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Journal of Law and Health

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Full-Text Articles in Health Law and Policy

Puffing Away Parental Rights: A Survey And Analysis Of Whether Secondhand Smoke Exposure Is Child Abuse, Karly Huml May 2019

Puffing Away Parental Rights: A Survey And Analysis Of Whether Secondhand Smoke Exposure Is Child Abuse, Karly Huml

Journal of Law and Health

The steps taken thus far to protect children in public areas, custody cases, and in vehicles show the legislature's awareness of the chemical harms of secondhand smoke for children. This article will analyze those steps and discuss what they mean for both parents' and children's constitutional rights. This article proposes that the legislature take a vital fourth step by including secondhand smoke exposure in child abuse laws. Section II of this article provides the history of smoking tobacco and its transition from a trendy social status to an unpopular, harmful habit. Section II also introduces the steps that ...


Keep Your Friends Close And Your Medical Records Closer: Defining The Extent To Which A Constitutional Right To Informational Privacy Protects Medical Records, Lauren Newman May 2019

Keep Your Friends Close And Your Medical Records Closer: Defining The Extent To Which A Constitutional Right To Informational Privacy Protects Medical Records, Lauren Newman

Journal of Law and Health

The following Article discusses the extent to which the constitutional right to informational privacy protects medical data from improper acquisition or dissemination by state agents. Part I provides background on Whalen v. Roe, the Supreme Court case that has been understood to establish the right to informational privacy. Part I also discusses the variations across the circuit courts as to what medical information is afforded protection by the right. Part II analyzes the well-established approaches adopted by the Second and Third Circuits as they present opposing interpretations of Whalen, one wholly protecting medical information and the other protecting scarcely any ...


Congress Prescribes Preemption Of State Tort-Reform Laws To Remedy Healthcare "Crisis": An Improper Prognosis?, Jason C. Sheffield May 2019

Congress Prescribes Preemption Of State Tort-Reform Laws To Remedy Healthcare "Crisis": An Improper Prognosis?, Jason C. Sheffield

Journal of Law and Health

Say what you want about the tort-reform debate, but it has staying power. Over the last half-century, legislators and commentators have extensively debated every aspect of tort reform and the litigation "crisis" arguably giving rise to it, without resolving much of anything. Despite this ideological stalemate, tort-reform proponents have managed to push measures through every state legislature. With fifty tries come fifty results, and for the most part, fifty failures. But have all these efforts been in vain? As of yet, no. Although the healthcare system does not appear to be improving, the numerous tort-reform measures states have adopted provide ...


The Bell Has Rung: Answering The Door For Student-Athlete Concussion Issues In The National Collegiate Athletic Association, Aaron Caputo May 2019

The Bell Has Rung: Answering The Door For Student-Athlete Concussion Issues In The National Collegiate Athletic Association, Aaron Caputo

Journal of Law and Health

This Note examines the NCAA's unwillingness to enforce the requirement that all NCAA institutions must implement a concussion management plan; the NCAA's refusal to apply its appropriate enforcement mechanism when member institutions violate their concussion management plans, which are instituted in order to protect student-athletes from concussions; how both of these failures result in more concussions and a higher probability of debilitating long-term effects; and solutions to remedy this grave injustice. Part II describes what a concussion is, the long-term effects of concussions, the NCAA's management of concussions, and lawsuits challenging the NCAA in relation to concussions ...


Solving The Opioid Epidemic In Ohio, Lacy Leduc May 2019

Solving The Opioid Epidemic In Ohio, Lacy Leduc

Journal of Law and Health

On May 31, 2017, Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine took a step in fighting Ohio's opioid epidemic, bringing the first of many lawsuits against five top pharmaceutical companies. However, under Federal and State law, there is an exception called the Learned Intermediary Doctrine, which can absolve drug manufacturers of liability from any misconduct that might be found and transfer that liability to a treating physician. This exception is the way many drug manufacturers were able to avoid being held responsible in the past. This Note proposes that with the current pending lawsuit in the State of Ohio, an exception ...


A Leap To Hybrid Governance For European Union Healthcare On Organ Donations, Tasnim Ahmed May 2018

A Leap To Hybrid Governance For European Union Healthcare On Organ Donations, Tasnim Ahmed

Journal of Law and Health

This article evaluates two proposals that the Organs Directive along with the commission’s Action Plan 2009-2015 can be viewed as a form of hybrid governance. The Organs Directive is the first legally-binding supranational risk regulation devised in the field of organ donation and transplantation. The Directive is modelled on the earlier Directive dealing with blood, tissue, and cells. The Action Plan, which is soft law, will complement the Directive. The Directive and Action Plan requires additional administration procedures from the Member States with the EU Commission regularly monitoring the implementation of the work programme to ensure it is manageable ...


A Surging Drug Epidemic: Time For Congress To Enact A Mandate On Insurance Companies And Rehabilitation Facilities For Opioid And Opiate Addiction, Alanna Guy May 2018

A Surging Drug Epidemic: Time For Congress To Enact A Mandate On Insurance Companies And Rehabilitation Facilities For Opioid And Opiate Addiction, Alanna Guy

Journal of Law and Health

This Note begins with a discussion of both the national opioid problem as well as the specific epidemic in Ohio as an example of how it has grown within all of the states. Part II discusses the differences between prescription opioids and opiates, how they can be obtained, what effects they have on the human body, and why the government has an interest in this growing problem. Next, this Note explains how and why there was an increase in access and addiction to prescription opioid pain medication. Following this explanation, the steps the government has taken to try to rectify ...


Insane: James Holmes, Clark V. Arizona, And America's Insanity Defense, Eric Collins May 2018

Insane: James Holmes, Clark V. Arizona, And America's Insanity Defense, Eric Collins

Journal of Law and Health

Insanity is a legal term of art that changes definitions depending on the legal standard in American jurisprudence, which explains why a man who mental health professionals described as having an uncontrollable obsession with killing people can be found not insane and guilty. This Note addresses the current state of the Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 and its widespread implementation at the state level. Part II supplies background information on the history of the insanity defense and how it has transformed over the years in American jurisprudence. Part III provides an analysis of the of the insanity defense. Part ...


Bridging The Ncaa's Accident Insurance Coverage Gaps? A Deep Dive Into The Uncertainties Of Injury Coverage In College Contact Sports, And The Impact That Has On Athletes' Future Physical And Financial Comfort, Nicole Kline May 2018

Bridging The Ncaa's Accident Insurance Coverage Gaps? A Deep Dive Into The Uncertainties Of Injury Coverage In College Contact Sports, And The Impact That Has On Athletes' Future Physical And Financial Comfort, Nicole Kline

Journal of Law and Health

This Note analyzes the flaws in the NCAA’s current accidental injury health coverage policies for student-athletes and suggests ways to remedy the issues that plague student-athletes incurring serious injuries that may not be covered under current policies. Part I of this Note outlines the history of the NCAA and the policies relevant to the issues with accidental injury coverage currently in place. Part II looks at the significance of these coverage gaps in today’s world of modern medicine and technology as well as the impact they have on the everyday life of college athletes. Part III suggests solutions ...


The Ethics In Synthetics: Statistics In The Service Of Ethics And Law In Health-Related Research In Big Data From Multiple Sources, Sharon Bassan Ph.D., Ofer Harel Ph.D. May 2018

The Ethics In Synthetics: Statistics In The Service Of Ethics And Law In Health-Related Research In Big Data From Multiple Sources, Sharon Bassan Ph.D., Ofer Harel Ph.D.

Journal of Law and Health

An ethical advancement of scientific knowledge demands a delicate equilibrium between benefits and harms, in particular in health-related research. When applying and advancing scientific knowledge or technologies, Article 4 of UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, ethically justifiable research requires maximizing direct and indirect benefits and minimizing possible harms. The National Institution of Health [NIH] Data Sharing Policy and Implementation Guidance similarly states that data necessary for drawing valid conclusions and advancing medical research should be made as widely and freely available as possible (in order to share the benefits) while safeguarding the privacy of participants from ...


Weird Science: Frankenstein Foods And States As Laboratories Of Democracy, Jennifer Mcgee Jul 2017

Weird Science: Frankenstein Foods And States As Laboratories Of Democracy, Jennifer Mcgee

Journal of Law and Health

The National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard (the 'National Standard') was signed into law July 29, 2016. This Article analyzes the National Standard and posits that Vermont’s Act 120 was a more effective labeling law because it safeguarded consumer sovereignty. The State regulatory scheme in place prior to the passage of the National Standard satisfied consumer demand for disclosure while allowing for necessary experimentation with GMO labeling. Part I provides an overview of the current federal scheme regulating GMOs. Part II analyzes of the conflict surrounding GMOs and labeling. Given that analysis, Part III compares the disclosure requirement of the ...


Germ-Line Gene Editing And Congressional Reaction In Context: Learning From Almost 50 Years Of Congressional Reactions To Biomedical Breakthroughs, Russell A. Spivak, J.D., I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., Eli Y. Adashi, M.D., M.S. Jul 2017

Germ-Line Gene Editing And Congressional Reaction In Context: Learning From Almost 50 Years Of Congressional Reactions To Biomedical Breakthroughs, Russell A. Spivak, J.D., I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., Eli Y. Adashi, M.D., M.S.

Journal of Law and Health

On December 18, 2015, President Obama signed into law a policy rider forestalling the therapeutic modification of the human germ line. The rider, motivated by the science’s potential unethical ends, is only the most recent instance in which the legislature cut short the ongoing national conversation on the acceptability of a developing science. This essay offers historical perspective on what bills were proposed and passed surrounding four other then-developing scientific breakthroughs—Recombinant DNA, in vitro fertilization, Cloning, Stem Cells—to better analyze how Congress is, and should, regulate this exciting and promising science.


Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, William Gutermuth Jul 2017

Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, William Gutermuth

Journal of Law and Health

The 2014 Toledo, Ohio tap water ban has, at least temporarily, put a spotlight on United States water supplies. Consequently, many Americans have begun to take a closer look at the quality of the fresh water bodies being used to supply tap water to their homes. Therefore, this Note analyzes the problems currently threatening the lakes, rivers, and other surface waters that are the source of fresh drinking water for huge populations in the United States. Part II examines the problem of nutrient pollution and explains the harmful effects it has on human health. Part III provides an overview of ...


Supporting Mothers With Mental Illness: Postpartum Mental Health Service Linkage As A Matter Of Public Health And Child Welfare Policy, Jesse Krohn, Msed, Jd, Meredith Matone, Drph, Mhs Jul 2017

Supporting Mothers With Mental Illness: Postpartum Mental Health Service Linkage As A Matter Of Public Health And Child Welfare Policy, Jesse Krohn, Msed, Jd, Meredith Matone, Drph, Mhs

Journal of Law and Health

Through our work in youth advocacy as, respectively, legal and public health professionals, we are all too aware of the high levels of health care fragmentation experienced during pregnancy and postpartum by poor, young mothers of color. Meredith Matone’s research highlights the heightened risk of fragmentation for girls with histories of child welfare involvement. For example, she found that 66.7% of young mothers who had resided in out-of-home placements and who had taken antipsychotic medication prior to becoming pregnant failed to fill prescriptions for antipsychotics in their first postpartum year. Put another way, two-thirds of these vulnerable young ...


Analysis Of The Proposed Tpp-Related Patent Linkage System In Taiwan, Ping-Hsun Chen Jul 2017

Analysis Of The Proposed Tpp-Related Patent Linkage System In Taiwan, Ping-Hsun Chen

Journal of Law and Health

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement mandates member states to implement a patent linkage system vested in Article 18.53. To successfully join the TPP Agreement, Taiwan has begun the legislation of a patent linkage system by proposing an amendment for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. Article 18.53 requires a member either to adopt a notification mechanism under Paragraph 1 or to stay the issuance of marketing approval under Paragraph 2. But, Taiwan’s proposal includes both measures. Taiwan’s patent linkage system allows a pioneer drug company to register patents claiming (a) a material, (b) a combination or formula, or ...


Funding Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss) For Working Aged Disabled Americans, Helen L. Rapp Dec 2016

Funding Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss) For Working Aged Disabled Americans, Helen L. Rapp

Journal of Law and Health

There are a multitude of dilemmas faced today by over 3 million significantly disabled Americans, many of whom depend on Medicaid for Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS) in obtaining the services they need to simply live. While the landmark 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has done a lot to improve the lives of people with disabilities, the reality is that using Medicaid as the vehicle for funding LTSS places unreasonable restrictions on disabled people who want to live independent lives and be as successful as possible.

The Federal Government must change funding for LTSS in order to provide disabled ...


Healer, Witness, Or Double Agent? Reexamining The Ethics Of Forensic Psychiatry, Matthew U. Scherer Dec 2016

Healer, Witness, Or Double Agent? Reexamining The Ethics Of Forensic Psychiatry, Matthew U. Scherer

Journal of Law and Health

In recent years, psychiatrists have become ever more prevalent in American courtrooms. Consequently, the issue of when the usual rules of medical ethics should apply to forensic psychiatric encounters has taken on increased importance and is a continuing topic of discussion among both legal and medical scholars. A number of approaches to the problem of forensic psychiatric ethics have been proposed, but none adequately addresses the issues that arise when a forensic encounter develops therapeutic characteristics. This article looks to the rules governing the lawyer-client relationship as a model for a new approach to forensic psychiatric ethics. This new model ...


Quintavalle: The Quandary In Bioethics, Lisa Cherkassky Dec 2016

Quintavalle: The Quandary In Bioethics, Lisa Cherkassky

Journal of Law and Health

The case of R. (Quintavalle) v. Human Fertilisation Embryology Authority (and Secretary of State for Health) presents a handful of legal problems. The biggest legal query to arise from the case is the inevitable harvest of babies, toddlers and very young children for their bone marrow. This article unpacks the judicial story behind Quintavalle to reveal how the strict provisions of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 - namely ‘suitable condition’ under schedule 2 paragraph 1(1)(a) and ‘treatment services’ and ‘assisting’ under section 2(1) - were widely misinterpreted to introduce the social selection of embryos into law. The ...


Save Thousands Of Lives Every Year: Resuscitate The Peer Review Privilege, Alan G. Williams Dec 2016

Save Thousands Of Lives Every Year: Resuscitate The Peer Review Privilege, Alan G. Williams

Journal of Law and Health

Doctors make mistakes—preventable medical mistakes—that kill or seriously injure patients. The best way to reduce these preventable errors is through a medical peer review process typically referred to as a "morbidity and mortality conference." However, over the past twenty years, federal and state courts, state legislatures, and state voters have effectively gutted the morbidity and mortality conference (M&M) as a remedial and preventative tool, resulting in tens of thousands of unnecessary deaths every year. Doctors need our help restoring the effectiveness of M&Ms. Congress has created the means to do so; now, all the courts need do is use it. Otherwise, what has been happening over the last two decades will continue—physicians will fear the M&M, will either not participate in M&Ms or not participate fully, medical errors ...


Mending Invisible Wounds: The Efficacy And Legality Of Mdma-Assisted Psychotherapy In United States' Veterans Suffering With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Jonathan Perry Dec 2016

Mending Invisible Wounds: The Efficacy And Legality Of Mdma-Assisted Psychotherapy In United States' Veterans Suffering With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Jonathan Perry

Journal of Law and Health

Though Veteran Affairs has provided crucial life sustaining—and often lifesaving—treatments to returning soldiers, the substantial and ever-increasing rates of veteran suicides, drug addictions, and criminal behavior indicate a need for broader options in treatment. One of the most profound discoveries uncovered through MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research is MDMA’s facilitation of the alleviation of addictive behavior in subjects, and, as a result, an alleviation of addictions in general. Addiction is one of the key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug abuse plays a large role in the other afflictions suffered by veterans, namely criminal activity and a ...


Expansion Of Employee Wellness Programs Under Ppaca Creates Additional Barriers To Healthcare Insurance For Individuals With Disabilities, Amy B. Cheng Dec 2016

Expansion Of Employee Wellness Programs Under Ppaca Creates Additional Barriers To Healthcare Insurance For Individuals With Disabilities, Amy B. Cheng

Journal of Law and Health

There are many barriers to healthcare for the general population that has been documented throughout the years, with one particularly affected group being individuals with disabilities. One identified healthcare barrier for individuals with disabilities is the inability to gain access to the healthcare system through health insurance. While many attempts have been made to resolve this issue, serious problems have yet to be resolved. The Patient Protection Affordable Care Act (PPACA) attempted to solve the issue by expanding Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996’s (HIPAA) current regulations on employee wellness programs. The relevant regulations govern employee wellness ...


Shifting Our Focus From Retribution To Social Justice: An Alternative Vision For The Treatment Of Pregnant Women Who Harm Their Fetuses, April L. Cherry Jan 2015

Shifting Our Focus From Retribution To Social Justice: An Alternative Vision For The Treatment Of Pregnant Women Who Harm Their Fetuses, April L. Cherry

Journal of Law and Health

Here, I argue that we can and should approach the issue of pregnant women whose behavior may harm their fetuses, not from the vantage point of fetal harm, but rather from the vantage point of pregnant women’s social location. That location often includes poverty, violence, need, and despair. Placing blame and exacting retribution on an individual woman, absent an understanding of the social context, makes the provision of justice in these cases difficult if not impossible. Moreover, attempts to enhance fetal health by assigning criminal liability in such cases are destined to fail in light of the significant contribution ...


The Not So "Sweet Surprise": Lawsuits Blaming Big Sugar For Obesity-Related Health Conditions Face An Uphill Battle, Catherine Srithong Wicker Jan 2015

The Not So "Sweet Surprise": Lawsuits Blaming Big Sugar For Obesity-Related Health Conditions Face An Uphill Battle, Catherine Srithong Wicker

Journal of Law and Health

Because obesity and its associated health problems have been largely attributed to poor self-control, laziness, and various other personal failings, society has been unwilling to assign blame to food manufacturers for their role in contributing to this problem. But, as consumers are becoming more aware of the significantly harmful effect that poor diets can have on a person’s heath, the scales may be tipping in favor of bringing “Big Food” to court. Food manufacturers, however, are not exactly vulnerable. Armed with precedent disputing the causal link between consumption of fast food and adverse health effects, judicially-created barriers to admitting ...


Rules Are Meant To Be Broken: The Organ Procurement And Transplantation Network Should Allow Pediatric Transplantation Of Adult Lungs, Ciera Parish Jan 2015

Rules Are Meant To Be Broken: The Organ Procurement And Transplantation Network Should Allow Pediatric Transplantation Of Adult Lungs, Ciera Parish

Journal of Law and Health

This note analyzes the "Under 12 Rule" and advocates for its abolishment by examining the consequences and discrimination faced by children under the age of twelve since its enactment in 2005 as well as the benefits stemming from the allowance of using adult lungs for pediatric transplantation. Part II discusses the history of organ transplantation law and the current organ transplantation laws as they stand. Part III provides statistical data demonstrating the disparity between pediatric lung transplant candidates and adult lung transplant candidates. Part IV discusses the reasons for the implementation of the "Under 12 Rule" and analyzes the emerging ...


Introduction: Issues Of Reproductive Rights: Life, Liberty & The Pursuit Of Policy, Lauren Orrico, Gordon Gantt Jr. Jan 2015

Introduction: Issues Of Reproductive Rights: Life, Liberty & The Pursuit Of Policy, Lauren Orrico, Gordon Gantt Jr.

Journal of Law and Health

On March 7, 2014, the Journal of Law and Health of Cleveland-Marshall College of Law hosted a symposium entitled “Issues of Reproductive Rights: Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Policy” in response to recent developments in the regulation of women’s reproductive rights. The discussion about women’s reproductive rights has expanded far beyond the morality of abortion and right to privacy, established by the United States Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade, and has been complicated by new technology, statutory developments, and case law discussing the nature of a corporation. The symposium presenters addressed key legal developments in each ...


Reproductive Justice, Public Policy, And Abortion On The Basis Of Fetal Impairment: Lessons From International Human Rights Law And The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Carole J. Petersen Jan 2015

Reproductive Justice, Public Policy, And Abortion On The Basis Of Fetal Impairment: Lessons From International Human Rights Law And The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Carole J. Petersen

Journal of Law and Health

This article argues that we should consider not only American constitutional law but also comparative law and emerging international human rights norms, in order to navigate the difficult issue of abortion on the basis of fetal impairment. The United States is a State Party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)13 and the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT). It is also a signatory (but not a full State Party) to several other relevant treaties, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW ...


Legislating Morality Progressively - The Contraceptive Coverage Mandate, Religious Freedom, And Public Health Policy And Ethics, Michael J. Deboer Jan 2015

Legislating Morality Progressively - The Contraceptive Coverage Mandate, Religious Freedom, And Public Health Policy And Ethics, Michael J. Deboer

Journal of Law and Health

This Article studies the contraceptive coverage mandate from three different perspectives. First, it provides a historical treatment of the regulatory rules adopted by agencies in the Obama Administration – specifically, the Departments of the Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services, which this Article collectively refers to as “the Administration” or “the Departments” – that imposed the mandate, focusing specifically on the rulemaking processes used to develop and promulgate the rules. In performing this historical study, the Article traces the development of the mandate from its root in the ACA to full implementation in legislative (substantive) rules finalized by the Administration in ...


Practice What You Preach: Does The National School Lunch Program Meet Nutritional Recommendations Set By Other Usda Programs?, ‘Lizabeth Disiena Jan 2015

Practice What You Preach: Does The National School Lunch Program Meet Nutritional Recommendations Set By Other Usda Programs?, ‘Lizabeth Disiena

Journal of Law and Health

Part II of this Note provides a historical background of the National School Lunch Program,20 specifically analyzing the purpose, implementation, and current state of the program. Part III begins by explaining why consideration of calories plays an important role in achieving proper weight management. It then concludes with a comparison between the caloric intake requirements of the National School Lunch Program,21 and the nutritional recommendations by other USDA government health initiatives,22 and non-governmental programs.23 Finally, Part IV proposes that the National School Lunch Program24 provide nutrition options for students that appropriately consider age, gender, and activity ...


An Incomplete Pass: Inadequacies In Ohio's Youth Concussion Legislation And The Ongoing Risk For Players, Andrew J. Kane Jan 2015

An Incomplete Pass: Inadequacies In Ohio's Youth Concussion Legislation And The Ongoing Risk For Players, Andrew J. Kane

Journal of Law and Health

Broadly, this paper questions whether Ohio’s recently enacted youth concussion legislation adequately addresses the public health issue of sport-related brain injury, and contends that it does not. To that end, it first addresses the significance of traumatic brain injuries, including concussions, explaining that the failure to protect youth athletes from these potentially fatal conditions has largely resulted from a lack of awareness of their influence on neurological functions, and of their potential to cause serious brain injury. Next, this paper examines several legislative responses enacted by other states, all of which were in place before Ohio’s, and compares ...


There's No Place Like Home: How Ppaca Falls Short In Expanding Home Care Services To The Elderly, Nick Vento Jan 2015

There's No Place Like Home: How Ppaca Falls Short In Expanding Home Care Services To The Elderly, Nick Vento

Journal of Law and Health

On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). In an effort to rebalance states’ spending on long-term services and supports (LTSS) towards home care, PPACA created four new options under Medicaid with which states could provide home care services to their citizens. While PPACA’s creation of these four optional Medicaid HCBS programs allows states more flexibility and the capability to provide enhanced home care services to its citizens, it falls short of completely addressing the existing institutional bias in Medicaid by failing to create a mandatory Medicaid state service ...