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Full-Text Articles in Health Law and Policy

Federal Regulation Of Pesticide Residues: A Brief History And Analysis, Kate Z. Graham Sep 2019

Federal Regulation Of Pesticide Residues: A Brief History And Analysis, Kate Z. Graham

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In the United States today, there are over 900 pesticides in use1 and over 400 are approved for use in food production, whether used as part of the growing process or in post-harvest handling. Although the history of pesticide use in food crops goes back centuries, the post-war period has seen an enormous growth in the varieties and amounts of pesticides used in our food system. As our reliance on pesticides has grown, pesticides have become a divisive issue. Pesticide advocates view them as essential to a secure and reliable food supply needed to feed a growing world population. Detractors ...


Blockchain Meets Genomics: Governance Considerations For Promoting Food Safety And Public Health, Walter G. Johnson Sep 2019

Blockchain Meets Genomics: Governance Considerations For Promoting Food Safety And Public Health, Walter G. Johnson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Foodborne illness remains an ongoing public health challenge in both the developing and industrialized worlds. In the United States, almost 50 million reported cases of infectious disease occur every year from a food product, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality with economic burdens to health care and productivity. Despite recognition as a leader in food safety, the U.S. experiences longstanding and novel issues in food safety. Advances in whole genome sequencing (WGS) promise to bolster food safety regulators’ capabilities to identify pathogens and determine their source. However, inefficiencies in tracing food products through the supply chain remain.


Tacos, Tequila, And Tainted Alcohol? An Examination Of The Tainted Alcohol Problem In Mexico And What It Means For The American Tourist, Tammy Le Jul 2019

Tacos, Tequila, And Tainted Alcohol? An Examination Of The Tainted Alcohol Problem In Mexico And What It Means For The American Tourist, Tammy Le

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Two Most Important Questions For Ethical Public Health, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin Jul 2019

The Two Most Important Questions For Ethical Public Health, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Public health ethics is a distinct and established field, and it is important that its approaches and rationales are understood widely in the public health community. Such understanding includes the capacity to identify and combine principled and practical concerns in public health. In this paper, we present a background to the ideas that motivate public health ethics as a field of research and practice, and rationalize these through a critical ethico-legal approach to analysis. Two essential points of inquiry are identified and formulated to allow philosophical and practical agendas regarding public health to be combined. These come through asking the ...


The “Conscience” Rule: How Will It Affect Patients’ Access To Health Services?, Lawrence O. Gostin Jun 2019

The “Conscience” Rule: How Will It Affect Patients’ Access To Health Services?, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On May 2, 2019, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Office of Civil Rights (OCR) released a final rule that heightens the rights of hospitals and health workers to refuse to participate in patients’ medical care based on religious or moral grounds. The rule covers OCR’s authority to investigate and enforce violations of 25 federal “conscience protection” laws. Tied to the US Constitution’s spending power, the rule applies to state and local governments, as well as public and private health care professionals and entities if they receive federal funds such as Medicare or Medicaid ...


The Public Charge Rule As Public Health Policy, Medha D. Makhlouf Jun 2019

The Public Charge Rule As Public Health Policy, Medha D. Makhlouf

Faculty Scholarly Works

A recent Gallup poll found that health care, the economy, and immigration are the top three most important political issues for U.S. voters. Public charge policy—which relates to the admission of noncitizens based on the likelihood that they will not become dependent on the U.S. government for support—lies at the intersection of these three topics. At the same time, immigration and welfare reform are prominent agenda items for the current administration. On October 10, 2018, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) released a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would transform public charge policy that has existed ...


The Public Charge Rule As Public Health Policy, Medha Makhlouf May 2019

The Public Charge Rule As Public Health Policy, Medha Makhlouf

Medha D. Makhlouf

A recent Gallup poll found that health care, the economy, and immigration are the top three most important political issues for U.S. voters.  Public charge policy—which relates to the admission of noncitizens based on the likelihood that they will not become dependent on the U.S. government for support—lies at the intersection of these three topics. At the same time, immigration and welfare reform are prominent agenda items for the current administration.  On October 10, 2018, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) released a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would transform public charge policy that has existed ...


Obesity And The First Amendment, Manpreet Kaur May 2019

Obesity And The First Amendment, Manpreet Kaur

Health Law Outlook

No abstract provided.


Mandating Influenza Vaccinations For Healthcare Workers State By State, Nicolette Guarneri May 2019

Mandating Influenza Vaccinations For Healthcare Workers State By State, Nicolette Guarneri

Health Law Outlook

No abstract provided.


Deputizing Family: Loved Ones As A Regulatory Tool In The "Drug War" And Beyond, Matthew J.B. Lawrence Apr 2019

Deputizing Family: Loved Ones As A Regulatory Tool In The "Drug War" And Beyond, Matthew J.B. Lawrence

Faculty Scholarly Works

Many laws use family members as a regulatory tool to influence the decisions or behavior of their loved ones, i.e., they deputize family. Involuntary treatment laws for substance use disorder are a clear example; such laws empower family members to use information shared by their loved ones to petition to force their loved ones into treatment without consent. Whether such deputization is helpful or harmful for a patient’s health is a crucial and dubious question discussed in existing literature, but use of family members as a regulatory tool implicates important considerations beyond direct medical impacts that have not ...


Beyond The Ethical Boundaries Of Solidarity: Increasing Vaccination Rates Through Mandatory Education To Solidarity, Nili Karako- Eyal Dr. Mar 2019

Beyond The Ethical Boundaries Of Solidarity: Increasing Vaccination Rates Through Mandatory Education To Solidarity, Nili Karako- Eyal Dr.

Texas A&M Law Review

Mandatory vaccination laws require children to be vaccinated against certain communicable diseases to attend school. These laws also provide exemptions to school vaccination requirements.1 All states exempt children from vaccination requirements for medical reasons, and most states also provide an exemption for religious and/or other personal reasons.2 Seven states include an educational component in their religious or philosophical exemption process, requiring that parents receive information regarding the benefits of vaccination and the risks of not being vaccinated.3 Of these seven states, five require that information regarding the social benefits of vaccination will be provided to parents ...


Supervised Injection Facilities: Legal And Policy Reforms, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge, Chelsea L. Gulinson Feb 2019

Supervised Injection Facilities: Legal And Policy Reforms, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge, Chelsea L. Gulinson

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that more than 70 000 deaths from drug overdoses occurred in 2017, including prescription and illicit opioids, representing a 6-fold increase since 1999. Innovative harm-reduction solutions are imperative. Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) create safe places for drug injection, including overdose prevention, counseling, and treatment referral services. Supervised injection facilities neither provide illicit drugs nor do their personnel inject users. Supervised injection facilities are effective in reducing drug-related mortality, morbidity, and needle-borne infections. Yet their lawfulness remains uncertain. The Department of Justice (DOJ) recently threatened criminal prosecution for SIF operators, medical personnel ...


Exploring The Development Of Three Law-Based Competency Models For Public Health Practitioners, Montrece Mcneill Ransom, Brianne Yassine Jan 2019

Exploring The Development Of Three Law-Based Competency Models For Public Health Practitioners, Montrece Mcneill Ransom, Brianne Yassine

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

As public health promotion and protection become increasingly complex and integrated into various fields, public health law is emerging as an important tool for public health professionals. To ensure that public health professionals are adequately trained public health law, public health law-related competencies should to be integrated into educational and other programming. This article provides three competency models developed by the Public Health Law Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: (a) the public health emergency law competency model, (b) the public health law competency model, and (c) the legal epidemiology competency model. These competency models provide a ...


Deputizing Family: Loved Ones As A Regulatory Tool In The 'Drug War' And Beyond, Matthew Lawrence Dec 2018

Deputizing Family: Loved Ones As A Regulatory Tool In The 'Drug War' And Beyond, Matthew Lawrence

Matthew B. Lawrence

Many laws use family members as a regulatory tool to influence the decisions or behavior of their loved ones, i.e., they deputize family. Involuntary treatment laws for substance use disorder are a clear example; such laws empower family members to use information shared by their loved ones to petition to force their loved ones into treatment without consent. Whether such deputization is helpful or harmful for a patient’s health is a crucial and dubious question discussed in existing literature, but use of family members as a regulatory tool implicates important considerations beyond direct medical impacts that have not ...


Renovations Needed: The Fda's Floor/Ceiling Framework, Preemption, And The Opioid Epidemic, Michael R. Abrams Oct 2018

Renovations Needed: The Fda's Floor/Ceiling Framework, Preemption, And The Opioid Epidemic, Michael R. Abrams

Michigan Law Review

The FDA’s regulatory framework for pharmaceuticals uses a “floor/ceiling” model: administrative rules set a “floor” of minimum safety, while state tort liability sets a “ceiling” of maximum protection. This model emphasizes premarket scrutiny but largely relies on the state common law “ceiling” to police the postapproval drug market. As the Supreme Court increasingly holds state tort law preempted by federal administrative standards, the FDA’s framework becomes increasingly imbalanced. In the face of a historic prescription medication overdose crisis, the Opioid Epidemic, this imbalance allows the pharmaceutical industry to avoid internalizing the public health costs of their opioid ...


The Role Of Health Care In Criminal Justice Reform, Julie White Jul 2018

The Role Of Health Care In Criminal Justice Reform, Julie White

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Mass incarceration continues to be problem in United States with over 2.2 million people incarcerated, costing approximately $80 billion in taxes annually. As a result of the coalescence of social policy researchers, restorative justice policies, civil rights activists, and economists, there is recognition that incarceration is not a financially sustainable ‘solution’ to crime.


Environmental Health Regulation In The Trump Era: How President Trump’S Two-For-One Regulatory Plan Impacts Environmental Regulation, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman Jun 2018

Environmental Health Regulation In The Trump Era: How President Trump’S Two-For-One Regulatory Plan Impacts Environmental Regulation, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article explores the Trump regulatory reform agenda and its potential impact on environmental determinants of health. The Article begins with a discussion of the Department of Commerce’s (DOC or Commerce) initial fact-finding investigation to evaluate the impact of federal regulations on domestic manufacturing. The Article next presents an overview of the Trump administration’s regulatory reform formula as announced in E.O. 13771 and the interim guidance explaining E.O. 13771 and E.O. 13777 (the executive order announcing the Trump administration’s plans to enforce the regulatory reform plan announced in E.O. 13771). The Article then ...


Quarantine And The Federal Role In Epidemics, Michael R. Ulrich, Wendy K. Mariner May 2018

Quarantine And The Federal Role In Epidemics, Michael R. Ulrich, Wendy K. Mariner

SMU Law Review

Every recent presidential administration has faced an infectious disease threat, and this trend is certain to continue. The states have primary responsibility for protecting the public’s health under their police powers, but modern travel makes diseases almost impossible to contain intrastate. How should the federal government respond in the future? The Ebola scare in the U.S. repeated a typical response—demands for quarantine. In January 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued final regulations on its authority to issue Federal Quarantine Orders. These regulations rely heavily on confining ...


Big Food And Soda Versus Public Health: Industry Litigation Against Local Government Regulations To Promote Healthy Diets, Sarah A. Roache, Charles Platkin, Lawrence O. Gostin, Cara Kaplan May 2018

Big Food And Soda Versus Public Health: Industry Litigation Against Local Government Regulations To Promote Healthy Diets, Sarah A. Roache, Charles Platkin, Lawrence O. Gostin, Cara Kaplan

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Diets high in fats, sugars, and sodium are contributing to alarming levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers throughout the United States. Sugary drinks, which include beverages that contain added caloric sweeteners such as flavored milks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and sodas, are the largest source of added sugar in the American diet and an important causative factor for obesity and other diet-related diseases.

City and county governments have emerged as key innovators to promote healthier diets, adopting menu labeling laws to facilitate informed choices and soda taxes, warnings labels, and a soda portion cap to ...


Quarantine And The Federal Role In Epidemics, Wendy K. Mariner, Michael R. Ulrich Apr 2018

Quarantine And The Federal Role In Epidemics, Wendy K. Mariner, Michael R. Ulrich

Faculty Scholarship

Every recent presidential administration has faced an infectious disease threat, and this trend is certain to continue. The states have primary responsibility for protecting the public’s health under their police powers, but modern travel makes diseases almost impossible to contain intrastate. How should the federal government respond in the future? The Ebola scare in the U.S. repeated a typical response—demands for quarantine. In January 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued final regulations on its authority to issue Federal Quarantine Orders. These regulations rely heavily on confining ...


Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa Mar 2018

Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa

Ryan B. Stoa

Marijuana legalization is sweeping the nation. Recreational marijuana use is legal in eight states. Medical marijuana use is legal in thirteen states. Only three states maintain an absolute criminal prohibition on marijuana use. Many of these legalization initiatives propose to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol, and many titles are variations of the "Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act." For political and public health reasons the analogy makes sense, but it also reveals a regulatory blind spot. States may be using alcohol as a model for regulating the distribution, retail, and consumption of marijuana, but marijuana is much more ...


Adoption Process For The Model Aquatic Health Code: An Example, William D. Ramos, Allison L. Fletcher, Mike Mettler, Marcus A. Yoder Mar 2018

Adoption Process For The Model Aquatic Health Code: An Example, William D. Ramos, Allison L. Fletcher, Mike Mettler, Marcus A. Yoder

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

In 2014 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published the first edition of the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC). This document represented the inaugural introduction of a federal policy guideline with a direct focus in the area of aquatic venue operation and maintenance with the sole purpose of improving the nature of public health in the field. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) began the review and adoption process soon after the policy’s release. The ISDH process is proposed as one method for others to consider. The background and history of the MAHC are ...


The Growing Consumer Exposure To Nanotechnology In Everyday Products: Regulating Innovative Technologies In Light Of Lessons From The Past, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

The Growing Consumer Exposure To Nanotechnology In Everyday Products: Regulating Innovative Technologies In Light Of Lessons From The Past, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article discusses the public health, regulatory, legal, and ethical issues raised by the developing appreciation of the negative physical effects and potential health risks associated with nanotech products, and is arranged as follows. After this Introduction, this Article describes the present scientific understanding of the health risks associated with the consumption of nanoparticles. Next, a summary of the existing FDA regulatory structure that governs food, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and sunscreens is provided along with an explanation of why these regulations fail to protect public health when applied to regulate the nanotech versions of these products. The Article goes on ...


Genetically Modified Plants Used For Food, Risk Assessment And Uncertainty Principles: Does The Transition From Ignorance To Indeterminacy Trigger The Need For Post-Market Surveillance?, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

Genetically Modified Plants Used For Food, Risk Assessment And Uncertainty Principles: Does The Transition From Ignorance To Indeterminacy Trigger The Need For Post-Market Surveillance?, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

In the context of GM foods, a genetic modification changes the biochemical cross-talk between genes, creating genetic material that has never existed before in nature. This novel genetic material can create unintended health risks, as seen with the case of the GM peas that contained a novel and unexpected allergenic protein and primed test mice to react to other allergens.6 The bottom line is that the scientific acceptance of the existence of the networked gene establishes that the FDA’s presumption that GM plant food is bioequivalent to traditional plant food is no longer scientifically supportable and that a ...


Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article will use nanotechnology as an example that highlights how regulation based on novelty rather than hazard achieves the proper balance between protecting public health while encouraging innovation through the animation of the public health product safety net. In Part II, this Article starts by explaining what nanotechnology is and the remarkable growth of its use in everyday consumer products. It then summarizes the steadily increasing number of studies that suggest that there are likely to be serious health risks associated with the use of nanotech consumer products. Next, it explains how the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] is ...


Intellectual Property And Public Health: A White Paper, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Intellectual Property And Public Health: A White Paper, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

On October 26, 2012, the University of Akron School of Law’s Center for Intellectual Property and Technology hosted its Sixth Annual IP Scholars Forum. In attendance were thirteen legal scholars with expertise and an interest in IP and public health who met to discuss problems and potential solutions at the intersection of these fields. This report summarizes this discussion by describing the problems raised, areas of agreement and disagreement between the participants, suggestions and solutions made by participants and the subsequent evaluations of these suggestions and solutions. Led by the moderator, participants at the Forum focused generally on three ...


Intellectual Property And Public Health – A White Paper, Ryan G. Vacca, Jim Chen, Jay Dratler Jr., Tom Folsom, Timothy Hall, Yaniv Heled, Frank Pasquale, Elizabeth Reilly, Jeff Samuels, Kathy Strandburg, Kara Swanson, Andrew Torrance, Katharine Van Tassel Feb 2018

Intellectual Property And Public Health – A White Paper, Ryan G. Vacca, Jim Chen, Jay Dratler Jr., Tom Folsom, Timothy Hall, Yaniv Heled, Frank Pasquale, Elizabeth Reilly, Jeff Samuels, Kathy Strandburg, Kara Swanson, Andrew Torrance, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

On October 26, 2012, the University of Akron School of Law’s Center for Intellectual Property and Technology hosted its Sixth Annual IP Scholars Forum. In attendance were thirteen legal scholars with expertise and an interest in IP and public health who met to discuss problems and potential solutions at the intersection of these fields. This report summarizes this discussion by describing the problems raised, areas of agreement and disagreement between the participants, suggestions and solutions made by participants and the subsequent evaluations of these suggestions and solutions.

Led by the moderator, participants at the Forum focused generally on three ...


Intellectual Property And Public Health - A White Paper, Ryan Vacca, James Ming Chen, Jay Dratler Jr., Tom Folsom, Timothy Hall, Yaniv Heled, Frank Pasquale, Elizabeth Reilly, Jeff Samuels, Katherine J. Strandburg, Kara W. Swanson, Andrew W. Torrance, Katharine Van Tassel Feb 2018

Intellectual Property And Public Health - A White Paper, Ryan Vacca, James Ming Chen, Jay Dratler Jr., Tom Folsom, Timothy Hall, Yaniv Heled, Frank Pasquale, Elizabeth Reilly, Jeff Samuels, Katherine J. Strandburg, Kara W. Swanson, Andrew W. Torrance, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

On October 26, 2012, The University of Akron School of Law's Center for Intellectual Property and Technology hosted its Sixth Annual IP Scholars Forum. In attendance were thirteen legal scholars with expertise and an interest in IP and public health who met to discuss problems and potential solutions at the intersection of these fields. This report summarizes this discussion by describing the problems raised, areas of agreement and disagreement between the participants, suggestions and solutions made by participants, and the subsequent evaluations of these suggestions and solutions.

Led by the moderator, participants at the Forum focused generally on three ...


Legal Capacities Required For Prevention And Control Of Noncommunicable Diseases, Roger S. Magnusson, Benn Mcgrady, Lawrence O. Gostin, David Patterson, Hala Abou Taleb Feb 2018

Legal Capacities Required For Prevention And Control Of Noncommunicable Diseases, Roger S. Magnusson, Benn Mcgrady, Lawrence O. Gostin, David Patterson, Hala Abou Taleb

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Law lies at the centre of successful national strategies for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. By law we mean international agreements, national and subnational legislation, regulations and other executive instruments, and decisions of courts and tribunals. However, the vital role of law in global health development is often poorly understood, and eclipsed by other disciplines such as medicine, public health and economics. This paper identifies key areas of intersection between law and noncommunicable diseases, beginning with the role of law as a tool for implementing policies for prevention and control of leading risk factors. We identify actions that the ...


Witch Doctors, Zombies, And Oracles: Rethinking Health In America, Ali S. Khan Jan 2018

Witch Doctors, Zombies, And Oracles: Rethinking Health In America, Ali S. Khan

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

To the extent we can even refer to an American healthcare "system," it functions brilliantly ... to make money. The system is designed to reward executives or major shareholders of pharmaceutical & health insurance companies, healthcare facilities, and related entities. With a rapidly aging population, healthcare will soon surpass a fifth of our economy. Of course, the American healthcare system does not function brilliantly when one considers the perspective of patients and over-extended primary care providers. Prices are growing faster than inflation or wages, healthcare is twice as costly as other comparable nations, and one third is a result of waste, fraud ...