts

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Privacy, Surrogacy, And The Baby M Case, Anita L. Allen Jan 1988

Privacy, Surrogacy, And The Baby M Case, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Taking Liberties: Privacy, Private Choice, And Social Contract Theory, Anita L. Allen Jan 1987

Taking Liberties: Privacy, Private Choice, And Social Contract Theory, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.