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Full-Text Articles in Health Law and Policy

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Sep 2019

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Legislative And Executive Branch Developments Affecting The United States Department Of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Sheila Fleischhacker, Alyssa Moran, Sara N. Bleich Sep 2019

Legislative And Executive Branch Developments Affecting The United States Department Of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Sheila Fleischhacker, Alyssa Moran, Sara N. Bleich

Journal of Food Law & Policy

For more than forty years, the United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; formerly Food Stamps) has offered nutrition assistance to nearly forty million eligible individuals and families each month. This article first provides a brief overview of the evolution of the United States’ largest domestic food security and nutrition safety net program. Then, the article reviews Congressional actions taken regarding SNAP during the 2018 Farm Bill deliberations, appropriations for fiscal years 2017 through 2020, and oversight (in)activities. The article focuses on Congressional activities regarding block grants; participant eligibility; benefit adequacy, issuance, and redemption; and strengthening ...


Federal Regulation Of Pesticide Residues: A Brief History And Analysis, Kate Z. Graham Sep 2019

Federal Regulation Of Pesticide Residues: A Brief History And Analysis, Kate Z. Graham

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In the United States today, there are over 900 pesticides in use1 and over 400 are approved for use in food production, whether used as part of the growing process or in post-harvest handling. Although the history of pesticide use in food crops goes back centuries, the post-war period has seen an enormous growth in the varieties and amounts of pesticides used in our food system. As our reliance on pesticides has grown, pesticides have become a divisive issue. Pesticide advocates view them as essential to a secure and reliable food supply needed to feed a growing world population. Detractors ...


Blockchain Meets Genomics: Governance Considerations For Promoting Food Safety And Public Health, Walter G. Johnson Sep 2019

Blockchain Meets Genomics: Governance Considerations For Promoting Food Safety And Public Health, Walter G. Johnson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Foodborne illness remains an ongoing public health challenge in both the developing and industrialized worlds. In the United States, almost 50 million reported cases of infectious disease occur every year from a food product, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality with economic burdens to health care and productivity. Despite recognition as a leader in food safety, the U.S. experiences longstanding and novel issues in food safety. Advances in whole genome sequencing (WGS) promise to bolster food safety regulators’ capabilities to identify pathogens and determine their source. However, inefficiencies in tracing food products through the supply chain remain.


The Clash Of Agricultural Exceptionalism And The First Amendment: A Discussion Of Kansas' Ag-Gag Law, Meredith Kaufman Sep 2019

The Clash Of Agricultural Exceptionalism And The First Amendment: A Discussion Of Kansas' Ag-Gag Law, Meredith Kaufman

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Since the Nation’s founding, agricultural production has been treated differently than other industries. This concept, known as “agricultural exceptionalism,” has manifested in many different ways throughout U.S. history. Since the 1990s, one manifestation of agricultural exceptionalism has been the enactment of “Ag-gag laws,” state laws that limit information gathering activities at animal production facilities. Ag-gag laws are frequently criticized by animal welfare advocates and legal scholars for seeking to shield animal production facilities from public scrutiny, a state-sanctioned protection not afforded to other industries.


Consumer Power To Change The Food System? A Critical Reading Of Food Labels As Governance Spaces: The Case Of Acai Berry Superfoods, Christine Parker, Hope Johnson, Janine Curll Sep 2019

Consumer Power To Change The Food System? A Critical Reading Of Food Labels As Governance Spaces: The Case Of Acai Berry Superfoods, Christine Parker, Hope Johnson, Janine Curll

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This article argues that the marketing claims on food labels are a governance space worthy of critical examination. We use a case study of superfood açaí berry products to illustrate how marketing claims on food labels encapsulate dominant neoliberal constructions of global food systems. These marketing claims implicitly promise that by making careful choices consumers can resist and redress the ravages of unbridled global capitalism. Food labels suggest that consumers can use market signals to simultaneously govern our own selves and the market to ensure sustainable, fair, and healthy consumption. In response, this article develops, justifies and applies a socio-legal ...


Federal Regulatory Responses To The Prescription Opioid Crisis: Too Little, Too Late?, Lars Noah Sep 2019

Federal Regulatory Responses To The Prescription Opioid Crisis: Too Little, Too Late?, Lars Noah

Utah Law Review

Part I of this Article suggests that the medical establishment shares more blame for the crisis than many commentators seem to appreciate. Part II canvasses a variety of ways in which the federal government has responded to the opioid problem during the last few years before delving more deeply into the FDA’s role in the mess, assessing the different tools that it has tried to use as well as some that it failed to employ. This Article concludes that the agency should have allowed only a narrowly defined subset of physicians to prescribe opioid analgesics, even though the medical ...


America’S Favorite Antidote: Drug-Induced Homicide In The Age Of The Overdose Crisis, Leo Beletsky Sep 2019

America’S Favorite Antidote: Drug-Induced Homicide In The Age Of The Overdose Crisis, Leo Beletsky

Utah Law Review

Nearing the end of its second decade, the overdose crisis in the United States continues to claim tens of thousands of lives. Despite the rhetorical emphasis on a “public health” approach, criminal law and its enforcement continue to play a central role among policy responses to this crisis. A legacy of the 1980s War on Drugs, statutory provisions that implicate drug distributors in overdose fatalities are on the books in many U.S. jurisdictions and federally. This Article articulates an interdisciplinary critique of these “drug-induced homicide” laws at a time of their increased popularity, expanding scope, and aggressive prosecution. That ...


From Health Policy To Stigma And Back Again: The Feedback Loop Perpetuating The Opioids Crisis, Nicolas Terry Sep 2019

From Health Policy To Stigma And Back Again: The Feedback Loop Perpetuating The Opioids Crisis, Nicolas Terry

Utah Law Review

Between 1999 and 2017, almost 400,000 people died from opioid overdoses, and since 2001, the opioid crisis has cost the U.S. more than 1 trillion dollars. In late 2018, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary opined that the country was “beginning to turn the tide” in responding to the crisis. Secretary Azar’s positive statements were based on preliminary CDC data that showed a national decline of 2.7 percent in drug overdose deaths from October 2017 to May 2018. However, data still show over half the states posting an increase in overdose deaths with ...


Seeking Insurance Parity During The Opioid Epidemic, Valarie K. Blake Sep 2019

Seeking Insurance Parity During The Opioid Epidemic, Valarie K. Blake

Utah Law Review

Private insurance covers almost 40 percent of people with opioid addiction. Yet, amid an epidemic with profound consequences for individual and public health, private insurers continue to fuel addiction by favoring addictive but affordable pain therapies over nonaddictive ones and by placing unreasonable, sometimes unlawful, hurdles and delays in the ways of addiction treatment. Action must be taken now to address these harms. Laws like the ACA and the MHPAEA need greater enforcement, while gaps in these laws can and should be addressed through broader federal and state initiatives. Private insurers must be regulated, and swiftly, to ensure that people ...


Marijuana Issues For Voters: Studying Issues Us States Have Had With Legalizing Marijuana, Kody Kesler Aug 2019

Marijuana Issues For Voters: Studying Issues Us States Have Had With Legalizing Marijuana, Kody Kesler

WRIT: Journal of First-Year Writing

In the United States, the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana in individual states, rather than the whole nation, is a great example of states being “laboratories of democracy.” Legalizing marijuana in the states first is essential to deciding how to go about the issue on the national level, once Americans are ready for it. In most states where it is legal, employees can still be fired for having marijuana in their system, even if they have a medical recommendation. The drug tests that employers use don’t test for the recent use of drugs like marijuana, but for a ...


Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division Second Department Jul 2019

Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division Second Department

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Super Unleaded Malbec? A Case Study In Flawed International Standard Setting At The Codex Alimentarius, Justin Schwegel Jun 2019

Super Unleaded Malbec? A Case Study In Flawed International Standard Setting At The Codex Alimentarius, Justin Schwegel

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) provides rules on the adoption and enforcement of SPS measures. It also presumes that food safety regulations adopted by WTO Members that conform to relevant international standards are consistent with the SPS Agreement. The relevant international standard setting body for food safety is the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which conducts most of its food safety risk management work through subsidiary bodies such as the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food (CCCF). CCCF establishes maximum limits for food contaminants and codes of practice for reducing ...


That Is Northern Lights Cannabis Indica . . . No, It's Marijuana: Navigating Through The Haze Of Cannabis And Patents, Dawson Hahn May 2019

That Is Northern Lights Cannabis Indica . . . No, It's Marijuana: Navigating Through The Haze Of Cannabis And Patents, Dawson Hahn

Concordia Law Review

By their very nature, patents are exclusionary. A patent grants the right to exclude others from making use of an invention or process. But patents are also tools to promote innovation. However, when an invalid patent is granted, the patent becomes an exclusionary tool that also chills innovation. Invalid cannabis patents may be chilling innovation in the cannabis market, but they may not be the only thing. While the Controlled Substances Act continues to prohibit cannabis at a federal level, researchers and medical professionals will be unsure of the legality of their actions. This naturally leads to another chilling effect ...


Solving The Opioid Epidemic In Ohio, Lacy Leduc May 2019

Solving The Opioid Epidemic In Ohio, Lacy Leduc

Journal of Law and Health

On May 31, 2017, Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine took a step in fighting Ohio's opioid epidemic, bringing the first of many lawsuits against five top pharmaceutical companies. However, under Federal and State law, there is an exception called the Learned Intermediary Doctrine, which can absolve drug manufacturers of liability from any misconduct that might be found and transfer that liability to a treating physician. This exception is the way many drug manufacturers were able to avoid being held responsible in the past. This Note proposes that with the current pending lawsuit in the State of Ohio, an exception ...


Got Mylk?: The Disruptive Possibilities Of Plant Milk, Iselin Gambert May 2019

Got Mylk?: The Disruptive Possibilities Of Plant Milk, Iselin Gambert

Brooklyn Law Review

Milk is one of the most ubiquitous and heavily regulated substances on the planet—and perhaps one of the most contested. It is tied closely to notions of purity, health, and femininity, and is seen as so central to human civilization that our own galaxy—the Milky Way—is named after it. But despite its wholesome reputation, milk has long had a sinister side, being bound up with the exploitation of the (human and nonhuman) bodies it comes from and being a symbol of and tool for white dominance and superiority. The word itself, in verb form, means “to exploit ...


“Big” Food, Tobacco, And Alcohol: Reducing Industry Influence On Noncommunicable Disease Prevention Laws And Policies, Belinda Reeve, Lawrence O. Gostin May 2019

“Big” Food, Tobacco, And Alcohol: Reducing Industry Influence On Noncommunicable Disease Prevention Laws And Policies, Belinda Reeve, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The food, tobacco and alcohol industries have penetrated markets in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with a significant impact on these countries’ burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Tangcharoensathien and colleagues describe the aggressive marketing of unhealthy food, alcohol and tobacco in LMICs, as well as key tactics used by these industries to resist laws and policies designed to reduce behavioural risk factors for NCDs. This commentary expands on the recommendations made by Tangcharoensathien and colleagues for preventing or managing conflicts of interest and reducing undue industry influence on NCD prevention policies and laws, focusing on the needs of LMICs. A ...


Narrowing In On The Problem: A Component-Level Analysis Of "Hybrid" Medical Devices, Jillian Friedmann Apr 2019

Narrowing In On The Problem: A Component-Level Analysis Of "Hybrid" Medical Devices, Jillian Friedmann

Boston College Law Review

The Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (“MDA”) classify medical devices into three categories, each of which represents a different level of risk, and requires a different level of federal oversight. Class III devices, which pose the most risk, are subject to the highest level of oversight. Those devices are protected from any claims based on state laws that differ from or add to the requirements imposed by the MDA. On March 1, 2018, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, in Shuker v. Smith & Nephew, PLC, considered the application of preemption under the MDA to a “hybrid ...


Safe Injection Sites And The Federal "Crack House" Statute, Alex Kreit Feb 2019

Safe Injection Sites And The Federal "Crack House" Statute, Alex Kreit

Boston College Law Review

Safe injection sites have become the next battlefield in the conflict between state and federal drug laws. A safe injection site is a place where injection drug users can self-administer drugs in a controlled environment under medical supervision. They have been operating in other countries, including Canada, for decades, and a wealth of evidence suggests that they can help to reduce overdose deaths. To date, however, no United States city or state has sanctioned a safe injection site. Until recently, safe injection sites were politically untenable, seen as a form of surrender in the war on drugs. This dynamic, however ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Feb 2019

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

No abstract provided.


A “Natural” Stand Off Between The Food And Drug Administration And The Courts: The Rise In Food-Labeling Litigation & The Need For Regulatory Reform, Amy-Lee Goodman Jan 2019

A “Natural” Stand Off Between The Food And Drug Administration And The Courts: The Rise In Food-Labeling Litigation & The Need For Regulatory Reform, Amy-Lee Goodman

Boston College Law Review

Faced with the health and financial toll from escalating rates of chronic disease, consumers are demanding healthier food products and increased transparency regarding the ingredients in their food. Food labels provide the primary means for businesses to communicate with customers about their food products. In response to consumer demand, food companies are stocking grocery store shelves with products claiming to be wholesome, “natural” and healthy. Yet, many of these products are not as healthy or natural as purported. Although both consumers and food manufacturers place importance on the term “natural,” the Food and Drug Administration has refused to define the ...


The Opioid Crisis: The States' And Local Governments' Response To Bigpharma's Deception And Why The Supremacy Clause May Provide A Cloak For Opioid Manufacturers To Hide Behind, Tracie Childers Jan 2019

The Opioid Crisis: The States' And Local Governments' Response To Bigpharma's Deception And Why The Supremacy Clause May Provide A Cloak For Opioid Manufacturers To Hide Behind, Tracie Childers

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rethinking Consumer Protection: Escaping Death By Regulation, Thomas L. Tacker Jan 2019

Rethinking Consumer Protection: Escaping Death By Regulation, Thomas L. Tacker

Publications

This book is designed to appeal to anyone who is at all interested in topics related to making life better and safer—for all us consumers. Our current approach to consumer protection is extremely flawed; sometimes costing lives rather than saving them. There are better ways to protect ourselves and the people we love.


"Hash"Ing Out Inequality In The Legal Recreational Cannabis Industry, Maya Rahwanji Jan 2019

"Hash"Ing Out Inequality In The Legal Recreational Cannabis Industry, Maya Rahwanji

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

No abstract provided.


100% All Natural Ambiguity: A Comparative Approach To Food Labeling Requirements For The Term “Natural” By The Food And Drug Administration And The European Union, Andréa Maehara Jan 2019

100% All Natural Ambiguity: A Comparative Approach To Food Labeling Requirements For The Term “Natural” By The Food And Drug Administration And The European Union, Andréa Maehara

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

Despite being the only regulatory agency empowered to establish definitions for food product labeling, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not formally defined the term “natural.” The FDA’s reluctance to fully define the term increases consumer distrustful of the FDA as a regulatory body and has also led to a dramatic increase in class action lawsuits against major food corporations. This Note will argue that the FDA should issue a formal definition in order to standardize usage of “natural” on food labeling by incorporating the European Union (EU)’s approach. First, this Note will examine the origins of ...


Sb 17 - Alcoholic Beverages, Lauren A. Newman, Erin N. Winn Dec 2018

Sb 17 - Alcoholic Beverages, Lauren A. Newman, Erin N. Winn

Georgia State University Law Review

Georgia law previously allowed counties and municipalities to permit the sale of alcoholic beverages on Sundays from 12:30 P.M. until 11:30 P.M. This Act, deemed “the Brunch Bill,” authorizes the counties and municipalities that have affirmatively voted by referendum to sell alcoholic beverages on Sundays to sell them earlier, at 11:00 A.M., if approved by a second referendum vote. This change applies to restaurants that make at least 50% of their revenue from the sale of food and hotels, and Georgia wineries.


Ethical Cannabis Lawyering In California, Francis J. Mootz Iii Dec 2018

Ethical Cannabis Lawyering In California, Francis J. Mootz Iii

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

Cannabis has a long history in the United States. Originally, doctors and pharmacists used cannabis for a variety of purposes. After the Mexican Revolution led to widespread migration from Mexico to the United States, many Americans responded by associating this influx of foreigners with the use of cannabis, and thereby racializing and stigmatizing the drug. After the collapse of prohibition, the federal government repurposed its enormous enforcement bureaucracy to address the perceived problem of cannabis, despite the opposition of the American Medical Association to this new prohibition. Ultimately, both the states and the federal government classified cannabis as a dangerous ...


Renovations Needed: The Fda's Floor/Ceiling Framework, Preemption, And The Opioid Epidemic, Michael R. Abrams Oct 2018

Renovations Needed: The Fda's Floor/Ceiling Framework, Preemption, And The Opioid Epidemic, Michael R. Abrams

Michigan Law Review

The FDA’s regulatory framework for pharmaceuticals uses a “floor/ceiling” model: administrative rules set a “floor” of minimum safety, while state tort liability sets a “ceiling” of maximum protection. This model emphasizes premarket scrutiny but largely relies on the state common law “ceiling” to police the postapproval drug market. As the Supreme Court increasingly holds state tort law preempted by federal administrative standards, the FDA’s framework becomes increasingly imbalanced. In the face of a historic prescription medication overdose crisis, the Opioid Epidemic, this imbalance allows the pharmaceutical industry to avoid internalizing the public health costs of their opioid ...


Limiting State Flexibility In Drug Pricing, Nicholas Bagley, Rachel E. Sachs Sep 2018

Limiting State Flexibility In Drug Pricing, Nicholas Bagley, Rachel E. Sachs

Articles

Throughout the United States, escalating drug prices are putting immense pressure on state budgets. Several states are looking for ways to push back. Last year, Massachusetts asked the Trump administration for a waiver that would, among other things, allow its Medicaid program to decline to cover costly drugs for which there is limited or inadequate evidence of clinical efficacy. By credibly threatening to exclude such drugs from coverage, Massachusetts hoped to extract price concessions and constrain the fastest-growing part of its Medicaid budget.


The Overdose/Homicide Epidemic, Valena E. Beety Aug 2018

The Overdose/Homicide Epidemic, Valena E. Beety

Georgia State University Law Review

This Article explores the lack of regulation of coroners, concerns within the forensic science community on the reliability of coroner determinations, and ultimately, how elected laypeople serving as coroners may influence the rise in drug-induced homicide prosecutions in the midst of the opioid epidemic.

This Article proposes that the manner of death determination contributes to overdoses being differently prosecuted; that coroners in rural counties are more likely to determine the manner of death for an illicit substance overdose is homicide; and that coroners are provided with insufficient training on interacting with the criminal justice system, particularly on overdose deaths. Death ...