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Cleveland State Law Review

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Full-Text Articles in Health Law and Policy

Depression: The Often Overlooked Sequela Of Head Trauma, Samuel D. Hodge Jr., Jack E. Hubbard Dec 2017

Depression: The Often Overlooked Sequela Of Head Trauma, Samuel D. Hodge Jr., Jack E. Hubbard

Cleveland State Law Review

Depression is a common sequela of head trauma. Approximately half of all individuals with a cranial injury will experience depression within the first year, regardless of the severity of the injury. The ailment is characterized clinically as a mood disorder, often associated with intense feelings of sadness. However, depression is more complex than mood disorders, as many mental and bodily complaints—such as insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, appetite changes, aches and pains, and lack of interest in previously enjoyable activities—are associated with depression. These intense feelings, particularly when combined with despair and hopelessness, can lead to suicide, a dreaded potential ...


In The "Best Interests" Of The Disabled: Legislating Morality And The Power To Initiate Support Orders For Disabled Adults In Ohio, Kalynne Proctor Jun 2017

In The "Best Interests" Of The Disabled: Legislating Morality And The Power To Initiate Support Orders For Disabled Adults In Ohio, Kalynne Proctor

Cleveland State Law Review

Today’s reality is that many families have children who are faced with disabling conditions that prevent them from relinquishing their dependency on others. Often, the need for specialized treatment and care does not terminate once a severely disabled child reaches adulthood. While typically parents are relieved of their legal parental obligations to their adult-aged children, this is not the same case for parents with severely disabled children. In some respects, Ohio has recognized the financial difficulties divorced parents face when they are the sole caregivers of disabled adult children. Although Ohio law requires that the noncustodial parent in a ...


A Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On: Movement Disorders Caused By Brain Trauma, Jack E. Hubbard, Samuel D. Hodge, Jr. Jun 2017

A Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On: Movement Disorders Caused By Brain Trauma, Jack E. Hubbard, Samuel D. Hodge, Jr.

Cleveland State Law Review

There has been a lot of publicity directed to the consequence of brain trauma, such as headaches forgetfulness, irritability, and depression. That is only part of the sequelae. A little-known but challenging result of brain trauma is the development of or aggravation of a movement disorder such as a tremor, dystonia, a tic, or Parkinson’s Disease.

A movement disorder is an all-encompassing term that refers to a constellation of neurological issues that cause involuntary or voluntary movements or abnormal positioning of a body part. Various regions of the brain interact with each other to control movements of the body ...


A Healthy Amount Of Privacy: Quantifying Privacy Concerns In Medicine, Ignacio N. Cofone Mar 2017

A Healthy Amount Of Privacy: Quantifying Privacy Concerns In Medicine, Ignacio N. Cofone

Cleveland State Law Review

With recent developments in e-health, concerns have been raised regarding the privacy of patients who are monitored with such treatments. I propose a simple method to incorporate these concerns into a standard health impact evaluation, based on quality-adjusted life years and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. This method provides a way to objectively value privacy concerns and balance them with health benefits. Hence, it can guide doctors and policymakers into incorporating privacy considerations and making better choices regarding e-health programs. This method can also be tested on existing economic evaluations to compare outcomes and gauge the extent to which privacy issues ...


The Threat Lives On: How To Exclude Expectant Mothers From Prosecution For Mere Exposure Of Hiv To Their Fetuses And Infants, Shahabudeen K. Khan Jan 2015

The Threat Lives On: How To Exclude Expectant Mothers From Prosecution For Mere Exposure Of Hiv To Their Fetuses And Infants, Shahabudeen K. Khan

Cleveland State Law Review

There is a renewed interest in HIV/AIDS issues given that better treatment is available. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Civil Rights Division, recently published best practice guidelines to reform HIV-specific criminal laws to conform to modern science. The DOJ’s latest guidelines urge states to “reform and modernize” the laws to reflect modern science. There is a lot of unfinished work regarding the ineffectiveness and stigma associated with HIV criminal transmission laws as a whole. These laws are “no good” and counterintuitive in the fight against this unfortunate disease. There have been calls to repeal these laws in their ...


Smoking Out A Compromise: Splitting The Difference Through A Public Policy Approach To Resolving The Graphic Cigarette Warning Label Circuit Split, Amelia B. Larsen Jan 2014

Smoking Out A Compromise: Splitting The Difference Through A Public Policy Approach To Resolving The Graphic Cigarette Warning Label Circuit Split, Amelia B. Larsen

Cleveland State Law Review

The imposition of graphic warning labels is necessary; the tobacco market exploits the lower class by capitalizing on their under-education regarding the negative health consequences of smoking. This injustice can be corrected by providing the most direct and clear communication imaginable to consumers to ensure they are completely informed of the peril they are placing themselves in when they choose to smoke—the graphic warning labels provide this kind of communication. This Note discusses why the FDA’s warning labels meet First Amendment constitutional scrutiny and serve a substantial governmental interest regarding the country’s public health, socioeconomic equality, and ...


It's A Mistake: Insurer Cost Cutting, Insurer Liability, And The Lack Of Erisa Preemption Within The Individual Exchanges, Christopher Smith Jan 2014

It's A Mistake: Insurer Cost Cutting, Insurer Liability, And The Lack Of Erisa Preemption Within The Individual Exchanges, Christopher Smith

Cleveland State Law Review

In today’s society, most people receive their health insurance through their employers. If their employment-based insurer engages in cost cutting that leads to patient injury, Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) preemption means that these people have no state tort-based recourse against their insurers. ERISA is a federal statute that regulates employee benefit plans, and the Supreme Court has interpreted the ERISA statute to preempt most beneficiary state tort claims against an employment-based insurer. In other words, even if the insurer, and not the doctor, caused the patient’s harm, the patient with employment-based insurance can only ...


The Consequences Of Repealing Health Care Reform In Early 2013 , J. Angelo Desantis, Gabriel Ravel Jan 2012

The Consequences Of Repealing Health Care Reform In Early 2013 , J. Angelo Desantis, Gabriel Ravel

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article evaluates the consequences of an early 2013 repeal of the enacted Health Care Reform. We consider the Act's significant provisions that will have taken effect by 2013. For implemented provisions, we review their current effect on coverage, costs, and care. We then evaluate the practical consequence of the loss of those provisions. For provisions that have not yet taken effect, but will before 2013, we evaluate their projected effects in considering the consequences of repeal. Finally, for provisions that will not take effect before 2014, but where significant funds and effort will be expended prior to 2014 ...


Immunizing Against Addiction: The Argument For Incorporating Emerging Anti-Addiction Vaccines Into Existing Compulsory Immunization Statutes, Alexis Osburn Jan 2008

Immunizing Against Addiction: The Argument For Incorporating Emerging Anti-Addiction Vaccines Into Existing Compulsory Immunization Statutes, Alexis Osburn

Cleveland State Law Review

This paper discusses the legal ramifications of incorporating anti-addiction vaccines into a state's existing compulsory immunization scheme. Part II explains the neurobiological and physiological factors that make addiction a medical disease and discusses the mental and physical damage caused by illicit drug use. It also introduces the reader to anti-addiction research and explains how anti-addiction vaccines work. Part III provides the reader with a brief history of state-mandated vaccination requirements, including a discussion of the leading cases that govern compulsory vaccination requirements. Part IV advocates for the amendment of state-mandated immunization statutes to include anti-addiction vaccines. It analyzes two ...


Violence, Fear, And Jason's Law: The Needless Expansion Of Social Control Over The Non-Dangerous Mentally Ill In Ohio, Jessica L. Mackeigan Jan 2008

Violence, Fear, And Jason's Law: The Needless Expansion Of Social Control Over The Non-Dangerous Mentally Ill In Ohio, Jessica L. Mackeigan

Cleveland State Law Review

Ohio House Bill 299, known as Jason's Law in memory of Officer Jason West, proposes involuntary outpatient care for treatment resistant mentally ill individuals. Jason's Law should not be enacted as written because it will compel respondents to adhere to outpatient treatment based upon predictions of future danger to self or others rather than findings of imminent danger or incompetence, it will remove treatment flexibility currently guaranteed by Ohio law by extending the duration of treatment and limiting a treatment provider's discretion, it will compel the use of unproven medication over the objections of a presumably competent ...


In Search Of The Golden Years: How Compulsory Licensing Can Lower The Price Of Prescription Drugs For Millions Of Senior Citizens In The United States, Debjani Roy Jan 2004

In Search Of The Golden Years: How Compulsory Licensing Can Lower The Price Of Prescription Drugs For Millions Of Senior Citizens In The United States, Debjani Roy

Cleveland State Law Review

This article will show that compulsory licensing is the best remedy for the escalating cost of prescription drugs in the United States. Section II will provide a historical overview of American pharmaceutical patent law and will introduce the concept of compulsory licensing as a method to decrease the high cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens in the United States. Section III will look at the newly enacted Medicare Prescription Drug and Modernization Act, and state and local government plans to import cheaper brand-name prescription drugs from Canada. Section IV will look at the United States' international support for compulsory ...


Dna Patenting And Access To Healthcare: Achieving The Balance Among Competing Interests, Melissa E. Horn Jan 2002

Dna Patenting And Access To Healthcare: Achieving The Balance Among Competing Interests, Melissa E. Horn

Cleveland State Law Review

Increasing evidence suggests that the biotechnology industry's interest in generating revenue and the public's desire to obtain the best healthcare may be at odds. The patenting of genetic information is at the core of this debate. Most, if not all, of the products of the biotech industry's research are patentable. Historically, patents have been justified on the grounds that they are needed to create an incentive for researchers and companies to invest time and money in projects that have uncertain outcomes. In the biotechnology arena, patents do not simply encourage innovation and allow innovators to recoup their ...


Determining The Immunity Measuring Stick: The Impact Of The Health Care Quality Improvement Act And Antitrust Laws On Immunity Aspects Of Granting Privileges To Physician Assistants, Joseph Mark Saponaro Jan 1999

Determining The Immunity Measuring Stick: The Impact Of The Health Care Quality Improvement Act And Antitrust Laws On Immunity Aspects Of Granting Privileges To Physician Assistants, Joseph Mark Saponaro

Cleveland State Law Review

This note examines the antitrust developments that affect the health care industry; the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986; the treatment of peer review process immunity for physicians as it now exists; how non-physician providers are dealt with in the peer review process; and where physician assistants fit into the whole scheme. Part I of this note lays a foundation of antitrust principles, briefly explaining the applicable portions of the Sherman Act. Part I continues by setting forth the approaches, rule of reason versus per se rule, that courts utilize when dealing with antitrust situations. After explaining these governing ...


Gene Therapy: Legal And Ethical Issues For Pregnant Women , Angela Liang Jan 1999

Gene Therapy: Legal And Ethical Issues For Pregnant Women , Angela Liang

Cleveland State Law Review

The decision to undergo gene therapy in utero for the sake of a fetus should legally rest with the pregnant woman rather than the judiciary or the legislature. Part I of this article provides an overview of the current scope of gene therapy. Part II discusses previous court decisions that either granted or denied petitions for involuntary prenatal intervention. Part III analyzes three reasons why the courts should not impose gene therapy on pregnant women as the technology becomes available. First, a policy that mandates gene therapy would place an undue burden on pregnant women and violate the Equal Protection ...


Anderson V. St. Francis-St. George Hospital: Wrongful Living From An American And Jewish Legal Perspective , Daniel Pollack, Chaim Steinmetz, Vicki Lens Jan 1997

Anderson V. St. Francis-St. George Hospital: Wrongful Living From An American And Jewish Legal Perspective , Daniel Pollack, Chaim Steinmetz, Vicki Lens

Cleveland State Law Review

As advances in medical technology have kept people alive longer, the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment has taken on an even more crucial and urgent significance to dying patients and their families. While modern medicine may have learned to save lives, the lives it has saved are often severely diminished and filled with pain and suffering. Although the right to refuse life saving medical treatment is firmly embedded in our nation's laws, what to do when this right is ignored has not been firmly settled. The Anderson court answered this question by "splitting the difference." It affirmed Winter's ...


Respect For The Bioethical Dilemmas - The Case Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Sixty-Fifth Cleveland-Marshall Fund Lecture, John A. Robertson Jan 1997

Respect For The Bioethical Dilemmas - The Case Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Sixty-Fifth Cleveland-Marshall Fund Lecture, John A. Robertson

Cleveland State Law Review

In this lecture I begin an exploration of the role that respect for human life plays in contemporary bioethics. Although many bioethical dilemmas could be chosen to illustrate this role, I will focus on the case of physician-assisted suicide. This lecture emphasizes the role that respect for human life plays in arbitrating bioethical disputes that involve physician-assisted suicide. I hope to develop some generalizations about how respect for life and autonomy, beneficence and other values interact and thus constitute or define what respect for life means for us. Part I discusses assisted suicide and the ban against actively killing. Part ...


Drive-Through Deliveries: Indiscriminate Postpartum Early Discharge Practices Presently Necessitate Legislation Mandating Minimum Inpatient Hospital Stays, Tracy Wilson Smirnoff Jan 1996

Drive-Through Deliveries: Indiscriminate Postpartum Early Discharge Practices Presently Necessitate Legislation Mandating Minimum Inpatient Hospital Stays, Tracy Wilson Smirnoff

Cleveland State Law Review

"Drive-through deliveries," women delivering their babies and leaving the hospital only a few hours, rather than days, later are increasingly becoming the standard of care in the United States. This Note argues that legislation mandating minimum inpatient postpartum hospital stays is presently the best possible solution to the overreaching control MCOs have over doctors, the standard of care, and the length of hospital stays based on their willingness to cover treatment. Part H of this Note reviews the development of postpartum care during the twentieth century. This section also discusses the reasoning for the concerns regarding the early discharge of ...


What Is Experimental Medical Treatment: A Legislative Definition Is Needed, Melody L. Harness Jan 1996

What Is Experimental Medical Treatment: A Legislative Definition Is Needed, Melody L. Harness

Cleveland State Law Review

This note focuses on the highly publicized coverage disputes involving HDCr/ABMT for the treatment of breast cancer to illustrate the problems inherent in courts judging medical technology and legislatures politicizing medical technology. The problems exist, however, with respect to every developing medical technology for which there is no consensus on its safety and effectiveness. Part II of this note depicts the typical scenario involving a patient with metastatic breast cancer. Part III outlines the drug approval process and off-label drug use. Part IV describes HDCT/ABMT treatment and discusses the lack of consensus regarding its efficacy for the treatment ...


A Doctor's Duty To Disclose Life Expectancy Information To Terminally Ill Patients, Denise Ann Dickerson Jan 1995

A Doctor's Duty To Disclose Life Expectancy Information To Terminally Ill Patients, Denise Ann Dickerson

Cleveland State Law Review

It is the purpose of this Note to review and evaluate the benefits to making full disclosure to a terminally ill patient. It is this author's position that a patient's well-being and dignity dictate that the physician be forthright with all information regarding a patient's diagnosis and the range of treatments available, including both active and passive treatments.


The Nursing Profession In The 1990'S: Negligence And Malpractice Liability, Frank J. Cavico, Nancy M. Cavico Jan 1995

The Nursing Profession In The 1990'S: Negligence And Malpractice Liability, Frank J. Cavico, Nancy M. Cavico

Cleveland State Law Review

Since expanded responsibility portends increased liability, a thorough understanding of the law must be achieved for nurses' rights to be adequately protected and for nurses to be held properly accountable for their legal obligations. This work examines the legal rights, responsibilities, and particularly the potential legal liability of the nurse, in the contexts of modem nursing practice and current statutes and case law. The work focuses on one major aspect of the nurse's legal liability -the tort, or civil wrong, of negligence.


The Medicaid Cost Crisis: Are There Solutions To The Financial Problems Facing Middle-Class Americans Who Require Long-Term Health Care, Kenneth Hubbard Jan 1995

The Medicaid Cost Crisis: Are There Solutions To The Financial Problems Facing Middle-Class Americans Who Require Long-Term Health Care, Kenneth Hubbard

Cleveland State Law Review

Medicaid was originally designed as a welfare program to provide healthcare to the poor. Despite the initial intentions of Congress, Medicaid has instead become "a multi-billion-dollar insurance policy" for elderly middle-class Americans who require long-term health care. The Medicaid crisis has been described as "a battle between elderly people's desire for long-term care coverage and their concomitant reluctance to pay for it themselves." This battle is waged between the older and younger generations, commencing when the younger generation observes that their inheritance is growing smaller or disappearing altogether due to the immense cost of their parents' long-term health care.


The Effect Of State Medical Malpractice Caps On Damages Awarded Under The Emergency Medical Treatment And Active Labor Act (42 U.S.C. 1395dd), Amy J. Mckitrick Jan 1994

The Effect Of State Medical Malpractice Caps On Damages Awarded Under The Emergency Medical Treatment And Active Labor Act (42 U.S.C. 1395dd), Amy J. Mckitrick

Cleveland State Law Review

Although EMTALA was passed in 1986, there have been relatively few cases reported which aid in establishing the scope and boundaries of the Act. The legislature itself has attempted to clarify EMTALA's provisions, and has amended the Act nearly every year since its enactment, the most recentamendments in 1990 and the most extensive amendments taking place in 1989. These amendments, however, have not changed the Act significantly from its original purpose and objectives7 and thus, much of the case law remains pertinent to a current analysis of the application of state medical malpracticecaps to claims under EMTALA.


The Effect Of State Medical Malpractice Caps On Damages Awarded Under The Emergency Medical Treatment And Active Labor Act (42 U.S.C. 1395dd), Amy J. Mckitrick Jan 1994

The Effect Of State Medical Malpractice Caps On Damages Awarded Under The Emergency Medical Treatment And Active Labor Act (42 U.S.C. 1395dd), Amy J. Mckitrick

Cleveland State Law Review

Although EMTALA was passed in 1986, there have been relatively few cases reported which aid in establishing the scope and boundaries of the Act. The legislature itself has attempted to clarify EMTALA's provisions, and has amended the Act nearly every year since its enactment, the most recentamendments in 1990 and the most extensive amendments taking place in 1989. These amendments, however, have not changed the Act significantly from its original purpose and objectives7 and thus, much of the case law remains pertinent to a current analysis of the application of state medical malpracticecaps to claims under EMTALA.


Medical Futility: Has Ending Life Support Become The Next Pro-Choice/Right To Life Debate, Daniel Robert Mordarski Jan 1993

Medical Futility: Has Ending Life Support Become The Next Pro-Choice/Right To Life Debate, Daniel Robert Mordarski

Cleveland State Law Review

This note will provide an analysis of the issue of medical futility and propose "solutions" to the issue. Part II considers the definition of "medical futility" and different ways to view the concept. In Part III, the position is forwarded that medical futility is a question of values which the medical profession is not necessarily more qualified than a layperson to answer. In Part IV, medical futility will be examined in the context of existing law. This section also addresses the potential tort liability of a health care provider who unilaterally takes certain actions based on the concept of medical ...


The Justice Mission And Mental Health Law, Steven R. Smith Jan 1992

The Justice Mission And Mental Health Law, Steven R. Smith

Cleveland State Law Review

Mental health law's concern with justice, so much a part of the discussion of civil commitment, the insanity defense and other traditional mental health subjects, has been a neglected subject in one important area. Malpractice claims against mental health professionals commonly are slow, expensive and embarrassing for the professional and the injured. Processing these claims creates great stress on plaintiffs and defendants alike. The legal system has been insensitive to the harm it inflicts on mental health patients who pursue malpractice claims. Too often even patients' lawyers have also ignored the potential for harm. Because the current system conflicts ...


Justice, Mental Health, And Therapeutic Jurisprudence, David B. Wexler Jan 1992

Justice, Mental Health, And Therapeutic Jurisprudence, David B. Wexler

Cleveland State Law Review

Mental health law advocates and even scholars have typically been hostile toward, afraid of, or at best indifferent to, the mental health disciplines (mainly psychiatry and psychology) and their practitioners. Learning to be skeptical of supposed scientific expertise is an important lesson, and the law should never simply defer to psychiatry and the related disciplines. But to the extent that the legal system now ignores developments in the mental health disciplines, the lesson of healthy skepticism has been overlearned. It is my thesis, then, that those of us interested in 'justice" in mental health law ought not to adopt the ...


At What Cost Will The Court Impose A Duty To Preserve The Life A Child, David S. Lockemeyer Jan 1991

At What Cost Will The Court Impose A Duty To Preserve The Life A Child, David S. Lockemeyer

Cleveland State Law Review

The purpose of this Note is to explore the issues surrounding parental consent for a surgical invasion of one child to save the life of a sibling. This Note focuses on the courts role in permitting organ transplantation. In addition, it will discuss the new developments in medical science regarding living donors and the concept of transplantation of regenerative organs and the possible impact on the court. Next, this Note analyzes the elements of duty to rescue, best interest and substituted judgment and the court's use of the various tests to justify invasion of a child's body. This ...


Containing The Aids Virus . . . Testing . . . Reporting . . . Confidentiality . . . Quarantine . . . Constitutional Considerations, Luann A. Polito Jan 1989

Containing The Aids Virus . . . Testing . . . Reporting . . . Confidentiality . . . Quarantine . . . Constitutional Considerations, Luann A. Polito

Cleveland State Law Review

In addition to illness, disability, and death, AIDS has evoked fear in the hearts and minds of most Americans: fear of the AIDS virus and fear of the unknown. This fear has caused many Americans to act irrationally towards AIDS and its victims. This article will analyze the different legislative acts intended to curtail the spread of the disease and whether these enactments will aid or merely hinder the containment of the AIDS virus. It will illustrate potential conflicts this legislation poses to the AIDS victims' constitutional rights of privacy and liberty. At its conclusion, it will illustrate that with ...


Active Voluntary Euthanasia: The Ultimate Act Of Care For The Dying, Deborah A. Wainey Jan 1989

Active Voluntary Euthanasia: The Ultimate Act Of Care For The Dying, Deborah A. Wainey

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note explores whether modern society can embrace the concept of euthanasia as "death without suffering" to the full extent of the term. Section II explores the distortion of the concept of euthanasia from an historical perspective. Section III provides insight into the practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands, the only country in the world which allows people to request and receive aid-in-dying, i.e., active euthanasia. Section IV reviews the American judicial and legislative response to the active euthanasia issue, and analyzes the Death With Dignity Act, a model law which would permit a terminally ill adult to request ...


Surrogate Motherhood And Tort Liability: Will The New Reproductive Technologies Give Birth To A New Breed Of Prenatal Tort, Nancy Hansbrough Jan 1985

Surrogate Motherhood And Tort Liability: Will The New Reproductive Technologies Give Birth To A New Breed Of Prenatal Tort, Nancy Hansbrough

Cleveland State Law Review

It seems inevitable that new causes of action will evolve as more childless couples resort to the use of the new reproductive methodologies. The prenatal tort claims abounding in precedent today lay a firm foundation for the recognition of a new form of tort liability. This Note will first examine briefly the history of prenatal torts, and present the status of recovery today. The Note will then examine the history and current status of the doctrine of parent-child immunity in the United States. Concentrating on these two concepts, the nature of a tort claim by an injured child for prenatal ...