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Full-Text Articles in Law and Gender

Equitable Hiring Policy In Higher Education At The University Of Montana, Victoria Mckinley Bigelow, Kinsey Anderson Jan 2020

Equitable Hiring Policy In Higher Education At The University Of Montana, Victoria Mckinley Bigelow, Kinsey Anderson

Graduate Student Portfolios

Higher Education; University of Montana; Equity; Hiring; University; College; Montana; Missoula; Public Administration; Organization; Missoula; Diversity; Women; Policy


Measuring Diversity In The Adr Field: Some Observations And Challenges Regarding Transparency, Metrics And Empirical Research, Maria R. Volpe Jun 2019

Measuring Diversity In The Adr Field: Some Observations And Challenges Regarding Transparency, Metrics And Empirical Research, Maria R. Volpe

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article, which will address some observations and challenges of measuring diversity in the dispute resolution field, grows out of an invitation from Nancy Welsh to give a presentation at Texas A&M University Law School’s conference focusing on transparency, metrics, and empirical research. The theme of the conference provided a reminder not only about the necessity but also the urgency to deepen our thinking regarding diversity and inclusivity among dispute resolution neutrals by giving greater attention to the metrics needed for transparency and a better understanding of the field. What this article will illustrate is that the search ...


It’S Time To Pay Up, The Justification For Higher Salaries For Wnba Players: An Analysis Of The Wnba’S Success And Employing Mediation Between The Wnba And Nba To Leverage Future Success, Lerae Ettienne Jun 2019

It’S Time To Pay Up, The Justification For Higher Salaries For Wnba Players: An Analysis Of The Wnba’S Success And Employing Mediation Between The Wnba And Nba To Leverage Future Success, Lerae Ettienne

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This comment looks at the potential positive effects that mediation can have in fostering a better relationship between the two leagues and for the WNBA and its players to get their much-deserved respect and compensation. First, the comment will go in depth regarding the structure of the WNBA, and its history to date. Next, the comment will examine the WNBA’s success despite the discrepancy in pay and the purported lack of viewership. The comment will then expound on the rise of mediation as one of the major ADR tools. Next, the comment will analyze the success of mediation in ...


The Need To Codify Roe V. Wade: A Case For National Abortion Legislation, Kathryn N. Peachman Jun 2019

The Need To Codify Roe V. Wade: A Case For National Abortion Legislation, Kathryn N. Peachman

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


Do We Need To Secure A Place At The Table For Women? An Analysis Of The Legality Of California Law Sb-826, Teal N. Trujillo Jun 2019

Do We Need To Secure A Place At The Table For Women? An Analysis Of The Legality Of California Law Sb-826, Teal N. Trujillo

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


The Gendered Burdens Of Conviction And Collateral Consequences On Employment, Joni Hersch, Erin E. Meyers Jun 2019

The Gendered Burdens Of Conviction And Collateral Consequences On Employment, Joni Hersch, Erin E. Meyers

Journal of Legislation

Ex-offenders are subject to a wide range of employment restrictions that limit the ability of individuals with a criminal background to earn a living. This Article argues that women involved in the criminal justice system likely suffer a greater income-related burden from criminal conviction than do men. This disproportionate burden arises in occupations that women typically pursue, both through formal pathways, such as restrictions on occupational licensing, and through informal pathways, such as employers’ unwillingness to hire those with a criminal record. In addition, women have access to far fewer vocational programs while incarcerated. Further exacerbating this burden is that ...


The Forgotten Victims Of Missing White Woman Syndrome: An Examination Of Legal Measures That Contribute To The Lack Of Search And Recovery Of Missing Black Girls And Women, Jada L. Moss Jun 2019

The Forgotten Victims Of Missing White Woman Syndrome: An Examination Of Legal Measures That Contribute To The Lack Of Search And Recovery Of Missing Black Girls And Women, Jada L. Moss

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


A Reasonable Solution For Working Parents: Expanding Reasonable Accommodation Under The Americans With Disabilities Act To Parents Of Children With Disabilities, Katherine Lease Jun 2019

A Reasonable Solution For Working Parents: Expanding Reasonable Accommodation Under The Americans With Disabilities Act To Parents Of Children With Disabilities, Katherine Lease

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

There is a growing intersection between a woman’s child-rearing and work responsibilities, but federal law inadequately addresses this issue. For mothers who have a child with a disability, they face increased parenting demands, which often lead to detrimental changes in their employment status and negative perceptions of their work ability and commitment. Many women face expectations to simultaneously be the perfect mother and the ideal worker, but this is largely unattainable when faced with the demands of raising a child with a disability.

This Note will explore the development and inadequacy of the current protection against association discrimination, that ...


Unbowed, Unbroken, And Unsung: The Unrecognized Contributions Of African American Women In Social Movements, Politics, And The Maintenance Of Democracy, Patricia A. Broussard Jun 2019

Unbowed, Unbroken, And Unsung: The Unrecognized Contributions Of African American Women In Social Movements, Politics, And The Maintenance Of Democracy, Patricia A. Broussard

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


The "Victim-Perpetrator" Dilemma: The Role Of State Safe Harbor Laws In Creating A Presumption Of Coercion For Human Trafficking Victims, Matthew Myatt Jun 2019

The "Victim-Perpetrator" Dilemma: The Role Of State Safe Harbor Laws In Creating A Presumption Of Coercion For Human Trafficking Victims, Matthew Myatt

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


U.S. Policymaking To Address Menstruation: Advancing An Equity Agenda, Jennifer Weiss-Wolf Jun 2019

U.S. Policymaking To Address Menstruation: Advancing An Equity Agenda, Jennifer Weiss-Wolf

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Transparenthood, Sonia K. Katyal, Ilona M. Turner Jun 2019

Transparenthood, Sonia K. Katyal, Ilona M. Turner

Michigan Law Review

Despite the growing recognition of transgender rights in both law and culture, there is one area of law that has lagged behind: family law’s treatment of transgender parents. We perform an investigation of the way that transgender parents are treated in case law and discover striking results regarding the outcomes for transgender parents within the family court system. Despite significant gains for transgender plaintiffs in employment and other areas of law, the evidence reveals an array of ways in which the family court system has systematically alienated the rights and interests of transgender parents. In many cases involving custody ...


Properly Accounting For Domestic Violence In Child Custody Cases: An Evidence-Based Analysis And Reform Proposal, Debra Pogrund Stark, Jessica M. Choplin, Sarah Elizabeth Wellard May 2019

Properly Accounting For Domestic Violence In Child Custody Cases: An Evidence-Based Analysis And Reform Proposal, Debra Pogrund Stark, Jessica M. Choplin, Sarah Elizabeth Wellard

Debra Pogrund Stark

Promoting the best interests of children and protecting their safety and well-being in the context of a divorce or parentage case where domestic violence has been alleged has become highly politicized and highly gendered. There are claims by fathers’ rights groups that mothers often falsely accuse fathers of domestic violence to alienate the fathers from their children and to improve their financial position. They also claim that children do better when fathers are equally involved in their children’s lives, but that judges favor mothers over fathers in custody cases. As a consequence, fathers’ rights groups have engaged in a ...


From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw May 2019

From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Human sex trafficking is an ongoing global rights violation formally recognized since 2000 through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Using ecological and trauma-informed lenses, this qualitative, retrospective study used participant-centered methods to explore identity, sexuality, relationships, and factors that facilitate/ hindered community reintegration for 15 adult female survivors. Interview transcripts, Photovoice captioned images, and focus groups were analyzed using multi-level conceptual and thematic coding. Participants identified with all aspects of complex trauma, including: dissociation, self-perception/identity, relations with others and systems of meaning. Key themes included losing and regaining power, shame, and ...


Legal Rights Of Transgender Students In Education, Almond A. Seals, Melissa C. Gonzales May 2019

Legal Rights Of Transgender Students In Education, Almond A. Seals, Melissa C. Gonzales

Diversity, Social Justice, and the Educational Leader

Nearly 150,000 school-aged teenagers in the United States identify as transgender, but the population continues to face harassment, bullying, and discrimination from their peers and educators. The most recent battles for bathroom access based on gender identity has led to significant policy debates nationally and statewide. It is critical for school leaders to promote an all-inclusive and safe school environment to help improve the academic experience for transgender students. The purpose of this paper is to outline the current anti-discrimination federal and state laws that protect against sex and gender identity harassment in school, including Title IX, Equal Access ...


Indigenous Women's Bodies: Primer Territorio De Defensa, Ana Gabriela Avalos Tizol May 2019

Indigenous Women's Bodies: Primer Territorio De Defensa, Ana Gabriela Avalos Tizol

Master's Theses

The teen pregnancy “epidemic” in Guatemala is a focal point when international and national NGOs demand that the government protect the civil and political rights of girls. In accordance, the state created laws (legal age for marriage - Ordinance 13-2017), implemented penal codes (statutory rape - Article 173) and created Programa Vida (conditional cash transfer of Q. 1,500 - $200 every two months) to address this ‘epidemic.’ Yet, only sixty-one teen mothers were involved in the program by the first year in 2018, indicating its inaccessibility. This thesis proposes to challenge the dominant narrative on teenage pregnancies, which blames “Mayan cultural practices ...


If A Fetus Is A Person, It Should Get Child Support, Due Process And Citizenship, Carliss Chatman May 2019

If A Fetus Is A Person, It Should Get Child Support, Due Process And Citizenship, Carliss Chatman

Carliss Chatman

Alabama has joined the growing number of states determined to overturn Roe v. Wade by banning abortion from conception forward. The Alabama Human Life Protection Act, as the new statute is called, subjects a doctor who performs an abortion to as many as 99 years in prison. The law, enacted Wednesday, has no exceptions for rape or incest. It redefines an “unborn child, child or person” as “a human being, specifically including an unborn child in utero at any stage of development, regardless of viability.” We ought to take our laws seriously. Under the laws, people have all sorts of ...


Introduction, Deborah W. Post May 2019

Introduction, Deborah W. Post

Deborah W. Post

No abstract provided.


Is Title Vii > Ix?: Does Title Vii Preempt Title Ix Sex Discrimination Claims In Higher Ed Employment?, Mckenzie Miller May 2019

Is Title Vii > Ix?: Does Title Vii Preempt Title Ix Sex Discrimination Claims In Higher Ed Employment?, Mckenzie Miller

Catholic University Law Review

Across all job sectors, women working full-time earned about 80 percent of what men earned in 2016. Within higher education this gender gap persists in salary, hiring, promotions, and other aspects of academic employment. Professors can seemingly attempt to remedy this under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act or Title IX of the Education Amendments, both of which prohibit sex discrimination in higher education. Circuits, however, have split as to whether Title VII preempts Title IX in actions for employment discrimination in higher education.

The Third Circuit revived this split in Doe v. Mercy Catholic Medical Center, and joined ...


When Law Frees Us To Speak, Danielle Keats Citron, Jonathon W. Penney May 2019

When Law Frees Us To Speak, Danielle Keats Citron, Jonathon W. Penney

Fordham Law Review

A central aim of online abuse is to silence victims. That effort is as regrettable as it is successful. In the face of cyberharassment and sexualprivacy invasions, women and marginalized groups retreat from online engagement. These documented chilling effects, however, are not inevitable. Beyond its deterrent function, the law has an equally important expressive role. In this Article, we highlight law’s capacity to shape social norms and behavior through education. We focus on a neglected dimension of law’s expressive role: its capacity to empower victims to express their truths and engage with others. Our argument is theoretical and ...


Gender Equality And The First Amendment: Foreword, Jeanmarie Fenrich, Benjamin C. Zipursky, Danielle Keats Citron May 2019

Gender Equality And The First Amendment: Foreword, Jeanmarie Fenrich, Benjamin C. Zipursky, Danielle Keats Citron

Fordham Law Review

Gender equality demands equal opportunity to speak and be heard. Yet, in recent years, the clash between equality and free speech in the context of gender has intensified—in the media, the workplace, college campuses, and the political arena, both online and offline. The internet has given rise to novel First Amendment issues that particularly affect women, such as nonconsensual pornography, online harassment, and online privacy. On November 1–2, 2018, the Fordham Law Review brought together scholars and practicing lawyers from around the nation to address many of the pressing challenges facing feminists and free speech advocates today. The ...


Pregnancy And The First Amendment, Helen Norton May 2019

Pregnancy And The First Amendment, Helen Norton

Fordham Law Review

Suppose that you are pregnant and seated in the waiting room of a Planned Parenthood clinic, or maybe in a facility that advertises “Pregnant? We Can Help You.” This Essay discusses the First Amendment rules that apply to the government’s control of what you are about to hear. This Essay considers what First Amendment law, as applied to speech to pregnant women, would look like if the Court attended to the First Amendment interests of pregnant women themselves.


Free Speech And The Diverse University, Keith E. Whittington May 2019

Free Speech And The Diverse University, Keith E. Whittington

Fordham Law Review

There are those who think that free speech and inclusivity on college campuses are inconsistent. The notion that the two values are in tension with one another has become a common framing for thinking about the modern campus. A Gallup-Knight Foundation poll of college students asked respondents not only whether they valued free speech or diversity but also to choose between them and indicate which was “more important for colleges.” When forced to choose, a substantial minority of students said they would prioritize inclusivity over the freedom to express “viewpoints that are offensive” on campus. Following the Gallup-Knight poll the ...


Income Disparity, Gender Equality, And Free Expression, Sylvia A. Law May 2019

Income Disparity, Gender Equality, And Free Expression, Sylvia A. Law

Fordham Law Review

In the past half century, our world has experienced a radical change comparable to the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century. At least five elements are key: growing disparity of human opportunity, advance of formal human rights and equality, information transformation, economic globalization, and climate change. My focus is on economic disparity and gender equality in the United States. These two issues, huge in and of themselves, interact with the other cataclysmic changes of our time.


'‘Male Chauvinism’ Is Under Attack From All Sides At Present': Roberts V. United States Jaycees, Sex Discrimination, And The First Amendment, Linda Mcclain May 2019

'‘Male Chauvinism’ Is Under Attack From All Sides At Present': Roberts V. United States Jaycees, Sex Discrimination, And The First Amendment, Linda Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

Today, many take it for granted that discriminating against women in the marketplace is illegal and morally wrong. Roberts v. United States Jaycees (1984) remains a foundational case on government’s compelling interest in prohibiting sex (or gender) discrimination in public accommodations, even in the face of First Amendment claims of freedom of association and expression. Curiously, Jaycees seems comparatively neglected by legal scholars, if measured by the cases included in the various collections of “law stories” or “rewritten opinions” projects. Looking back at the Jaycees litigation reveals the parties wrestling over the reach of public accommodations law and the ...


Getting To Equal: Resolving The Judicial Impasse On The Weight Of Non-Monetary Contribution In Kenya's Marital Asset Division, Benedeta Prudence Mutiso May 2019

Getting To Equal: Resolving The Judicial Impasse On The Weight Of Non-Monetary Contribution In Kenya's Marital Asset Division, Benedeta Prudence Mutiso

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Marital property law reforms and changing international human rights standards in the late 20th and early 21st century prompted Kenya to end certain discriminatory practices against women, especially in the area of property rights. For 50 years, Kenya relied on England’s century-old law, the Married Women’s Property Act of 1882, to regulate property rights. In 2010, Kenya adopted a new Constitution that called for equality between men and women, and in 2013, Kenya enacted independent legislation in the form of the Matrimonial Property Act (MPA). The MPA provides a basis for trial courts to divide marital property upon ...


Contracting Around Gender Constructs: Transgender Men At Women's Colleges, Elizabeth A. Heise May 2019

Contracting Around Gender Constructs: Transgender Men At Women's Colleges, Elizabeth A. Heise

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

As the transgender community gains increasing visibility in society, women’s colleges have begun to address new questions about who is eligible to attend. One such question is whether students who come out as transgender men after matriculation are eligible to remain enrolled and graduate from these institutions. The main claims relevant to this discussion are (1) colleges’ right to retain their identity as all-women’s institutions; (2) the parallel rights of cisgender female students who explicitly choose to attend an all-women’s institution, and (3) transgender students’ competing right to avoid arbitrary or capricious dismissal based on gender identity ...


Properly Accounting For Domestic Violence In Child Custody Cases: An Evidence-Based Analysis And Reform Proposal, Debra Pogrund Stark, Jessica M. Choplin, Sarah Elizabeth Wellard May 2019

Properly Accounting For Domestic Violence In Child Custody Cases: An Evidence-Based Analysis And Reform Proposal, Debra Pogrund Stark, Jessica M. Choplin, Sarah Elizabeth Wellard

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Promoting the best interests of children and protecting their safety and well-being in the context of a divorce or parentage case where domestic violence has been alleged has become highly politicized and highly gendered. There are claims by fathers’ rights groups that mothers often falsely accuse fathers of domestic violence to alienate the fathers from their children and to improve their financial position. They also claim that children do better when fathers are equally involved in their children’s lives, but that judges favor mothers over fathers in custody cases. As a consequence, fathers’ rights groups have engaged in a ...


Rwu Law: The Magazine Of Roger Williams University School Of Law (Issue 10, 25th Anniversary Issue) (May 2019), Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2019

Rwu Law: The Magazine Of Roger Williams University School Of Law (Issue 10, 25th Anniversary Issue) (May 2019), Roger Williams University School Of Law

RWU Law

No abstract provided.


The Case For Contraceptives: The Legislative History Of The Aca’S Birth Control Mandate, Julia Grant May 2019

The Case For Contraceptives: The Legislative History Of The Aca’S Birth Control Mandate, Julia Grant

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

This paper seeks to outline the legislative and judicial history of the Affordable Care Act’s contraception coverage mandate. It begins by explaining the justifications and specifications of the provision. It then highlights the three phases of litigation that have surrounded the mandate: closely held, for-profit companies; religious nonprofit organizations; and state attorney generals. This paper provides context for the litigation by describing the opposing stances towards the mandate of the Obama and Trump Administrations and the different modifications to the provision made under each administration. In the wake of last week’s finalization of the controversial rules the Trump ...