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Full-Text Articles in Health Law and Policy

Evaluation Of The Associations Between Unplanned Readmissions And The Lace Index And Other Variables, Cathy Stankiewicz, Dnp, Msn, Rn Apr 2018

Evaluation Of The Associations Between Unplanned Readmissions And The Lace Index And Other Variables, Cathy Stankiewicz, Dnp, Msn, Rn

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Background: Unplanned readmissions, within 30 days following an inpatient hospital admission, are common and costly. Research has identified factors that predict readmissions, and predictive algorithms, such as the LACE index, have been studied and widely adopted by hospitals despite demonstrated variability in predictive ability.

Objectives: To examine the associations between unplanned readmissions and the LACE index, and other variables that reflect patient- and encounter-level factors not currently incorporated in the LACE index.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted utilizing data from electronic health records of inpatients discharged from a large quaternary hospital located in the southeastern United States between January ...


Does Liberalizing State Nurse Practitioner Scope Of Practice Laws Affect The Primary Care Provider Composition And Productivity In Community Health Centers?, Jeongyoung Park, Xinxin Han, Ellen T. Kurtzman Aug 2017

Does Liberalizing State Nurse Practitioner Scope Of Practice Laws Affect The Primary Care Provider Composition And Productivity In Community Health Centers?, Jeongyoung Park, Xinxin Han, Ellen T. Kurtzman

Health Workforce Research Center Publications

The state scope of practice (SOP) laws determine the range of services nurse practitioners (NPs) can provide and the extent to which they can practice independently. This has been a hot topic amid concerns about primary care provider shortages in light of health reform coverage expansion. Many states consider liberalizing NP SOP laws in an effort to expand primary care capacity. As the demand for primary care increases, NPs are expected to have an active role in meeting primary care needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of expanded nurse practitioner (NP) scope of practice (SOP ...


Projected Financial Losses Experienced By Community Health Centers Under A Scenario Of Major Cuts In Key Sources Of Federal Funding: 2018-2022, Avi Dor, Eric Luo, Ali Moghtaderi, Anne Rossier Markus Apr 2017

Projected Financial Losses Experienced By Community Health Centers Under A Scenario Of Major Cuts In Key Sources Of Federal Funding: 2018-2022, Avi Dor, Eric Luo, Ali Moghtaderi, Anne Rossier Markus

Geiger Gibson/RCHN Community Health Foundation Research Collaborative

Congress is currently considering options to significantly reduce federal funding for the Medicaid expansion and the Marketplace subsidies implemented under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Separately, the Health Centers Fund, which currently accounts for 70% of all federal health center grant funding, is set to expire in September 2017. These potential changes in federal funding could have a dramatic impact on health centers and the communities they serve. The purpose of this brief is to simulate the potential combined impact of these major changes in federal funding that will directly affect community health centers. Secondarily, this brief also assesses the ...


Community Health Centers: Recent Growth And The Role Of The Aca, Sara Rosenbaum, Julia Paradise, Anne Rossier Markus, Jessica Sharac, Chi Tran, David Reynolds, Peter Shin Jan 2017

Community Health Centers: Recent Growth And The Role Of The Aca, Sara Rosenbaum, Julia Paradise, Anne Rossier Markus, Jessica Sharac, Chi Tran, David Reynolds, Peter Shin

Geiger Gibson/RCHN Community Health Foundation Research Collaborative

Community health centers are the nation’s largest source of comprehensive primary care for medically underserved communities and populations. Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), increased patient revenues due to the expansion of Medicaid and private health insurance, along with substantially increased direct federal investment in the program, have led to growth in the number of health centers and their capacity to provide services. This brief draws on 2015 federal data on health centers and our 2016 Survey of Health Centers’ Experiences and Activities under the Affordable Care Act to provide a snapshot of health centers and their patients, analyze ...


Health Reform Repeal Could Cause 3 Million People To Lose Jobs And Trigger Broad Economic Disruption, Leighton Ku, Erika Steinmetz, Erin Brantley, Brian K. Bruen Jan 2017

Health Reform Repeal Could Cause 3 Million People To Lose Jobs And Trigger Broad Economic Disruption, Leighton Ku, Erika Steinmetz, Erin Brantley, Brian K. Bruen

Geiger Gibson/RCHN Community Health Foundation Research Collaborative

Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans.

Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity.

Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the ...


Evolving Workforce Roles In Medicare Next Generation Acos, Clese E Erikson Jan 2017

Evolving Workforce Roles In Medicare Next Generation Acos, Clese E Erikson

Health Workforce Research Center Publications

The purpose of this study was to explore key workforce strategies in Next Generation Accountable Care Organizations (Next Gen ACOs), the latest evolution in Medicare ACOs. We conducted semi-structured interviews with leaders from seven of the initial 18 Next Gen ACOs to better understand their perceptions regarding how workforce roles are changing to support the Next Gen ACO model. Key Questions:

  1. What new and expanded roles for existing health workforce members are reported by Next Generation ACO leaders?
  2. Has use of the health workforce changed as a result of Next Gen waivers for telehealth, home visits, and use of SNFs ...


How Are Migrant Health Centers And Their Patients Faring Under The Affordable Care Act?, Jessica Sharac, Rachel Gunsalus, Chi Tran, Peter Shin, Sara Rosenbaum May 2016

How Are Migrant Health Centers And Their Patients Faring Under The Affordable Care Act?, Jessica Sharac, Rachel Gunsalus, Chi Tran, Peter Shin, Sara Rosenbaum

Geiger Gibson/RCHN Community Health Foundation Research Collaborative

Migratory and seasonal agricultural workers (MSAWs) provide essential labor for farming in all its branches in the United States. Between 2.4 and 3 million MSAWs live across the U.S. in every state but are clustered in areas dense with agricultural employment. As a population already susceptible to poor health outcomes because of poverty and work-related health risks, MSAWs depend on community health centers, especially those known as migrant health centers that receive additional migrant funding. Reporting data from a national survey of agricultural workers, as well as findings from analyses of data from the Uniform Data System (UDS ...


Hospital Discharge Planning In Medicare: Current Requirements And Proposed Changes, Sally Coberly Feb 2016

Hospital Discharge Planning In Medicare: Current Requirements And Proposed Changes, Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

Medicare's specific minimum health and safety standards for hospitals, known as conditions of participation, include requirements for discharge planning for patients who need such services. Discharge planning is intended to ensure smooth transitions from hospital to home or other health care facility. This publication reviews the current discharge planning requirements for hospitals as well as changes included in a proposed rule published by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on November 3, 2015. Key proposed changes include an expanded definition of which patients must receive discharge planning services, a requirement that providers responsible for follow-up care receive timely information ...


Medicaid Eligibility And Benefits, Sally Coberly Jan 2016

Medicaid Eligibility And Benefits, Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

This publication provides a brief overview of the Medicaid program. It highlights the range of eligibility and benefits requirements and options and it briefly describes the program's financing structure.


Medicaid Financing, Sally Coberly Jan 2016

Medicaid Financing, Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

This publication provides an overview of how the Medicaid program is financed. It explains how the federal and state shares of funding are determined, briefly describes disproportionate share hospital payments and how those are affected by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, and outlines financing mechanisms states have used to maximize federal Medicaid matching funds.


Medicare, Sally Coberly Jan 2016

Medicare, Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

This publication provides an overview of the Medicare program including eligibility, covered services, cost-sharing requirements, and program financing.


The Medicare Drug Benefit (Part D), Sally Coberly Jan 2016

The Medicare Drug Benefit (Part D), Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) established a voluntary outpatient prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries that began January 1, 2006. This publication provides an overview of the drug benefit.


Workforce Planning And Development In Times Of Delivery System Transformation, Patricia Pittman, Ellen Scully-Russ Jan 2016

Workforce Planning And Development In Times Of Delivery System Transformation, Patricia Pittman, Ellen Scully-Russ

Health Policy and Management Faculty Publications

Background

As implementation of the US Affordable Care Act (ACA) advances, many domestic health systems are considering major changes in how the healthcare workforce is organized. The purpose of this study is to explore the dynamic processes and interactions by which workforce planning and development (WFPD) is evolving in this new environment.

Methods

Informed by the theory of loosely coupled systems (LCS), we use a case study design to examine how workforce changes are being managed in Kaiser Permanente and Montefiore Health System. We conducted site visits with in-depth interviews with 8 to 10 stakeholders in each organization.

Results

Both ...


Puerto Rico’S Community Health Centers In A Time Of Crisis, Peter Shin, Jessica Sharac, Marie Nina Luis, Sara J. Rosenbaum Dec 2015

Puerto Rico’S Community Health Centers In A Time Of Crisis, Peter Shin, Jessica Sharac, Marie Nina Luis, Sara J. Rosenbaum

Geiger Gibson/RCHN Community Health Foundation Research Collaborative

In 2014, Puerto Rico’s twenty federally funded community health centers, operating in 71 sites located throughout the Commonwealth, served 330,736 patients, approximately one in ten Commonwealth residents. Compared to other Puerto Rico residents, health center patients are less likely to be insured. Despite considerable growth in Medicaid as a result of the supplemental funding provided under the Affordable Care Act, in 2014, 12.2% of health center patients remained uninsured.

Compared to health centers outside Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico’s health centers show a greater proportion of Medicaid patients served (69% compared to 46% outside Puerto Rico), a ...


Medicare Part B Premiums And Social Security Benefits, Sally Coberly Nov 2015

Medicare Part B Premiums And Social Security Benefits, Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

This paper describes the annual determination of beneficiaries' premiums for voluntary Medicare Part B coverage and a provision known as "hold harmless." The hold-harmless provision prevents a beneficiary's Social Security payments from being reduced as a result of an increase in the Part B premium. Because there was no cost-of-living increase for Social Security benefits for 2016, the hold-harmless provision will be in effect. This paper discusses what happens to premiums in 2016 for beneficiaries who are not held harmless—new beneficiaries, beneficiaries who do not participate in Social Security, those who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid ...


Meaningful Use Of Health Information Technology: Proving Its Worth?, Lisa Sprague Nov 2015

Meaningful Use Of Health Information Technology: Proving Its Worth?, Lisa Sprague

National Health Policy Forum

Health policymakers in recent years have looked to the implementation of health information technology (IT)—electronic health records and the like—as a means to improve quality, reduce costs, and achieve better health outcomes across populations. But implementing health IT in a meaningful way must go beyond purchasing medical records software. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) devised a set of measures and incentives for hospitals and eligible medical professionals within Medicare or Medicaid to mark successive stages of effective IT implementation. This issue brief discusses the history of meaningful use, the measures used to evaluate ...


Medicare's Post-Acute Care Payment: An Updated Review Of The Issues And Policy Proposals, Sally Coberly Oct 2015

Medicare's Post-Acute Care Payment: An Updated Review Of The Issues And Policy Proposals, Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

Medicare spending on post-acute care provided by home health agencies, skilled nursing facilities, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, and long-term care hospitals accounted for about 10 percent of total program outlays in 2013. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and others have noted several long-standing problems with the payment systems for post-acute care and have suggested refinements to Medicare's post-acute care payment systems that are intended to encourage the delivery of appropriate care in the right setting for a patient's condition. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 contained several provisions that affect the Medicare program's post-acute care ...


Challenges Of Forecasting Physician Workforce Needs Amid Delivery System Transformation, Rob Cunningham Sep 2015

Challenges Of Forecasting Physician Workforce Needs Amid Delivery System Transformation, Rob Cunningham

National Health Policy Forum

As population growth and the aging of the overall population increase demand for health care, policymakers and analysts grapple with whether sufficient health care providers, particularly physicians, will be available to meet that demand. Some argue there are too few physicians already; others say our current supply-demand problems lie with efficiency. But suppose both are correct? Perhaps the real challenge is to understand how the provision of health care services is changing in response to market forces such as payment changes, patients' expectations, provider distributions, and technology innovations. This issue brief revisits what is known about evolving practice organizations, professional ...


How Has The Affordable Care Act Benefitted Medically Underserved Communities? : National Findings From The 2014 Community Health Centers Uniform Data System, Jessica Sharac, Peter Shin, Sara J. Rosenbaum Aug 2015

How Has The Affordable Care Act Benefitted Medically Underserved Communities? : National Findings From The 2014 Community Health Centers Uniform Data System, Jessica Sharac, Peter Shin, Sara J. Rosenbaum

Geiger Gibson/RCHN Community Health Foundation Research Collaborative

Community health centers represent the single largest comprehensive primary health care system serving medically underserved communities, operating in more than 9,000 urban and rural locations. Newly-released data for 2014 from the Uniform Data System (UDS; the federal health center reporting system) shed important light on the impact of the Affordable Care Act in its first full year of implementation in medically underserved urban and rural communities across the U.S. These communities experience elevated poverty, heightened health risks, lack of access to primary health care, and a significantly greater likelihood that residents will be uninsured.

The UDS data show ...


The Star Rating System And Medicare Advantage Plans, Lisa Sprague May 2015

The Star Rating System And Medicare Advantage Plans, Lisa Sprague

National Health Policy Forum

With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it’s safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing—added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries’ choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well—hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities—these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes ...


Annual Report 2014, Forum Staff Apr 2015

Annual Report 2014, Forum Staff

National Health Policy Forum

This annual report describes the activities of the Forum during the 2014 calendar year, and provides a snapshot of our audience and resources.


The Public Health Service, Jennifer Jenson Feb 2015

The Public Health Service, Jennifer Jenson

National Health Policy Forum

This document provides an overview of the Public Health Service (PHS) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, including a brief history and discussion of the agencies and offices that constitute the PHS today. Information on the mission, key programs, and budgets of PHS agencies and offices is also included.


Health Policy Essentials: Common Health Care Acronyms, National Health Policy Forum Feb 2015

Health Policy Essentials: Common Health Care Acronyms, National Health Policy Forum

National Health Policy Forum

No abstract provided.


Relative Value Units (Rvus), Sally Coberly Jan 2015

Relative Value Units (Rvus), Sally Coberly

National Health Policy Forum

This publication reviews Medicare's relative value units (RVUs), which are assigned to each physician service to represent the resources required to provide the service relative to all other physician services. Three types of resources are included: physician work, that is, the physician time and effort; practice expenses, such as clinical staff and equipment; and professional liability insurance. Each service's RVUs are multiplied by a common dollar conversion factor to determine the Medicare payment.


Bundled Payments For Care Improvement Initiative – Insights From The Test Pilots Of Payment Reform, Jason M. Sutherland, William B. Borden Jan 2015

Bundled Payments For Care Improvement Initiative – Insights From The Test Pilots Of Payment Reform, Jason M. Sutherland, William B. Borden

Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: The Medicare Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) pilot program aims to reward high-value providers by setting a global payment target for particular episodes of care. The representativeness of BPCI participants will influence the ability of this pilot to inform policy decisions. Methods: We linked the Medicare lists of participants in the risk-bearing portion of BPCI Model 2, encompassing acute and post-acute care, to the American Hospital Association resource file and the 2013 Hospital Value-Based Purchasing quality performance data. We classified episode-initiating hospitals by the number of bundles in which they were participating into “narrow”, “medium” and “comprehensive”. The ...


Consumer Assessment Of Healthcare Providers And Systems (Cahps) Surveys: Assessing Patient Experience, Lisa Sprague Dec 2014

Consumer Assessment Of Healthcare Providers And Systems (Cahps) Surveys: Assessing Patient Experience, Lisa Sprague

National Health Policy Forum

This publication provides an overview of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) family of surveys, which are widely used by both public and private health plans and providers to assess the patient's experience of health care. Included is information on survey contents, how surveys are tailored to different users, and how the resulting information is collected, reported, and used to help consumers make choices and providers carry out quality improvement, as well as its role in pay-for-performance reimbursement.


Health Care In The Motor City: Thriving Or Surviving?, Sally Coberly, William J. Scanlon Apr 2014

Health Care In The Motor City: Thriving Or Surviving?, Sally Coberly, William J. Scanlon

National Health Policy Forum

This site visit explored the forces shaping the delivery of health care in Detroit. Health care providers in Detroit face the twin challenges of controlling costs and serving a bifurcated metropolitan area that includes large numbers of uninsured, low-income, and vulnerable residents as well as more prosperous residents of a reviving inner core and the surrounding suburbs and counties. The program looked at the underlying economic, social, and physical conditions that make improving the health of the city's residents extremely challenging. Efforts to contain costs through payment innovations such as the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan's Physician ...


Annual Report 2013, Forum Staff Apr 2014

Annual Report 2013, Forum Staff

National Health Policy Forum

This annual report describes the activities of the Forum during the 2013 calendar year, and provides a snapshot of our participants and resources.


National Spending For Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss), 2012, Carol O'Shaughnessy Mar 2014

National Spending For Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss), 2012, Carol O'Shaughnessy

National Health Policy Forum

Long-term services and supports (LTSS) for the elderly and younger populations with disabilities are a significant component of national health care spending. In 2012, spending for these services was $219.9 billion (9.3 percent of all U.S. personal health care spending), almost two-thirds of which was paid by the federal-state Medicaid program. This publication presents data on LTSS spending by major public and private sources.


Telehealth: Into The Mainstream?, Lisa Sprague Mar 2014

Telehealth: Into The Mainstream?, Lisa Sprague

National Health Policy Forum

Teleheath, and its subset telemedicine, extend across a range of technologies allowing patients to seek diagnosis, treatment, and other services from clinicians by electronic means. Telephone, videoconferencing, iPads, and apps are all employed. In its most established form, hospitals and medical centers use telehealth to reach patients in underserved rural areas. Proponents of telehealth suggest it can relieve medical workforce shortages; save patients time, money, and travel; reduce unnecessary hospital visits; improve the management of chronic conditions; and improve continuing medical education. But telehealth also faces ongoing challenges. States require physicians to be licensed in each state where they treat ...